Vitamin D Deficiency And Memory Decline
Receptors for vitamin D are found throughout the brain andplay a critical role in making memories. A team of researchers at TuftsUniversity in Boston analyzed vitamin D blood levels in over 1,000 people overthe age of 65 to determine its relationship to cognitive function. Out of the1,000 study participants, 65% had insufficient or deficient levels of thesunshine vitamin. These people performedworse on tests of executive function , attention, and processing speed compared with those whohad optimal levels of vitamin D.
Other research appearing in a 2015 issue of JAMA Neurology showed that older adults with low levels of the sunshine vitamin experienced memory loss faster than those with healthy levels. The study included seniors with dementia, with mild cognitive impairment , and with normal cognitive function. The MCI group had lower levels of vitamin D than the cognitively healthy people, and those with dementia had even lower levels than the MCI group. The older adults with insufficient or deficient levels of vitamin D experienced accelerated rates of decline in terms of executive function and episodic memory compared with those who had normal levels.
May Improve Cognitive Fatigue
One common symptom of brain injury that may be caused by dopamine imbalanceis cognitive fatigue.
While we do not know the exact mechanism of cognitive fatigue, doctors do know that the brain processes information less efficiently after a traumatic injury.
For example, in a study that compared brain activity of bothhealthy patients and TBI patients, the TBI survivors used more brain regionsto complete a mental task than the non-injured group did.
When treated with Ritalin, however, brain injury patients displayed lower mental fatigue and shorter reaction time. In other words, Ritalin helped them make more efficient use of their brains resources.
Methylphenidate For Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Exploratory 3
- 1Department of Geriatrics, Soroka Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel
- 2Unit for Community Geriatrics, Division of Health in the Community, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
- 3Siaal Research Center for Family Medicine and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
- 4Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Aging, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
- 5Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Unit, Clalit Health Services, Beer-Sheva, Israel
- 6Geriatric Unit, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel
- 7Ruth and Bruce Faculty of Medicine, TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Background: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of methylphenidate for cognitive function in older patients with mild cognitive impairment .
Results: Of 17 subjects enrolled, 15 subjects completed the study, 7 in the active MPH group and 8 in the placebo group. The average age of the participants was 76.1 ± 6.6 years and 10 were men. Following the final dose a significant benefit on memory was found in the MPH group. While 12 adverse events were reported, they were all rated as mild to moderate.
Our finding of modest beneficial effects of MPH on memory tests in older subjects with MCI in this exploratory study is of interest and should be investigated in further studies.
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When To See A Doctor
Anyone who receives a prescription for Ritalin will need to regularly visit a doctor or other healthcare professional to review their medication needs. As Ritalin is a tightly controlled medication, a person will need a new prescription from a doctor each time.
If the medication loses its effects or has undesirable side effects, a person should tell their doctor. The doctor may adjust the amount of medicine they prescribe. A person taking Ritalin should never change their own dose and must consult a doctor first.
Males should call 911 or their local emergency service if they have an erection that lasts more than 4 hours or becomes painful. This can be a sign of a serious problem that needs immediate treatment.
If a person has numbness in the fingers or toes or changes in skin sensitivity or skin color, they should call 911 or contact their local emergency service.
Chest pain, changes in heartbeat, or breathing difficulties can also be dangerous, and a person should call 911 or their local emergency service immediately.
New Drug Therapy May Reduce Apathy In Patients With Alzheimers Disease
For people with Alzheimers disease, apathy is one of the most prevalent behavioral symptoms, affecting 50 to 70 percent of those diagnosed, according to some studies. It is, however, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed as depression, leading to treatments that do not effectively address the real problem.
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Muscular And Skeletal Systems
When you first start taking Ritalin, you might experience improved mood, and almost a sense of euphoria. This can translate to everyday physical activities being easier to accomplish.
In the long term, Ritalin can cause musculoskeletal complications when misused or taken in too large of doses.
Such cases can lead to muscle pain and weakness, as well as joint pain.
Adhd Medications For Adults With High Blood Pressure
ADHD medications such as methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine can increase blood pressure and heart rate and lead to myocardial infarction and sudden unexplained death . Although they are contraindicated for use in patients with cardiac disease, hypertension is a precaution, not an absolute contraindication.
- If the elevation of blood pressure occurs while taking these medications, the dose may need to be reduced or the medication may need to be discontinued.
- Treatment with an antihypertensive medication may also be necessary.
- Periodic blood pressure and heart rate monitoring are recommended in all patients taking methylphenidate.
- For atomoxetine, blood pressure and heart rate testing is recommended when starting therapy, after an increase in doses, and periodically throughout therapy.
- There are no specific guidelines recommending certain medications for adults with ADHD and high blood pressure.
