How Can You Be Born With A Poor Memory
A recent research study published in the journal of Neurology shows a strong correlation between birth weight and the number of weeks in gestation, and memory and attention problems as an adult. After studying adults who were born prematurely, studies indicate that those with the lower birth weight still score lower on their attention and visual memory tests when compared with those born full term.
Although the study didnt conclusively pinpoint what exactly happens in the womb during those crucial weeks, research indicates the longer a baby is in the womb, the better for his or her brain.
Some studies show that this could be because of the development and maturity of the hippocampus, part of the brain that is essential for developing contextual memories. When the structure of the brain itself was studied, Amen Clinics SPECT brain imaging showed that the maturity of the hippocampus at birth and memory function as an adult were associated.
Those born prematurely appear to have significantly smaller hippocampus than full-term babies, and this may explain why specialists find weaker memories in preemies later in life.
‘we’ve Been Chosen To Have Him’
Tom and Jessica Masterson, both from the Jefferson City area, found jobs in the Springfield area not long after graduating from Missouri State University.
Tom landed a teaching job with Springfield Public Schools and later was hired as an assistant principal. He is currently the principal at Jeffries Elementary.
Jessica was hired as a speech therapist at the Early Childhood Center, but chose to leave that position to take care of Owen.
About three years ago, they took in a 2-year-old named Ryleigh. They have since adopted her.
The couple had a miscarriage not long before becoming pregnant again in 2016.
With Owen, the Mastersons said they were thrilled when they got to the 20-week point and have an ultrasound to learn the baby’s gender.
They were told it was a boy, but the technician was unable to view the baby’s head.
“They just said, ‘We didn’t get to see everything so we will see you again.’ And we were like, ‘All right.’ We had no idea there was concern,” Tom said. “Then at 24 weeks, they told us.
“The guy did the ultrasound and told us, ‘Hey, the doctor will be in to talk to you guys in a minute,'” Tom recalled. “We immediately knew.”
A fetal care specialist came into the room and tried to explain about the baby’s “very abnormal brain development.”
The couple said they had in no way braced themselves for what the doctor was saying.
Tom nodded, sharing his memories of that moment.
What Is The Cerebellum Of The Brain Responsible For
The cerebellum plays a vital role in several processes other than muscle movement coordination.
For one, the cerebellum is essential for proper vision, as it gives your brain full control of voluntary eye movements. This, in turn, helps improve your eye-to-hand coordination, as well as peripheral vision.
This brain region is also in charge of motor learning, a process that allows your body to learn, practice, and fine-tune certain types of movements. These can include anything from breathing, chewing, walking, and swallowing to playing an instrument, riding a bicycle, dancing, or swimming.
In addition to all this, recent research shows that the cerebellum may also play a part in critical thinking.
Scientists believe that the cerebellum can impact your thoughts the same way it does your movements, although the exact extent of its role in thinking-related processes has yet to be examined.
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How Does Anencephaly Occur
Sometimes called open skull, anencephaly happens when the upper part of the neural tube doesnt close completely during the babys development. The neural tube is a flat piece of tissue that grows into a tube and forms the brain and spinal cord. Without a closed tube, the brain and skull dont develop.
Like all neural tube defects, anencephaly occurs during the third and fourth weeks of pregnancy. The rest of the babys body continues to form and grow as the pregnancy progresses.
Anencephaly Symptoms & Signs
Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect, a birth defect in which there is an absence of the forebrain, the largest part of the brain consisting mainly of the cerebrum, which is responsible for thinking and coordination. The remaining brain tissue is usually exposed and is not covered by bone or skin.
Signs and symptoms include an absence of the bony covering over the back of the head and missing bones along the front and sides of the head. Infants born with anencephaly are usually blind, deaf, and never attain consciousness. Affected infants may die shortly after birth or within days of birth. Affected individuals do not survive infancy.
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A Unique Rat Who Functioned Extremely Well Despite Having A Highly Abnormal Brain
A new neuroscience paper bears the remarkable title of Life Without a Brain.
Although the title is somewhat misleading, this is still a rather interesting report about a unique rat who functioned extremely well despite having a highly abnormal brain. This case sheds new light on a number of famous examples of humans born with similar abnormalities.
According to the authors of the new paper, Ferris et al., the rat in question was called R222 and it was discovered unexpectedly during testing as part of a batch of rats taking part in an experiment.
R222 didn’t actually have no brain, but it had a highly abnormal brain anatomy. Its brain was actually twice the size of a normal rat’s, but much of it consisted of empty, fluid-filled space.
