Wednesday, May 18, 2022

A Brain Lesion Refers To

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Brain Tumor Vs Brain Cancer

Caring for a Person With a Brain Tumor, with Susan Chang, MD

All brain cancers are tumors, but not all brain tumors are cancerous. Noncancerous brain tumors are called benign brain tumors.

Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly, have distinct borders and rarely spread. Benign tumors can still be dangerous. They can damage and compress parts of the brain, causing severe dysfunction. Benign brain tumors located in a vital area of the brain can be life-threatening. Very rarely, a benign tumor can become malignant. Examples of typically benign tumors include meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and pituitary adenoma.

Malignant brain tumors are cancerous. They typically grow rapidly and invade surrounding healthy brain structures. Brain cancer can be life-threatening due to the changes it causes to the vital structures of the brain. Some examples of malignant tumors that originate in or near the brain include olfactory neuroblastoma, chondrosarcoma and medulloblastoma.

How Do We Treat A Brain Tumor

With there being many types of brain tumors, many different treatment approaches are required. Chemotherapy, administered by oncologists, can be used as a primary or secondary treatment for some tumors. Targeted and whole-brain radiation therapy, administered by radiation-oncologists and sometimes neurosurgeons, are also effective options for many tumor types. Often, surgery is combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, especially if the tumor is compressing other structures within the brain or has bled. Many types of nonaggressive benign tumors require no treatment at all and can be followed with periodic MRIs.

How Are Brain Lesions Treated

Treatment varies in each individual case depending on the type of lesion, its location, and cause. It is important that a thorough examination be completed by a doctor to develop the appropriate treatment plan.

The treatment options depend on the type of lesions and severity of symptoms. Usually medicines can be used to treat the underlying cause. Surgery may be an option in some cases, such as when the lesions are caused by a brain tumor.

Sometimes, lesions and symptoms dont improve even after appropriate diagnosis and proper treatment and the goal is to manage symptoms.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/07/2018.

References

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Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Congratulates Bryant Young Pbtf Special Ambassador On Being Named To Pro Football Hall Of Fame During Nfl Honors

ATLANTA and LOS ANGELES and CANTON, Ohio, Feb. 11, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — When the Pro Football Hall of Fame inducts its 2022 class this August in Canton, Ohio, Bryant Young, San Francisco 49ers Hall of Famer and Special Ambassador for the Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation , will be among the eight Heroes of the Game receiving a gold jacket, bronze bust, and place in NFL history. The Pro Football Hall of Fame unveiled its 2022 class during Thursday’s NFL Honors.

Read PBTF’s full press release at www.curethekids.org/about-us/news-room/pbtf-news/2022/ambassador-bryant-young-pro-football-hall-of-fame.html

Bryant was selected by the 49ers in the first round of the 1994 NFL Draft following an impressive college football career at Notre Dame. In his first season as defensive lineman, Bryant started every game and helped the 49ers secure the Super Bowl XXIX title. He spent his NFL career with San Francisco, retiring in 2007 as the team’s all-time sack leader, four-time Pro Bowler, and four-time All-Pro pick. His career honors included being named NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year , NFL Comeback Player of the Year , and a record-breaking eight-time recipient of the Len Eshmont Award for “inspirational and courageous play,” the 49ers’ most prestigious honor.

While Bryant is a legend to many, his son Colby is Bryant’s superhero. Following a long and difficult battle with pediatric brain cancer, Colby passed away in 2016 at the age of 15.

Information Sources And Search Strategy

What Is A Brain Tumor :Malignant Brain Tumor

Search was performed on PubMed and Web-of-Science between May 2015 and April 2019. Search terms reflected diagnoses of interest , structures of interest and possible mechanisms of lesion . Filters were applied to restrict search results to adult human subjects . No restrictions were applied to publication year.