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How To Use Ritalin For Brain Injury
Now that you understand some of the benefits of Ritalin for brain injury, lets discuss the best way to use it.
All these benefits of Ritalin can make it sound like a magicpill for brain injury. And indeed, for many patients, it has made a positive impacton their recovery.
However, that doesnt mean no work is required once you takethe drug. Ritalin can lessen the severity of your cognitive deficits and improveyour mood, but it wont cure you.
The only way to truly recover from a brain injury is to maximize the effects of neuroplasticity. This will allow your brain to reorganize itself and recover function.
In fact, studies show that Ritalin is more effective when combined with cognitive therapy than when used on its own.
To activate neuroplasticity, you must practice intensive exercises. The more repetitions you perform, the more your brain will strengthen its neural pathways.
For example, to improve your memory skills, therapists recommendyou practice cognitiverehab exercises every day.
Therefore, the best way to use Ritalin is as an aid to therapy, and not as a replacement.
How Traumatic Brain Injuries Impact Episodic Memory
Recalling our social interactions is an example of episodic memory. Take a second to think about what you ate for breakfast this morning thats your episodic memory at work.
A TBI affects the episodic memory most of all. Posttraumatic amnesia impacts how our short term memories are stored. The more severe a traumatic brain injury, the more difficult it is for a person to remember new information.
Alzheimers disease also affects episodic memory. Traumatic brain injuries have been found to increase the risk of developing Alzheimers disease or dementia years after the injury. You may have heard about the chronic traumatic encephalopathy affecting the brains of professional football players. Recent studies have shown that people who suffer traumatic brain injuries are more likely to be diagnosed with dementia than those who do not.
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Researchers Analyze The Effects Of Ritalin On The Developing Brain
Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant which is indicated for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy – Image: Christian Schnettelker/Flickr – CC by 2.0
Memory deficit, astrocytes and neuron losses, and decrease of ATP levels, the energy currency of the cells, are some of the effects the methylphenidate drug can have on the developing brain, according to the study conducted by researchers of the UFRGS Biochemistry Department on cell cultures and laboratory animals. The aim of the research, which was part of Felipe Schmitzs doctoral thesis, was to understand how the chronic treatment with the substance during childhood can affect behavioral and neurochemical parameters in the long-term.
Best known for its commercial name Ritalin, the methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant medication, indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and narcolepsy. In recent years, however, its indiscriminate use either because of the inadequate diagnostic of ADHD, because of its use by people without the disorder, who seek to stay awake and focused in order to have a better performance when studying or at work, or even because of its use as a recreational drug has raised concern among scientists and health professionals around the world. Despite its increasing consumption not only among children and teenagers, but also among adults , still little is known about its mechanism of action and long-term consequences.
Adhd And Working Memory Problems
People with ADHD struggle with “working memory,” a term that used to be interchangeable with “short-term memory.” While short-term memory involves holding information in the mind for a certain number of seconds, working memory is the ability to manipulate that information. Long-term memory is essentially a storage bank of information that exists thanks to short-term and working memory.
It makes sense that ADHDers struggle with working memory. We have a hard time prioritizing, and having a good memory involves paying attention to what is important. One study required children to remember specific words from a list. These were the important or priority words. Those with ADHD remembered the same number of words as those without the condition, but they were less likely to recall the important words.1
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Cognitive Effects Of Mph In The Elderly
A limited number of studies investigated the effects of MPH on cognition in the elderly . The effect of MPH on working memory performance was tested in an extensive study by Turner et al. by means of a digit span task, a spatial working memory task and a spatial span task. None of the tasks was significantly affected by MPH.
Speed of processing was also not affected as measured with a SERS task in the study of Callaway and letter digit substitution and simple and choice reaction time tasks in the study by Drijgers et al. . The four-choice motor reaction task employed by Muller et al. , showed a performance enhancing effect of MPH on a difficult version of the task. In this uncued version, participants were asked to move a joystick towards a stimulus that was presented in an uncued location. Performance on the cued version of the task was impaired by MPH.
Effects of MPH on verbal learning and memory was assessed by Izquierdo with tests of formal and incidental memory in which memory of, respectively, unintentionally remembered an intentionally remembered information was tested. MPH was shown to reverse age-related decline of persistence of incidental memory. No such effect was observed for formal memory.
Reasoning and problem solving, as measured with a Tower of London task, did not reveal any effects of MPH on older adults’ performance.
End Of Life And Legal Issues
If you have been diagnosed with dementia, you might want to make arrangements for your care that take into account the decline in your mental abilities.
This may include making sure that your wishes are upheld if you’re not able to make decisions for yourself.
