Thursday, May 19, 2022

Can A Brain Dead Person Be Revived

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What Does No Brain Activity Mean

Is A Brain Dead Person Actually Dead?

If a person is in a permanent vegetative state but not brain-dead, their life support is keeping them alive with fluids and nutrition.

If these are stopped, it may take anywhere from a few hours to several days for the person’s vital organs to shut down completely according to Healthline.

Life support is what gives doctors the ability to perform complicated surgeries or prolongs people’s lives who are recovering from traumatic incidents.

It can become permanently necessary for people to stay alive.

Some people who are using a life-support device dont always recover and they may not regain the ability to breathe and function on their own.

Scientists Are Giving Dead Brains New Life What Could Go Wrong

In experiments on pig organs, scientists at Yale made a discovery that could someday challenge our understanding of what it means to die.

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    A few years ago, a scientist named Nenad Sestan began throwing around an idea for an experiment so obviously insane, so wild and totally out there, as he put it to me recently, that at first he told almost no one about it: not his wife or kids, not his bosses in Yales neuroscience department, not the dean of the universitys medical school.

    Like everything Sestan studies, the idea centered on the mammalian brain. More specific, it centered on the tree-shaped neurons that govern speech, motor function and thought the cells, in short, that make us who we are. In the course of his research, Sestan, an expert in developmental neurobiology, regularly ordered slices of animal and human brain tissue from various brain banks, which shipped the specimens to Yale in coolers full of ice. Sometimes the tissue arrived within three or four hours of the donors death. Sometimes it took more than a day. Still, Sestan and his team were able to culture, or grow, active cells from that tissue tissue that was, for all practical purposes, entirely dead. In the right circumstances, they could actually keep the cells alive for several weeks at a stretch.

    Dont forget the Kanye, Daniele joked.

    Our soundtrack, Vrselja said with a grin.

    Brain Dead Patients Waking Up

    Although rare, there have been cases of patients who were declared brain dead waking up suddenly, sometimes after spending years in a coma. Colleen Burns was diagnosed by doctors with irreversible brain damage. However, just as she was about to be taken back for her organs to be donated, she woke up on her own. Another woman, Taylor Hale, was in an accident where she fell off the hood of a car. Her doctors told the family there was no way she could come back from that kind of brain damage. However, after some prayer, she woke up. Despite having no memories from before the accident, she lives a normal life.

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    Does Brain Dead Mean Dead

    No matter what side of the pro-life debate you are on, it is apparent that important issues are at stake in Jahi McMath’s case. Her family, in utilizing a religious exemption for her declared death, may encourage other families in similar situations to do the same. While everyone has a right to life, the question arises how far does this right extend? Life support machines are quite expensive to operate. If brain dead people continue to receive care, who should pay for it? For example, if the McMath family wins their case, they will likely request federal medical and disability benefits in Jahi’s name. Not all taxpayers would be content seeing their tax dollars go to care for a patient that doctors have decidedly declared as dead. As a society, where should we draw the line?

    Clinically Dead The Blurred Line Between Life And Death

    Trial bringing dead back to life gets revived

    19 June 14

    Sometimes, the line between life and death can seem blurred. In one recent case, a woman was erroneously declared dead after having a heart attack and wound up freezing to death in a body bag in the morgue. Another woman gave birth to a baby three months after she technically died. Then, there was a case of a skier who became submerged under freezing water for hours, but was revived and suffered no brain damage.

    These and other cases reveal how hard it can be to distinguish the living from the dead. With the advent of mechanical ventilators, the clear-cut definition of death has now given way to other, more clinical definitions.

    But these terms, such as “brain death” and “circulatory death,” can create ambiguity about who is dead and who isn’t, experts say.

    What is death?

    Despite its frequent use, the term “clinical death” doesn’t actually have a consistent meaning, said Dr. James Bernat, a neurologist at Dartmouth College’s Geisel School of Medicine in New Hampshire. In most hospitals, the doctor in charge of a patient’s care makes the death determination, and there aren’t universal guidelines for when to make that call, he said.

    “You’re dead when a doctor says you’re dead,” Bernat told Live Science.

    Until the 1950s, death was considered to be the point when any one of the vital functions heartbeat, electrical brain activity or respiration ceased. Once one part of the system failed, then the others would soon shut down as well, the reasoning went.

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    Ethics Of Animal Research

    The BrainEx team is acutely aware of the ethical implications of its work, which is why they have consulted with leading neuroscientists and ethicists for years. The Neuroethics Working Group, a consortium convened by the U.S. National Institutes of Health’s BRAIN Initiative, which funded the research, has been consulting with Sestan since 2016. The researchers also presented their work at a 2017 bioethics conference at Duke University and at a 2018 NIH workshop.

    Cutting-edge science needs cutting-edge ethics, says Ramos, who serves as the Neuroethics Working Group’s executive secretary. There is an existing, robust framework of laws and policies that our funded researchers are expected to follow, but the development and application of new neuro-technologies may require us to examine those ethical standards, and for those standards to evolve.