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Quality Assessment Of All Included Studies

Results of quality assessment by NOS scale for all the eight studies were in . The maximum score that could be achieved by a research is 9, while the scores of studies included in our analysis are ranged from 58, which suggests a moderate to good quality of these studies. All included studies in this meta-analysis fulfilled the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria.

How Do You Intervene Medically

Identifying risk factors for brain damage is of vital importance for primary prevention, the main ones being age, genetic vulnerability and previous vascular diseases, as well as the presence of heart disease, hypertension, obesity and substance use, among others.

The prognosis will depend in any case on the age of the patient, as well as the extension and the affected brain area. In the case of stroke, treatment must be very fast, since otherwise it may worsen and series may occur, so in addition to administering drugs that reduce blood pressure, surgical intervention is often necessary to reduce bleeding.

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How Are Brain Lesions Diagnosed

If symptoms suggest that a person may be suffering from a brain lesion, it is important to contact the doctor for an appointment. A doctor will help diagnose and offer treatment options for each patient depending on the extent of the condition.

The doctor will ask questions about the patients symptoms and medical history and then perform a physical examination.

In order to find the location of the lesion, the doctor may touch the patients skin with hot, cold or vibrating objects, and also may pinch the patient to check for the feeling of pain. Additional tests may also be recommended by the doctor to further assess the condition.

What Are Brain Lesions

What is Craniopharyngioma?

A brain lesion describes damage or destruction to any part of the brain. It may be due to trauma or any other disease that can cause inflammation, malfunction, or destruction of a brain cells or brain tissue. A lesion may be localized to one part of the brain or they may be widespread. The initial damage may be so small as to not produce any initial symptoms, but progresses over time to cause obvious physical and mental changes.

A brain lesion may affect the neuron directly or one of the glial cells thereby indirectly affecting neuron functions.

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Relationships To Prior Brain Stimulation Studies

A literature search was performed on PubMed using the search term combinations brain stimulation memory enhancement, TMS Alzheimer memory, and deep brain stimulation Alzheimer memory. Reports containing MNI coordinates of memory stimulation sites or a clear anatomical depiction of memory stimulation sites were selected,,,. Correspondence between previously reported stimulation sites and our lesion-based memory circuit was assessed qualitatively.

Applications Of Lesion Findings In Other Methodological Approaches

Lesion evidence are fertile ground for new hypotheses about neural function that may be tested with other methods. Lesion studies in NHPs that demonstrated a double dissociation for the functions of mid- and posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex generated testable predictions about the function of homologous regions. Subsequent human functional imaging experiments confirmed the association of these regions with monitoring information in working memory and conditional selection between competing responses, respectively . Similarly, studies of the contributions of perirhinal cortex to memory in macaques led to a series of neuropsychological and fMRI studies in humans that continue to elucidate perirhinal cortex function today .

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Quality Assessment And Data Extraction

The quality of cohort studies was appraised according to the 9-star Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Two investigators independently rated the quality of the retrieved studies and extracted data from eligible studies including first authors, publication year, sample size, mean age, regions, follow-up time in years, type of study design, PD diagnosis time and adjusted risk estimates and their 95% CIs. Disagreements were solved by discussion or involvement a third reviewer if necessary.

Alternative Parcellation Schemes And Normative Data Sets Do Not Change Results

How Primary, Metastatic Tumors Differ In Brain Cancer ...

To test whether the weaker findings for participation coefficient may be attributed to the parcellation schemes or the normative dataset used to calculate participation coefficient, we repeated the analyses with alternative participation coefficient maps produced using a different parcellation scheme and two alternative normative data sets: 62 subjects from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample and 100 Human Connectome Project-related subjects . Total participation coefficient lesion load was then recalculated using the same processing pipeline, and the analyses repeated with the new values. The results remained largely unchanged by the different parcellation scheme or the alternative functional connectivity data sets used to calculate participation coefficient .

