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Can Brain Lesions Be Harmless

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How Are Benign Brain Tumors Diagnosed

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Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and a physical examination will be performed. In addition, Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging brain scans may be used to confirm a suspected diagnosis. Benign brain tumors rarely develop into metastatic cancerous tumors. Most can be surgically removed, and usually do not reoccur after being removed.

What Can A Ct Scan Detect In The Head

CT scanning of the head is typically used to detect:

  • bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries.
  • bleeding caused by a ruptured or leaking aneurysm in a patient with a sudden severe headache.
  • a blood clot or bleeding within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke.

Complementary Therapies For Ms

Many nontraditional therapies for MS have not been well studied. Some people say acupuncture relieves symptoms such as muscle spasms and pain, but research to confirm its value isnât conclusive. Others have reported benefits from injections of bee venom, but a rigorous study, lasting 24 weeks, showed no improvements in disability, fatigue, or the number of MS attacks. Itâs important to inform your doctor about any supplements, special diets, or other therapies you want to try.

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Brain Tumor Causes And Risk Factors

Doctors donât know why some cells begin to form into tumor cells. It may have something to do with a personâs genes or his or her environment, or both. Some potential brain tumor causes and risk factors may include:

  • Cancers that spread from other parts of the body
  • Certain genetic conditions that predispose a person to overproduction of certain cells
  • Exposure to some forms of radiation

Mri Assessment Of Prognosis

Non

Patients presenting with a CIS will often ask about the likelihood of developing MS in the future and also about the development of disability. The latter question is also relevant in patients who have recently been diagnosed with relapsingremitting MS who have no significant disability. Several factors have a modest influence on prognosis including type of initial presentation and appearances on MRI scan.

The likelihood of subsequent development of MS has been addressed in natural history studies of CIS. Based on data from these studies, approximately 5060% of all CIS patients will go on to develop MS in the long term. If an MRI scan at presentation is abnormal the likelihood of developing MS is increased to 6080%, and if the scan is normal the risk is reduced substantially to approximately 20%. Patients with optic neuritis seem to have a lower risk of converting to MS in some studies where they have shown a lower frequency of MRI lesion than other types of CIS.

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What Is A Brain Lesion

What is a brain lesion?

A brain lesion refers to any type of abnormal tissue in or around the brain tissue.

What are the different types of brain lesions and what causes them?

There is a wide array of brain lesions. Some are related to the normal aging process of the brain. Others are related to trauma, inflammation, or infection. Brain lesions also include vascular abnormalities and benign and malignant brain tumors.

Brain CTs and MRIs are often needed to elucidate the nature of brain lesions.

I Have Five Lesions On The Brain

MY HEALTH EXPERIENCEMICHAEL CAFFREY: MS hasn’t changed my life too much – I know I am lucky

THE DAY I found out I had multiple sclerosis I was delighted. I know it may seem hard to believe, but I was so relieved I could have done cartwheels. My wife, Mary, did not feel the same way, of course, but a lot of things had been going through my head while I was waiting for the diagnosis.

I had had an MRI scan, which showed that I have five lesions on the brain.

That was six years ago. I was 47. That is unusual. Most of the people I know with MS got it when they were much younger maybe 19 or 20.

The doctors have told me that the headaches I had been getting in the past might have been signs of MS, but I had put them down to stress .

There was never any MS in my family, and that is unusual too.

One doctor has told me that it might be related to a trauma I experienced nearly 25 years ago, when I collapsed in a slurry tank.

Two of us were cleaning out the tank. I noticed the man working with me go limp inside the tank, and I went in after him. I nearly had him out, but then I collapsed as well. It was the methane gas. They had to cut open the tank to rescue us. I was unconscious until the next day.

In the hospital they told Mary I wouldnt last the night. Our oldest son Ronan was six months old at the time. Who knows maybe that triggered something?

Then the sight in my left eye started to get blurry. If I was driving I would see 1½ of anyone who was on my left.

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What Is The Prognosis For Brain Lesions

The prognosis for surviving and recovering from a brain lesion depends upon the cause. In general, many brain lesions have only a fair to poor prognosis because damage and destruction of brain tissue is frequently permanent. However, some people can reduce their symptoms with rehabilitation training and medication.

A few brain lesions may have a good prognosis if only a small amount of less vital brain tissue is involved and/or early interventions are successful .

Unfortunately, some brain lesions are relentless, progressive and ultimately have a poor prognosis .

What Are Symptoms Of Brain Stem Lesion

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Symptoms of a brain lesion vary depending on the type, location, and size of the lesion. Symptoms common to several types of brain lesions include the following: Headaches. Neck pain or stiffness. Nausea, vomiting, and lack of appetite.

Large amounts of alcohol close up blood vessels in the brain, causing cells to die off, especially in the prefrontal cortex these dead spots are the two craters you can see at the top of this picture.