    For one, the technique opens up questions about the ethical use of non-human animals in experiments. As it stands, two sets of rules apply, one for live animals and another for dead animal tissues, since live animals can experience pain or distress. But which rules apply to BrainEx-treated brains from dead animals, especially if there is a chance they could be partially reawakened?

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    Experts add that the ethical tradeoff here hinges on BrainEx’s ability to further research into human diseaseor even save people from brain death.

    Identifying Organismal Integration In Tk

    I propose that there are at least three bodily functions described in TK’s autopsy report that demonstrate that he is still an integrated whole: blood pressure homeostasis, a robust immune response, and proportionate growth. Significantly, both defenders and critics of the neurological criteria for death agree that the first two functions are indicative of organismal integration. Tonti-Filippini, a defender of the TBD criterion for death, argues that integration is mediated in the human body by the hormonal, i.e., endocrine, system:

    The transfer of information merely between one part of the body and another is insufficient to establish that the soul has not separated from the body. For instance, circulation in itself is not a transfer of information that integrates the body. Rather it is a means by which information might be transferred such as happens through the endocrine system.

    In brief, my argument is the following: If TK had retained his integration after total brain failure, then we would expect that his three organismal functions would be comparable pre- and post-brain death. In contrast, if TK had lost his integration, then we would expect that his three organismal functions, after the tragic destruction of his brain, would be defective or unreliable or faulty in some way.

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    Dying Isnt As Simple As It Used To Be

    The line between alive and dead is getting blurrier thanks to advances in technology, Casarett writes. Several emergency room physicians I talked to told me that even five years ago, when confronted with a cardiac arrest patient, you would run through the routine, do what you could, and then it would be pretty clear at some point that youd exhausted your bag of tricks and there was nothing else you could do, Casarett said. But now there are more and more things to try.

    For example, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines can withdraw the blood of a patient in heart failure, oxygenate it, and pump it back into the body, keeping them alive—or something like it. That line is getting more difficult to define because of all these technologies, Casarett said.

    Can Dead Brains Be Brought Back To Life First Human Study To Find Out

    Brain dead woman can be taken off life support: judge

    Last month, a Philadelphia-based biotech company kicked off a clinical trial that pushes the envelope of what it means to be dead.

    Armed with ethical approval from the IRB at the Anupam Hospital in India, Bioquark is recruiting 20 patients who have been clinically deemed brain dead from severe traumatic brain injury.

    With an arsenal of cutting-edge, if mysterious, treatment techniques stem cells, bioactive molecules, brain and spinal cord stimulation the team hopes to revive parts of the patients basic brain functions, with the eventual holy grail goal of returning the ability to breathe on their own.

    The anticipated deadline for measurable results? A short 15 days.

    Let that sink in.

    If your first reaction is incredulity, youre not alone. What is this, The Lazarus Effect, Frankenstein, The Walking Dead? Some sort of viral campaign for an upcoming horror flick?

    Not quite. A horde of zombies may not be in our future, but Bioquarks goals are to cheat death. Heres what the stunningly ambitious ReAnima project plans to do.

    The Tricky Business of Defining Death

    We often think of death as flipping a switch: one minute youre there, the next minute its all lights go out.

    Brain death, in contrast, is final. The diagnosis signals a complete and irreversible destruction of the brain, including the brain stem. Brain dead individuals arent comatose or in a vegetative state. They have no hope for spontaneous recovery. Theyre dead.

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    It’s Easy To Get The Care You Need

    See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.

    It sounds like a sci-fi movie. Last week Yale researchers revealed their ability to suspend cell death and revive some basic cell function in the brains of pigs four hours after they died.

    Their groundbreaking findings are raising plenty of eyebrows. Premier Health Now looked to neuropsychologist Fadi Tayim, Ph.D., division chief of the Brain Mapping Center, at the Clinical Neuroscience Institute to help explain what it all means.

    Working with pig brains retrieved from a pork processing plant, the researchers first injected a drug to stop the brain cells from dying. Then they flushed the brains with a blood substitute.

    After doing so, what they discovered, says Dr. Tayim, is some basic cellular activity in these brains even though the pigs had been dead for four hours. The emphasis here is on basic, says Dr. Tayim. Normal functioning was not restored. Its like you plug in your television. The circuits are there but theres nothing on the screen.

    Until now, scientists were not aware that brain cells can remain active for more than just a few minutes after death.

    Dr. Tayim calls the discovery exciting, a potential game-changer. It provides new ways for us to understand cell activity after death.

    A Summary Of Tk’s Clinical History

    TK’s autopsy report includes a narrative of his clinical history with medical details that will be relevant for the philosophical analysis of brain death that follows below. In brief, TK was born in 1979. When he was four years old, he contracted Haemophilus influenzae meningitis that put him into a coma. While staying in a Nebraska hospital for treatment, he experienced an increase in intracranial pressure so severe that it separated the bony plates of his skull. An EEG revealed no electrocerebral activity, but his family was opposed to his removal from life support.