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What Is A Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the brain. The anatomy of the brain is very complex, with different parts responsible for different nervous system functions. Brain tumors can develop in any part of the brain or skull, including its protective lining, the underside of the brain , the brainstem, the sinuses and the nasal cavity, and many other areas. There are more than 120 different types of tumors that can develop in the brain, depending on what tissue they arise from.

Validation Using Independent Lesion Datasets

To test the hypothesis that other lesions intersecting our lesion-based memory circuit would result in impaired memory, we used two independent lesion datasets in which formal memory testing was performed on each patient. Lesions in the first dataset were caused by ischemic stroke, with memory tests administered acutely following stroke. We focused on acute factor scores for verbal and spatial memory based on prior work using this dataset.

To ensure that results were not restricted to one lesion etiology , we repeated our analysis on a second independent dataset with lesions caused by penetrating head trauma during the Vietnam War. Memory tests were administered fifteen or more years after brain injury,. Memory for events around the time of brain injury was assessed using a previously published adaptation of the Marilyn Albert remote memory battery, restricted to events from the 1970s,.

We quantified the overlap between each lesion location and our memory circuit by adding the t-values of each voxel in our memory circuit that fell within each lesion mask. These values were then related to memory scores using Pearson correlation. Correlation analyses were repeated including age, education, and lesion size as covariates.

For visualization purposes, lesion locations from the five patients with the worst verbal memory factor scores and five patients with the best verbal memory factor scores were displayed overlaid on our human memory circuit.

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Astrocytomas Including Glioblastoma Multiforme

Astrocytomas are the most common type of glioma, accounting for about half of all childhood brain tumors. They are most common in children between the ages of 5 and 8.

The tumors develop from glial cells called astrocytes, most often in the cerebrum , but also in the cerebellum .

The grade of an astrocytoma is important. Your childs treatment will be based on whether or not the tumor is slow-growing or fast-growing . Most astrocytomas in children are low-grade. Sometimes they begin in the spine or spread there.

There are four main types of astrocytomas in children:

Pilocytic astrocytoma : This slow-growing tumor is the most common brain tumor found in children. Pilocytic astrocytoma is often cystic . When this tumor develops in the cerebellum, surgical removal is often the only treatment necessary. Pilocytic astrocytomas growing in other locations may require other therapies.

Diffuse astrocytoma : This brain tumor infiltrates the surrounding normal brain tissue, making complete surgical removal more difficult. A fibrillary astrocytoma may cause seizures.

Anaplastic astrocytoma : This brain tumor is malignant. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. These tumors require a combination of treatments.

Glioblastoma multiforme : This is the most malignant type of astrocytoma. It grows rapidly, and often causes pressure in the brain. These tumors require a combination of treatments.

How Do Doctors Detect Brain Lesions

Advances in Brain Tumor Surgery

In some instances, lesions or symptoms of lesions are detected during an exam, scan, or routine monitoring for an unrelated condition. Brain lesions appear as darker or lighter spots on a magnetic resonance imaging scan. Other times a person’s neurologic symptoms bring them to the doctors office.

Sometimes, these symptoms lead to a diagnosis of MS or clinically isolated syndrome. The findings from an MRI scan are vital diagnostic indicators. The type, size, and distribution of brain lesions in MS are also an important part of the McDonald diagnostic criteria. This is the set of criteria most frequently used to diagnose MS and monitor MS disease progression.

Diagnosing lesions in the brain may involve a neurologist taking a complete medical history, conducting a physical examination, and performing a detailed neurological exam. The doctor may use vibration or hot or cold objects to assess the ability to detect sensations. The doctor may pinch a persons cheek or other part of the body to check pain responses. These stimulus response tests may also help pinpoint the possible location of the lesion or lesions.

