What Needs To Be Done In Cases Of Grand Mal Seizures
If your loved one already has grand mal seizures from time to time, it is important to increase your collaboration with your physician. In this way, your loved one will be observed properly and timely interventions may be given to avoid the occurrence of status epilepticus that can cause brain damage.
How Are Absence Seizures Diagnosed
You may have absence seizures repeatedly for years before heading to the doctor for a diagnosis. You may have staring spells without thinking of them as a medical problem or a seizure.
An EEG is a test most often used to diagnose absence seizures. This test records the brains electrical activity and spots any abnormalities that could indicate an absence seizure.
These tests also can help to diagnose absence seizures or rule out other conditions:
Spinal tap to test the cerebrospinal fluid
How Is Epilepsy Challenging For Older Adults
Adults who develop epilepsy may have a hard time managing the disorder. Eight in 10 adults aged 65 or older have more than one chronic health condition.6 It can be hard to balance epilepsy treatment with taking medicines for other health problems. Many epilepsy medicines also have side effects such as bone loss or dizziness, which can make someone more likely to fall and become injured.4
Epilepsy can also affect a persons daily life if seizures limit their ability to drive or if they live alone. After a lifetime of being independent, losing the ability to drive or take care of themselves can be especially hard for older adults. Read more about the challenges faced by seniors with epilepsyexternal icon.
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What Are The Long
Dr. Paul Garcia, an epileptologist and professor at the University of California, San Francisco, says he often hears one question from his patients: What are the long-term effects of seizures? Unfortunately, that question doesnt have a simple answer.
Some research suggests that uncontrolled seizures can lead to losses in visual memory, attention, problem solving, and perception, while other studies suggest that seizures relationship to cognitive function is variable, because seizures are symptoms of an underlying condition.
One thing is certain: The effects vary from person to person. We all have patients who might have a few seizures per year without significant cognitive effects, says Dr. John Betjemann, another epileptologist at UCSF. For them, the evidence of damage is not so clear. But Dr. Betjemann says he has other patients who dont fare as well. Eventually, over a long period of time, they do suffer problems with memory and cognition.
While Dr. Garcia acknowledges those dangers, in practice the question of whether to worry about theoretical seizure effects can be academic, he says. There are undisputed physical risks from seizures including injury and death. Furthermore, seizures can interfere with driving, work and school. Worrying about what might happen doesnt feel like a productive strategy when patients could be focused on their care and treatment.;
Prognosis Of Seizure Disorders
With treatment, one third of people with epilepsy are free from seizures, and most become seizure-free shortly after starting treatment. In another third, seizures recur less than half as often as they did before treatment. If seizures are well-controlled with drugs, about 60 to 70% of people can eventually stop taking antiseizure drugs and remain seizure-free.
Epileptic seizures are considered resolved when people have been seizure-free for 10 years and have not taken antiseizure drugs for the last 5 years of that time period.
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Symptoms After A Seizure
When a seizure stops, people may have a headache, sore muscles, unusual sensations, confusion, and profound fatigue. These after-effects are called the postictal state. In some people, one side of the body is weak after a seizure, and the weakness lasts longer than the seizure .
Most people do not remember what happened during the seizure .
When To Call A Doctor
Even if you or your child have not been exposed to high environmental temperatures, and hyperthermia is not a concern, there are several other factors that play into deciding what to do about a fever.
In young children, take action based on your child’s age and temperature:
- Under 3 months: Call a doctor for a rectal temperature of 100.4 degrees F or higher
- a child of any age: Call a doctor when temp rises above 104 degrees F repeatedly
In children over 12 months and adults, there are other things to consider. Some situations that warrant calling a doctor include:
- A child under age 2 who has a fever for over 24 to 48 hours
- A fever that lasts longer than 48 to 72 hours in older children and adults
- A fever over 105 degrees F, which could indicate a more serious illness
- Presence of other concerning symptoms such as a stiff neck, confusion, difficulty breathing, or a first-time seizure
- Presence of other symptoms that make you think an illness may need to be treated, such as a sore throat, earache, or a cough
- You think you may have incorrectly dosed medication or you arent sure what dose to give;
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When To See A Doctor
It is important for a person to see a doctor if they experience a seizure that results in an injury. They should also seek medical advice if they have more than one seizure within 24 hours.
A person should see a doctor after their first seizure. They will be able to diagnose any underlying conditions and prescribe treatment, if necessary.
It is important to seek immediate medical treatment if a person severely injures themselves, has a seizure in water, or has an underlying health condition.
Seizures And Memory Networks
2016 study in rats looked at how seizure-like activity impacted memory consolidation. Memory function can be affected in some types of epilepsy, including temporal lobe epilepsy.
Memory consolidation normally happens during sleep and involves small ripples of activity in the hippocampus, the area of the brain concerned with memory.