The cerebral cortex was limited to a thin sheet surrounding the fluid spaces, although the total cortical volume was surprisingly given the images shown above only slightly less than normal 575 L vs. the normal ~615 L.
Despite the grossly abnormal appearance of R222’s brain, the rat seemed to suffer no major impairments. Ferris et al. say that “R222s general health, appearance and body weight were no different from the other rats in the cohort.”The rodent’s motor skills and memory function were within the normal range, although it did seem to be highly anxious.
Baby Born Missing Most Of His Brain Celebrates Milestones
Their son’s first birthday was a welcome cause for celebration for the family of a Florida baby born without a large part of his head and skull. Little Jaxon Buell wasn’t expected to survive more than a few days after he was born last year.
On Facebook, more than 100,000 people now follow the boy’s remarkable survival story and the hashtag #JaxonStrong.
Doctors discovered something wrong in the baby’s head shape during a routine ultrasound when mom-to-be Brittany was pregnant, but they didn’t know the exact cause. After Jaxon was born, Brittany and Brandon Buell were told he had a birth defect called anencephaly that occurs when the beginnings of the nervous system form incorrectly early on in the pregnancy. Most babies with the rare condition cannot survive long past birth.
“Every doctor we’ve talked to is fascinated that Jaxon is here today, and they can no longer predict a prognosis,” Brandon Buell wrote in a Facebook post. “We know the reality behind this better than anyone else, what Jaxon is up against, and that his life is already miraculous at this point.”
Amazingly, Jaxon is marking many infant milestones: “He is talking up a storm these days, truly teaching himself how to communicate with us in his own way … He is so normal in so many ways. He is a baby who is dealing with teething, he cries when he’s hungry, he hurts from gas pains, he throws ups, he cries, he poops, he sleeps, he repeats.”
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Who Is At Risk For Congenital Brain Defects
Some risk factors such as genetics are unavoidable. If youre pregnant or planning to become pregnant, there are some things you can do to reduce the risk for congenital brain defects in your baby:
- Avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, and smoking. Because a babys brain begins developing within the first month of conception, its important to avoid these if youre trying to become pregnant.
- Use of certain prescription drugs such as anticonvulsants, warfarin , and retinoic acid may increase risk for brain defects. Talk to your doctor about medications youre taking if youre trying to conceive or youre pregnant.
- Avoid exposure to X-rays or radiation therapy. That includes X-rays at your dentists office. Always let your all of your doctors know if youre pregnant or may be pregnant.
- Nutritional deficiencies can affect your babys brain, so maintain a healthy, balanced diet while pregnant. Doctors also recommend taking a prenatal vitamin before you become pregnant and throughout your entire pregnancy.
Infections such as rubella, herpes simplex, and varicella zoster can also increase your babys risk for congenital brain defects. While you cant always avoid infections, there are things you can do to reduce your risk for infection:
Infant Brain Damage Prognosis
The prognosis for brain damage depends on the severity of the injury and other health-related factors. If healthcare providers identify a brain injury and start treatment immediately, infants may survive the injury with a positive prognosis. According to the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative , infants who experience brain injuries are at high risk for developing:
- Emotional outbursts
- Physical disabilities
These conditions can impact various aspects of daily life, and may require ongoing care throughout the childs life. However, children with these disabilities can go on to live productive lives. This is especially true of children who have access to physical and occupational therapy soon after their injury.
If the injury is severe, or is not immediately diagnosed, then there is a greater chance that the child will suffer more serious consequences, such as:
- Physical delays
- Developmental delays
These conditions are often permanent, and your child may require a lifetime of specialized care. Even so, with the right treatment, therapy plan and support, your child can have a happy and fulfilling life.
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Is It Possible To Be Born Without A Soul
Pre reading note: Presented here is an opinion. The case of the soul and whether if and/or when it enters the body will be influenced by one’s religious and/or personal spiritual beliefs.
To get an answer this question, first know who you are. Are you a body with a brain, two eyes, two ears, nose, mouth, hands and legs? Or are you the soul whos inside the body? Which one is you, out of the two?
When someone dies, people say, He left for the heavenly abode, or Let his soul rest in peace, or The light has gone.
And then, the body is cremated or buried. The same body which still has the same brain, same pair of eyes and ears, nose, mouth, hands, and legs. Why is that?
Who was that soul that left?
Was that soul the real person?
Or was the real person the body which was cremated or buried?
So now, who are you? The body that you can see? Or the invisible soul that feels, hears, acts, talks, smells, sees, through this physical costume?
Life is the combination of the physical body, with the incorporeal soul. The five elements of nature make up the body.