You may want to consider:
- creating an advance decision, which makes your treatment preferences known in case you’re unable to do this in the future
- having a “preferred place of care” plan, which outlines where you would like to receive treatment
- giving a relative lasting power of attorney, enabling them to make decisions about you if you’re unable to
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Imaging Studies On Cognitive Performance Under The Influence Of Mph
Of the studies included in this review, 26 studies obtained imaging data during cognitive testing. In 14 of these studies electroencephalography measures were taken. Furthermore, there were seven studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging data, three with positron emission tomography data, one with transcranial magnetic stimulation data and one with functional near-infrared spectroscopy data.
The EEG data are summarized in . Components often assessed during attention, working memory or speed of processing tasks include N1, P2, N2 and P3 ERP components. While the former two components, N1 and P2, are thought to reflect perceptual processes such as orienting and directing of attention, the N2 and P3 are cognitive components reflecting allocation of attentional resources and stimulus evaluation . The studies reviewed found no effects of MPH on the earlier components, while increased P3 source strength, increased P3b amplitude and shorter P3b latency were observed in several studies . This is thought to reflect an MPH-induced enhancement of attentional processes or increased recruitment of attentional resources. Other studies did not report an effect of MPH on P3 . An explanation offered for these findings is that MPH affects response processing, as reflected by faster responses, but that MPH does not speed stimulus evaluation processing.
Research May Lead To New Treatment For Apathy
Currently, there are no proven treatments available for patients who display significant signs of apathy associated with Alzheimers disease. However, physician scientists from University Hospitals and nine other centers across the United States are working to change that.
Based on promising, preliminary results from a previous clinical trial, the researchers are investigating the benefits of methylphenidate drug therapy for Alzheimers-related apathy. Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant often used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy.
The ADMET2 clinical trial is sponsored by the National Institute of Aging and will examine the effectiveness and safety of the drug over a six-month period. Two hundred patients with clinically significant apathy will be recruited and each will undergo a series of physical, cognitive and neuropsychiatric tests at the beginning of the study and at monthly follow-up visits. Success will be measured by the degree to which symptoms are relieved without unanticipated adverse effects.
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Effects Of Ritalin On The Body
Ritalin is one of the common treatment options used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder .
Although this stimulant can improve symptoms of ADHD, it can also cause some side effects. Ritalin can be misused, and that comes with the risk of more serious side effects throughout the body. It should only be used with medical supervision.
When you first start taking Ritalin for ADHD, the side effects are usually temporary. See your doctor if any symptoms worsen or last beyond a few days.
Find out more about the various symptoms and side effects that you might be at risk for while using Ritalin.
Warning Disclaimer Use For Publication
WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health.
DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only. Our phase IV clinical studies alone cannot establish cause-effect relationship. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk.
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Information Overload And The Struggle With Working Memory And Adhd
Attention and memory are connected. I am often so distracted by the process of meeting someone that I immediately forget the persons name. ADHD makes it hard to control ones attention. Experts note that having problems with source discrimination3″ and selective attention lead to being overwhelmed by unimportant stimuli.4″
In other words, we experience an information overload and do not know what to remember. It goes back to the test with the ADHD children who recalled the same number of words as their peers but not the right words. In addition, working memory is a process that organizes memories for long-term storage. If you are overwhelmed with information, it is difficult for that information to enter your brain in an organized manner. That makes it harder to store.
Interestingly, one study revealed that children with ADHD demonstrated widely varying working memory. On average, it was low, but when looked at individually, it showed that each ADHD child alternately processed problems quickly and slowly, though often as accurately as the other children.5
Are There Differences Among Adhd Drugs
Although just a handful of compounds specifically target ADHD, numerous dosage forms exist. The main variable between these is the duration of action- that is, how long the drug works.
- Short-acting stimulant drugs usually last four to five hours and are usually taken two to three times a day.
- Long-acting versions are effective from six to eight or even 12 hours.
Atomoxetine has a 24-hour duration of action. It also differs from stimulants in that it is not a potential drug of abuse and, therefore, not a controlled substance.
Selection of an ADHD medication selection depends on patient-specific factors as well as drug side effects, interactions, and existing conditions. However, stimulant medications have more evidence of use and are more effective than non-stimulants.
Stimulants have the fastest onset of effect, usually within 1 to 2 hours of an effective dose. If there is a poor response to one stimulant, for instance, methylphenidate, another stimulant such as dextroamphetamine may be tried.
Although non-stimulants are less effective than stimulants, they have no potential for abuse.
Atomoxetine has a slower onset of effect, about 2 to 4 weeks. However, the full effect may take 6 to 8 weeks to occur.
Guanfacine causes more sedation than stimulants and atomoxetine. Its duration of action is 18 hours.
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