These ripples can be followed by activity in the prefrontal cortex, an area involved in higher-level cognitive functions.
In people with temporal lobe epilepsy, short bursts of electrical activity called IEDs can happen between seizures. The researchers wanted to see if these abnormal bursts of electrical activity impacted memory in rats. They found that:
- Stimulating IEDs in rats led to impaired memory in a maze-solving activity.
- The effect on memory increased with the amount of IEDs that a rat experienced.
- IEDs beginning in the hippocampus were followed by electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. This happened while the rats were both asleep and awake.
- A similar pattern of activity was seen when observing 4 individuals with epilepsy and IEDs.
The researchers believe that IEDs can disrupt normal signaling for memory consolidation. In short, IEDs from the hippocampus may impact how the prefrontal cortex responds to signaling from this area, potentially affecting memory.
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How Is Status Epilepticus Treated
The healthcare provider will want to end the seizure as quickly as possible and treat any underlying problems that are causing it. You may receive oxygen, have blood tests, and an intravenous line. You may be given glucose if low blood sugar may be causing the seizure.
Healthcare providers may use anti-seizure drugs to treat the problem, including:
These drugs are given through an IV or an injection into a muscle.
Tbis Can Also Cause Epilepsy
Epilepsy is a broad term used for a brain disorder that causes repeated seizures. There are many types of epilepsy and there are also many different kinds of seizures. TBIs can cause a seizure right after the injury happens or even months or years later. Researchers agree that the more severe the TBI, the greater the chance the person may develop epilepsy.2 Age and other medical conditions are also factors in whether or not a person may develop epilepsy after a TBI.
The terms post-traumatic epilepsy and post-traumatic seizures are both used to describe seizures that happen because of a TBI.3 In 2014, there were over 280,000 hospitalizations for TBI in the US.4 A CDC-funded study found that among people aged 15 years and older hospitalized for TBI, about 1 out of 10 developed epilepsy in the following 3 years.2
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What If The Medications Do Not Work
Anti-seizure medicines usually work. But sometimes they cant stop your seizures. If you still have seizures after trying medicine, your doctor may send you to a comprehensive epilepsy center. At the center, you will see special seizure doctors called epileptologists or neurologists who specialize in epilepsy. These doctors may do brain wave tests and take a video of you during one of your seizures to help figure out whats causing them. This information may help your doctor decide what medicine will work best. It may also help the doctor figure out if other types of treatment will help with the seizures you are having.
To find a center near you, you can visit the websites of the Epilepsy Foundation and the American Epilepsy Society
What Are The Symptoms Of Absence Seizures
The easiest way to spot an absence seizure is to look for a blank stare that lasts for a few seconds. People in the midst of having an absence seizure dont speak, listen, or appear to understand. An absence seizure doesnt typically cause you to fall down. You could be in the middle of making dinner, walking across the room, or typing an e-mail when you have the seizure. Then suddenly you snap out of it and continue as you were before the seizure.
These are other possible symptoms of an absence seizure:
Being very still
Suddenly returning to activity when the seizure ends
If you experience jerking motions, it may be a sign of another type of seizure taking place along with the absence seizure.
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Diagnosis Of Seizure Disorders
A doctor’s evaluation
If the person has never had a seizure before, blood and other tests, imaging of the brain, and usually electroencephalography
If a seizure disorder has already been diagnosed, usually blood tests to measure levels of antiseizure drugs
The diagnosis of a seizure is based on symptoms and the observations of eyewitnesses. Symptoms that suggest a seizure include loss of consciousness, muscle spasms that shake the body, a bitten tongue, loss of bladder control, sudden confusion, and inability to pay attention. Doctors diagnose a seizure disorder when people have at least two unprovoked seizures that occur at different times.
People who lose consciousness, sometimes even when they lose muscle tone and muscles jerk, may not be having a seizure. A brief loss of consciousness is more likely to be fainting than a seizure.
People are usually evaluated in an emergency department. If a seizure disorder has already been diagnosed and people have completely recovered, they may be evaluated in a doctors office.
Focal Seizure That Becomes Generalized
A focal seizure that becomes generalized begins with one part of the body and then spreads to the entire body. Unless you watch closely, it may look like the child has had a generalized seizure because the focal seizure may be so short that it is missed.
This type of seizure begins with nerve cells having extra discharges in one part of the brain. This then spreads and affects the whole brain. For a more detailed description of the various types of generalized seizures, refer to the Helping Hand:;Seizures: Generalized, HH-I-182.