Black or dark spots on a brain MRI or CT scan can mean any number of things. These can range from minor causes to serious illnesses. Dark spots can be caused by: a leftover stain from an earlier injury. tumour. aneurysm. abnormal tissue/brain lesions.

Scans of the abdomen and pelvis may also result in abnormal test results. Some of the most common reasons for an abnormal CT scan test results in these areas may include wounds and diseases of internal organs. Other possible causes of abnormal results include colon or kidney cancer and a hernia.

Symptoms of a brain lesion vary depending on the type, location, and size of the lesion. Symptoms common to several types of brain lesions include the following: Headaches. Neck pain or stiffness. Nausea, vomiting, and lack of appetite.

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How Are Brain Lesions Related To The Status Of Ms

The location of the lesions determines the status of MS. Symptoms also depend on the type and location of the lesions. However, some lesions may appear in areas of the brain that do not produce symptoms. Some lesion locations and the MS symptoms they may trigger include: problems passing urine or having bowel movements

World Health Organization Meningioma Classifications

WHO Grade I

Lymphoplasmacyte-rich
Metaplastic

Atypical meningiomas exhibit increased tissue and cell abnormalities. These tumors grow at a faster rate than benign meningiomas and are often characterized by brain invasion. Atypical meningiomas have a higher likelihood of recurrence than benign meningiomas .

Malignant meningiomas show increased cellular abnormalities and grow at a faster rate than benign and atypical meningiomas. Malignant meningiomas are the most likely to invade the brain and recur more frequently than the other two subtypes.

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How Are Brain Tumors Diagnosed

Diagnosis of a brain tumor begins with a physical exam and a look at your medical history.

The physical exam includes a very detailed neurological examination. Your doctor will conduct a test to see if your cranial nerves are intact. These are the nerves that originate in your brain.

Your doctor will look inside your eyes with an ophthalmoscope, which is an instrument that shines a light through your pupils and onto your retinas. This allows your doctor to check how your pupils react to light. It also allows your doctor to look directly into your eyes to see if theres any swelling of the optic nerve. When pressure increases inside the skull, changes in the optic nerve can occur.

The doctor may also evaluate your:

  • muscle strength
  • ability to do mathematical calculations

Your doctor may order more tests after they finish the physical exam. These could include:

Ask The Expert: Brain Tumors

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Doctors now have more options than ever for treating brain tumors such as gliomas. The techniques and technology used yesterday might no longer be the best choice of care today. As both a researcher and neurosurgeon, Toral Patel, M.D., is uniquely experienced to offer state-of-the-art care for patients with both malignant and benign brain tumors.

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When To See A Gp

See a GP if you have symptoms of a brain tumour. While it’s unlikely to be a tumour, these symptoms need to be assessed by a doctor.

The GP will examine you and ask about your symptoms. They may also test your nervous system.

If the GP thinks you may have a brain tumour, or they’re not sure what’s causing your symptoms, they’ll refer you to a brain and nerve specialist called a neurologist.

T2 And Pd Weighted Imaging

T2 weighted imaging identifies MS lesions as high signal foci against the low signal background of white matter. However, periventricular lesions are often indistinguishable from the adjacent CSF which is also of high signal with T2 weighting. Contrast from the lesion can be improved here by using PD weighting because of the lower CSF signal with this sequence. Fortunately, T2 and PD weighted images can be acquired together in a single spin-echo sequence providing complimentary information .

Figure 1

Axial magnetic resonance imaging of a 30 year old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis showing multiple periventricular lesions: T2 weighted image proton density weighted image fluid attenuated inversion recovery image T1 weighted image following administration of gadolinium demonstrating enhancing lesions.

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Common Symptoms Of Benign Braintumors

Women with meningiomas often have headachesfirst thing in the morning. Some patients report that these headaches wake themfrom sleep. Meningiomas can also cause seizures. Any adult who has a new onsetof severe headaches should see their primary care physician. A new onsetseizure also warrants a trip to the emergency department.

Pituitary adenomas can cause changes in the pituitary gland, which can affect a womansmenstrual cycle. These tumors also can cause loss of peripheral vision or blurryvision. Pituitary tumors also can cause changes in weight, energy levels,thirst, urination, and shoe size.

When a patient is referred to us, we discuss theseverity of the symptoms and the impact on the patients daily life. We startthe diagnostic process by ordering an MRI to verify the location of the tumorand then order a series of laboratory tests to better define the tumor. If thetumor is determined to be cancerous, we consult with the UT Southwestern neuro-oncologyteam to outline next steps. If the tumor is determined to be benign, we will discusssurgical and nonsurgical treatment options.

Conversion And Psychogenic Disorders

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Conversion and psychogenic disorders are conditions in which psychological stress is converted into a physical problem such as blindness or paralysis for which no medical cause can be found. In a study published in September 2016 in the journal Neurology, 11 percent of subjects definitely or probably misdiagnosed with MS actually had a conversion or psychogenic disorder.