Death is the separation of the soul from the body. When the soul leaves the body, the body is called a corpse.
Life is impossible without any of the two. A soul cannot live in this physical world and act like us, without having a physical body. And, a body cannot live without the incorporeal soul.
So – it is impossible, illogical, and insensible to even think someone can be without a soul.
How Brain Damage Affects Children
Since brain injuries are so complex and no two injuries are the same, how the injury affects children will vary. The good news is that most infant brain injuries are mild, and in many instances, infants are able to fully physically recover with the right treatment. It may take a long time for infant brain damage recovery, sometimes even years, despite myths that people with mild brain injuries recover quickly.
In addition, the baby may have good days and bad days. For example, one day the infant may coo and smile and the next day become inexplicably fussy. This is normal behavior for infants who suffer from mild brain damage, but is also common among infants without brain damage. It can be incredibly frustrating, however, for you and your child.
Since infants and childrens brains are not fully developed yet, even mild brain damage may result in permanent cognitive and emotional disabilities. These impairments may not be obvious right away and may take a few years to develop. Sometimes the disabilities arent discovered until the child enters school.
After a severe brain injury, an infants brain begins to change, leading to heightened pressure in the skull. If not treated immediately, it may lead to additional brain damage and possibly death. Surgery and medication are often used to treat severe brain damage. However, the outcome depends upon how quickly the injury was treated and how well the patient reacts to treatment.
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What Are The Risk Factors Of Baby Born Without Brain
There are some risk factors that predispose a baby to fail to close the neural tube, resulting in an anencephalic baby. Here are some factors to consider:
- Lacking Folic Acid. Since 1995, it has been discovered that a lack of folic acid can lead to a baby born without brain. Research indicates that adding folic acid does something to reduce the risk of anencephaly and other neural tube defects. Women who are trying to have a baby should take in 0.4 milligrams of folic acid per day so as to reduce the risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect.
- Certain Medication. Some medications have been linked to anencephaly and other neural tube defects. Some anti-seizure medications can cause anencephaly as well as people who are insulin-dependent diabetics.
- Family History. Neural tube defects aren’t inherited in a simple way but there seems to be a hereditary pattern among families. It has been revealed that a woman who already had a child with a neural tube defect runs about a 3% chance of having another baby with some kind of neural tube defect. This is opposed to 0.1% in the general population. A woman with a baby who has had a neural tube defect should receive genetic counseling before having another baby.
- Toxins Exposure. Anencephaly has also been linked to toxic exposures to heavy metals, such as mercury, chromium, lead and nickel.
Can Infant Brain Damage Be Prevented
Preventing infant brain damage begins during pregnancy. Proper prenatal care is essential to diagnosing and treating any condition, complication, or infection that could cause problems as pregnancy progresses into eventual delivery. If doctors note a risk factor during pregnancy that could cause infant brain damage, they should label the pregnancy as high-risk. The mother and her developing fetus should be treated and monitored accordingly.
During labor and delivery, it is important that healthcare providers appropriately monitor mother and infant. Any signs of fetal distress should be taken seriously and should be immediately acted upon. That may mean more consistent monitoring of fetal vital signs, or ordering a c-section to prevent oxygen deprivation.
During and after delivery, it is also important that healthcare providers take measures to prevent head trauma. During delivery, head trauma may occur as a result of pressure, use of delivery assistance tools, or a doctor who uses too much force. After delivery, healthcare providers must monitor the infant for signs of fetal distress, jaundice, stroke, or infection. They must also be careful to properly handle and support the infants head to prevent injuries.
Failure to properly care for an infant before, during or after delivery is medical negligence.
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What Genes Are Related To Anencephaly
Anencephaly is a complex condition that is likely caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some of these factors have been identified, but many remain unknown.
Changes in dozens of genes may influence the risk of anencephaly. The best-studied of these genes is MTHFR, which provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in processing the B-vitamin folate . Changes in other genes related to folate processing and genes involved in the development of the neural tube have also been studied as potential risk factors for anencephaly. However, none of these genes appear to play a major role in causing the condition.
Researchers have also examined environmental factors that could contribute to the risk of anencephaly. A shortage of folate appears to play a significant role. Studies have shown that women who take supplements containing this vitamin before they get pregnant and very early in their pregnancy are significantly less likely to have a baby with anencephaly or a related neural tube defect. Other possible risk factors for anencephaly include diabetes mellitus, obesity, exposure to high heat in early pregnancy, and the use of certain anti-seizure medications during pregnancy. However, it is unclear how these factors may influence the risk of anencephaly.
Where Can I Get More Information
For more information on neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:
Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892
NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.
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