    For several weeks following his initial infection, TK experienced severe temperature and blood pressure fluctuations that required days of dopamine infusion to support his blood pressure. Urine output fluctuated tremendously suggesting that he had diabetes insipidus. There were also dramatic shifts in his serum sodium. After this period of crisis, however, TK’s temperature, blood pressure, urine output, and serum sodium levels became stable.

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    Coming Back From The Dead Is No Longer Science Fiction

    A man receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation .

    Last year, there were widespread reports of a 53-year-old Frenchman who had suffered a cardiac arrest and “died,” but was then resuscitated back to life 18 hours after his heart had stopped.

    The once black-and-white line between life and death is now blurrier than ever.

    This was thought to have been possible in part because his body had progressively cooled down naturally after his heart had stopped, through exposure to the outside cold. The medical team who revived him were reported as being “stupefied” that they had been able to bring him back to life, in particular since he had not even suffered brain damage.

    Interestingly, this man represents one of a growing number of extraordinary cases in which people who would otherwise be declared dead have now been revived. It is a testament to the incredible impact of resuscitation science — a science that is providing opportunities to literally reverse death, and in doing so, shedding light on the age-old question of what happens when we die.

    Death: Past and Present

    The advent of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the 1960s was revolutionary, demonstrating that the heart could potentially be restarted after it had stopped, and what had been a clear black-and-white line was shown to be potentially reversible in some people. What was once called deaththe ultimate end point was now widely called cardiac arrest, and became a starting point.

    A Profound Realization

    Tests To Confirm Brain Death

    Dr Sam Parnia claims corpses could soon be revived 24 ...

    Although rare, a few things can make it appear as though someone is brain dead.

    These include drug overdoses and severe hypothermia, where body temperature drops below 32C.

    A number of tests are carried out to check for brain death, such as shining a torch into both eyes to see if they react to the light.

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    Is Abandonment Of The Ddr Feasible Claims And Counterclaims

    The DDR is needed as a safeguard against removal of organs prematurely under the pressure of increasing the number of organs available for transplantation. In answer to this, it is not the DDR that prevents such abuses, rather, the real safeguards are three requirements that are currently in effect: a valid decision to withdraw life support in patients who are near death, valid consent of the patient or the patient’s proxy/surrogate, and no conflicts of interest in the consent process, that is, no member of the transplant team may participate in caring for potential donors or obtain consent for donation. These conditions are already part of the organ procurement system, with or without the DDR. The DDR serves no necessary protective purpose.

    Responding To An Important Objection: The Probative Value Of Tk’s Case

    On February 34, 2005, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, in cooperation with the World Organization for the Family, hosted a conference at the Vatican to discuss the validity of the brain-related criteria for death. In its final report on the proceedings of the meeting, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences raised an important objection to TK’s case. Basically, its final statement defending the validity of the neurological criteria for death suggests that TK’s case is an outlier, an exception to the rule, that is not relevant to the brain-death debate:

    If was a valid documented case of brain death, it makes the point that in extraordinarily rare exceptions this kind of case occurs. However, many years have passed since this case, there is a great deal of uncertainty about it, and one cannot generalise from it to invalidate the criteria for brain deathThe neurological community does not believe that this case disturbs the conceptual validity of brain death as being equivalent to human death.

    To put it another way, given the exceptionality of TK’s case, the Pontifical Academy is proposing that TK’s autopsy report is not probative for understanding the state of all/most/more than a few patients diagnosed with total brain failure.

    If being alive as a biological organism requires being a whole that is more than the mere sum of its parts, then it would be difficult to deny that the body of a patient with total brain failure can still be alive, at least in some cases.

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    Pig Brains Partially Revived Hours After Deathwhat It Means For People

    In a feat sure to fire up ethical and philosophical debate, a new system has restored circulation and oxygen flow to a dead mammal brain.

    Scientists have restored cellular function in 32 pig brains that had been dead for hours, opening up a new avenue in treating brain diseaseand shaking our definition of brain death to its core. Announced on Wednesday in the journal Nature, researchers at the Yale University School of Medicine devised a system roughly analogous to a dialysis machine, called BrainEx, that restores circulation and oxygen flow to a dead brain.

    The researchers did not kill any animals for the purposes of the experiment they acquired pig heads from a food processing plant near New Haven, Connecticut, after the pigs had already been killed for their meat. And technically, the pig brains remained deadby design, the treated brains did not show any signs of the organized electrical neural activity required for awareness or consciousness.

    Clinically defined, this is not a living brain, says study coauthor Nenad Sestan, a neuroscientist at the Yale University School of Medicine.

    The new system instead kept the brains in far better shape than brains left to decompose on their own, restoring functions such as the ability to take in glucose and oxygen for up to six hours at a time. Researchers say that the technique could give a major boost to studies of human health by providing a rich testbed for studying brain disorders and diseases.

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