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What Are The Causes Of High Bilirubin Levels And Jaundice
High bilirubin levels can be caused by many different conditions. Severe hyperbilirubinemia can occur when a newborn has a disorder or condition that increases the number of red blood cells being broken down. These conditions include the following:
- Rh incompatibility
- A cephalohematoma, which is when a baby has bleeding under the scalp caused by a difficult delivery, often involving vacuum extractors or forceps
- An infection such as sepsis
- A lack of certain key enzymes
- A high red blood cell level, which is more common in babies who are small for gestational age or twins
- Abnormally shaped red blood cells
*Macrosomic babies who have diabetic mothers are at an increased risk of having hyperbilirubinemia due to blood cell problems.
Factors that make it harder for a babys body to remove bilirubin can also cause severe hyperbilirubinemia. These include:
- Certain medications
- Infections such as syphilis and rubella, as well as
- Diseases that affect the biliary tract or liver, such as cystic fibrosis
- A lack of oxygen in the babys tissues
- Certain genetic or inherited disorders.
Babies who are breast-fed can get the following types of jaundice:
Generalized Seizures In Adults
Generalized seizures in adults take place whenever nerve cells present on both sides of a human brain misfire to cause fall, black out or muscular spasms. These may further take place in following ways-
|Written, Edited or Reviewed By:Pramod Kerkar, M.D., FFARCSI, DA Pain Assist Inc.This article does not provide medical advice. See disclaimerLast Modified On: November 1, 2017|
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What Are Absence Seizures
An absence seizure causes you to blank out or stare into space for a few seconds. They can also be called petit mal seizures. Absence seizures are most common in children and typically dont cause any long-term problems. These types of seizures are often set off by a period of hyperventilation.
Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14. A child may have 10, 50, or even 100 absence seizures in a given day and they may go unnoticed. Most children who have typical absence seizures are otherwise normal. However, absence seizures can get in the way of learning and affect concentration at school. This is why prompt treatment is important.
Absence seizures are a type of epilepsy, a condition that causes seizures. Seizures are caused by abnormal brain activity. These mixed messages confuse your brain and cause a seizure.
Not everyone who has a seizure has epilepsy. Usually, a diagnosis of epilepsy can be made after two or more seizures.
Absence seizures often occur along with other types of seizures that cause muscle jerking, twitching, and shaking. Absence seizures may be confused with other types of seizures. Doctors will pay close attention to your symptoms in order to make the right diagnosis. This is very important for effective and safe treatment of your seizures.
Its uncommon for absence seizures to continue into adulthood, but its possible to have an absence seizure at any age.
What Are Some Of The Important Technical And Experimental
The challenges and controversies concerning how to evaluate whether neuronal death has occurred and how to quantify it are substantial. Even when one only considers a fraction of the methodological and protocol-related issues, the additional factors involving what, where, and when of neuronal death add further complexity to the potential analyses and interpretations. Additional disagreement surrounds the question What is a seizure? and the problem of what comprises an adequate animal model of acquired epilepsy.
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Status Epilepticus And Emergency Treatment
The following information covers emergency treatment for seizures in the UK. If you are looking for information in another country, please contact your;local epilepsy organisation
Most people with epilepsy have seizures that last a short time and stop by themselves. But sometimes, a seizure can last too long and become status epilepticus. Some people may need emergency medicine to treat status epilepticus.
When To Get Medical Help
See a GP if you think you might have had a seizure for the first time.
This does not mean;you have epilepsy, as a seizure can have several causes and sometimes they’re just a one-off, but;you should see a doctor to find out why it happened.
- is having a seizure for the first time
- has a seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes
- has lots of seizures in a row
- has breathing problems or;has;seriously injured themselves
Treatment can help most people with epilepsy have fewer seizures or stop having seizures completely.
- medicines called anti-epileptic drugs; these are the main treatment
- surgery to remove a small part of the brain that’s causing the seizures
- a procedure to put a small electrical device inside the body that can help control seizures
- a special diet that can help control seizures
Some people need treatment for life. But you might be able to stop treatment if your seizures disappear over time.
History And Physical Examination
An eyewitness report of the episode can be very helpful to doctors. An eyewitness can describe exactly what happened, whereas people who have an episode usually cannot. Doctors need to have an accurate description, including the following:
How fast the episode started
Whether it involved abnormal muscle movements , tongue biting, drooling, loss of bladder or bowel control, or muscle stiffening
How long it lasted
How quickly the person recovered
A quick recovery suggests fainting rather than a seizure. Confusion that lasts for many minutes to hours after consciousness is regained suggests a seizure.
Although eyewitnesses may be too frightened during the seizure to remember all details, whatever they can remember can help. If possible, how long a seizure lasts should be timed with a watch or other device. Seizures that last only 1 or 2 minutes can seem to go on forever.
Doctors also need to know what people experienced before the episode: whether they had a premonition or warning that something unusual was about to happen and whether anything, such as certain sounds or flashing lights, seemed to trigger the episode.
Doctors ask people about possible causes of seizures, such as the following:
A thorough physical examination is done. It may provide clues to the cause of the symptoms.