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Brain Tumor Causes And Risk Factors

Doctors donât know why some cells begin to form into tumor cells. It may have something to do with a personâs genes or his or her environment, or both. Some potential brain tumor causes and risk factors may include:

  • Cancers that spread from other parts of the body
  • Certain genetic conditions that predispose a person to overproduction of certain cells
  • Exposure to some forms of radiation

Lesion Methods For Testing Network Hypotheses

Other work has focused on relating changes in functional connectivity after lesions to changes in behavior. These studies have taken two general approaches: either examining how lesions affect functional connectivity in patients and relating these changes to behavior , or using information about functional connectivity in healthy subjects to predict the remote effects of brain lesions and testing the relationship between these predicted remote effects and behavior . These tools yield additional insights into the role that network dynamics may play in behavior, beyond testing the contributions of any particular brain region. However, these functional connectivity measures have major limitations. As these measures are correlative, the direction of activity in both healthy and damaged brains is difficult to interpret. For example, changes in connectivity between regions A and B after a lesion to area C could result from either loss of common input from C to both A and B, loss of an input from C to just A or B, or loss of an input from C to an intermediary area D that connects with both A and B. Careful control measures of potential confounds and testing model assumptions also need to be taken into account in interpreting these data â for example, hemodynamic signal in fMRI studies might also be affected cerebrovascular disease .

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Iiisexual Dimorphism Of Brain Structure

Brain lesions studies have indicated that destruction of the medial preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus results, in most cases, in complete failure to mount, thrust, or intromit in males . The most important afferents to this area appear to be those from the medial forebrain bundle . Implantation of testosterone in this area activates sexual behavior in castrated male rats . In contrast, the POA-AH is not essential for lordosis in females lesions thereof either facilitate or have no effect on lordosis, as is also the case with MFB lesions . Rather, lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus and cuts through lateral afferent connections to this region suppress lordosis. Implantation of estrogen in the VMH is more effective than in other hypothalamic areas in inducing lordosis in ovariectomized female rats . The POA is, however, crucial to cyclic endocrine patterns in female rodents lesions of this area or knife cuts separating it from the medial basal hypothalamuspituitary region prevent gonadotropin surges and subsequent ovulation . Thus studies of neural substrates of sex dimorphism have concentrated largely on these regions.

Table I. Steroid-Dependent Structural Dimorphism in the Vertebrate Central Nervous Systema

Cytological difference
For references, see text. Modified from Toran-Allerand .
b
POA, Preoptic area.
Lack of awareness of tactile stimuli on the contralesional limb during simultaneous bilateral stimulation

Modified from De Vignemont .

How Long Can A Dog Live With A Brain Tumor

Three

Theres no set amount of time a dog can live with a brain tumor. The median survival time for a dog with a brain tumor depends on:

  • How advanced the tumor is when it is found
  • How successful surgical removal is
  • The tumor type
  • The age of the dog and his/her overall health otherwise
  • Whether the dog has a primary tumor or a secondary tumor

Generally speaking, tumors that have metastasized have a survival time of 2 to 4 months.

In dogs with meningiomas that are successfully removed and treated with chemotherapy, the prognosis is a little longer at 11 to 28 months.

Please remember: Every dog is different. Circumstances can vary widely. This is only a guide.

Studies show that owners are increasingly opting for treatment to extend life rather than opting to euthanize.

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Facts You Should Know About Brain Lesions

  • The brain is perhaps the most important organ in the body, responsible for the unconscious autonomic activities like breathing, blood pressure and temperature control, sensation, movement, and thought processes.
  • Neurons and glia are the two types of cells that make up the brain.
  • Each area of the brain has a responsibility for brain function.
  • A brain lesion describes an area of damaged brain. It may be isolated or there may be numerous areas affected.
  • Symptoms of a brain lesion depend upon what part of the brain is affected and may be minimal or life-threatening.
  • Diagnosis of brain lesions begin with a careful history and physical examination of the affected individual. The brain may be imaged in a variety of ways including CT, MRI and angiography.
  • Treatment and prognosis of brain lesions depend upon the underlying illness or injury, and the amount of damage sustained by the brain.

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