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How Does The Brain Heal From Stress

6 Ways To Help The Brain Heal From Stress

  • 1) Exercise: Having a good workout shortly after a stressful experience will help your brain get rid of the stress chemicals that cause negative effects. …
  • 2) Rest: While we sleep, the brain and body heals itself, clearing away the clutter and processing the day.
  • What Are The Treatment Options Available For Brain Lesions

    Considering the causes, symptoms, location, and severity of your brain lesions, the doctor will recommend a treatment plan for you. The goals of the treatment plan may be to remove the lesions from the brain altogether or, in severe cases, relieve the symptoms to improve the quality of life.

    The standard treatment options include:

    • Medications

    The doctor may prescribe medications such as antibiotics or antimicrobials. These will help fight the infections.

    • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Chemotherapy uses drugs and chemicals, while radiation therapy uses beams of intense energy. These treatment options will help fight cancerous brain lesions.

    • Surgery

    In severe cases, the doctor may recommend surgical removal of the lesions. With advanced surgical approaches, even lesions that are hard to reach inside the brain can be treated.

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    What Kind Of Treatment Follow

    Regular follow-up treatment is extremely important after treatment for a brain tumor. Besides regular physical and neurological exams and blood tests, you may need periodic magnetic resonance imaging , MR spectroscopy, perfusion or diffusion MRI, and/or computed tomography . Positron emission tomography scans are rarely used in patients with brain tumors, although they may be used to monitor extracranial disease. Your physician may also recommend home care, occupational or vocational therapy, pain management, physical therapy and participation in support groups.

    This follow-up care will help your physician to:

    • spot any sign that the tumor is returning
    • monitor the health of your brain
    • identify and treat the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy
    • detect the presence of other types of cancer at the earliest possible stage

    Whats The Difference Between A Lesion And A Tumor

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    A bone lesion is considered a bone tumor if the abnormal area has cells that divide and multiply at higher-than-normal rates to create a mass in the bone. The term tumor does not indicate whether an abnormal growth is malignant or benign, as both benign and malignant lesions can form tumors in the bone.

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    What Happens During Radiation Therapy

    For conventional radiation therapy, your initial visit with the radiation oncologist is called a consultation. During this visit, the physician will review the history of your illness and perform a physical examination. Consultations with other members of your treatment team may also take place at this time.

    After you and your physician have decided on a course of treatment, you will begin the first phasetreatment planning. During this planning phase of your treatment, a radiation oncologista physician who specializes in radiation therapywill simulate your radiation therapy treatment using either conventional radiographs or a computed tomography scan. In most cases, an MRI scan is required. These radiographic exams are used to plan the type and direction of radiation beams used to treat the cancer.

    You will be asked to lie still on the treatment table during simulation, although no radiation therapy will be given at that point. An immobilization mask will usually be made at this time to hold your head in the same position. Typically, treatment begins one to two weeks after your treatment planning session. There is significant medical physics involvement in the planning and verification of the plan before it is actually delivered to the patient.

    For more information about specific radiation therapy procedures and equipment, visit the following pages:

    Brain Tumor Vs Brain Cancer

    All brain cancers are tumors, but not all brain tumors are cancerous. Noncancerous brain tumors are called benign brain tumors.

    Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly, have distinct borders and rarely spread. Benign tumors can still be dangerous. They can damage and compress parts of the brain, causing severe dysfunction. Benign brain tumors located in a vital area of the brain can be life-threatening. Very rarely, a benign tumor can become malignant. Examples of typically benign tumors include meningioma, vestibular schwannoma and pituitary adenoma.

    Malignant brain tumors are cancerous. They typically grow rapidly and invade surrounding healthy brain structures. Brain cancer can be life-threatening due to the changes it causes to the vital structures of the brain. Some examples of malignant tumors that originate in or near the brain include olfactory neuroblastoma, chondrosarcoma and medulloblastoma.

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    Juxtacortical Or Cortical Lesions

    A juxtacortical lesion is defined as a T2-hyperintense white matter lesion abutting, i.e. in direct contact with, the cortex without intervening normal white matter. They are best detected using a T2-FLAIR sequence . In multiple sclerosis, juxtacortical lesions typically involve the U-fibres and can be located in all brain lobes and in the cerebellum .

    Characteristics of cortical/juxtacortical multiple sclerosis that are typical and atypical , as well as those that should not be included.Top left: Green flags: examples of juxtacortical lesions and cortical lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Top right: white matter lesions not touching the cortex or within the cortex . Bottom: Red flags: multiple white matter lesions involving subcortical and deep white matter, suggestive of small-vessel disease lesions involving the grey matter-white matter border of different brain lobes with ill-defined borders in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy multiple well-defined CSF-like abnormalities that appear as dots or stripes in enlarged Virchow-Robin space hypointensity on T2-weighted sequence suggesting haemosiderin deposit due to a microbleed multiple leptomeningeal/cortical hyperintensities on T1-weighted imaging with associated hypointensity on gradient-echo sequence in CNS vasculitis. JC/CL = juxtacortical/cortical.

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