You Can Start A Fire With Ice
Start by shaping an extremely clear piece of ice into a disc that is thick in the middle and narrow at the edges. Now, smooth away any rough edges with the warmth of your hands. Angle your ice lens towards the sun, focusing the light on a pile of tinder. The ice acts as a convex lens, directing photons to a localized point. The resulting concentration of heat energy can reach extremely high temperatures, allowing the tinder to catch on fire. This is sometimes easier said than done the purity of the ice, thickness of the lens, and quality of tinder can all affect the process.
A Horrifying List Of Creatures That Can Crawl Into Your Body
From roaches in noses to leeches in nether regions, here are the animals most likely to get under your skin.
A Cockroach Crawled Inside a Woman’s Head. See How a Doctor Got it Out.
First, lets clear something up about recent reports of a live cockroach pulled from a womans skull. It was technically in her skull, between her eyesbut if you stick your little finger in your ear, thats technically in your skull too.
More precisely, the roach had crawled into her sinuses. In a video that has gone viral, the roach is seen wriggling through pink flesh and eventually being pulled live from the Indian womans sinuses, after entering her nose while she slept.
This is the stuff of nightmaresthe idea that one of the most reviled animals on Earth might slip inside your face at night.
Watch: Cockroaches Survive Squeezing, Smashing, and More
But what kinds of creatures actually climb into people? More importantly, what parts of the body do they get into? And could this happen to you? These are just the kind of gory details I love to dig up for you, curious reader.
Your Nose Cleans The Air You Breathe
The air we breathe has all kinds of stuff in it from oxygen and nitrogen to dust, , , smoke, bacteria, viruses, small bugs and countless other things. Your nose helps clean it.
On the surface of the nasal tissues in your turbinates, there are cells with tiny hair-like appendages called cilia that trap the bad debris in the air so it doesnt get into your lungs. Instead, the debris sits in the mucous and is eventually pushed into your throat and swallowed.
This is extremely beneficial since our stomachs tolerate handling bad debris much better than our lungs do, Dr. Benninger says.
Coronavirus Can Enter The Brain Via The Nose
The coronavirus can reach the human brain after being inhaled through a person’s nose and getting stuck in their nasal mucus, a study has found.
It is the first known proof the coronavirus can infect the brain’s neurons via the mucosal pathway.
Throughout the course of the pandemic, it has become clear the coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, does not just cause respiratory distress but neurological issues as well.
For example, one in three report symptoms such as loss of smell or taste, headaches, fatigue, dizziness, and nausea.
Scientists in Germany performed autopsies on 33 patients who died of Covid-19 and studied the mucus at the back of the nose above the mouth where the throat joins the nasal cavity as well as samples of brain tissue.
Genetic material of the coronavirus was present in largest quantities in the mucus of the nasal cavity, but SARS-CoV-2’s spike proteins which protrude from the virus and latch onto human receptors to infect the cells were also found in the brain.
Dr Frank Heppner, co-author of the study from CharitéUniversitätsmedizin Berlin, says: ‘Once inside the olfactory mucosa, the virus appears to use neuroanatomical connections, such as the olfactory nerve, in order to reach the brain.’
As part of the research, the academics managed to capture the first ever electron microscopy image of intact coronavirus particles within the mucus.
Your Nose Protects You Through Smell
High in your nose are a large number of nerve cells that detect odors. In order to smell, the air we breathe must be pulled all the way up to come in contact with these nerves.
Smell plays a key role in taste. We have four primary tastes: bitter, sour, sweet and salty. All of the refinements in taste are related to smell. Thats why people feel that food is tasteless when their ability to smell is decreased.
Smell and taste are necessary for safety. We need our smell to detect smoke, spoiled food, and some toxic poisons or gases, Dr. Benninger says.
When we have a cold or allergies, its hard for the air to get to these receptors, so people notice a decreased ability to smell.
Those who have completely lost their sense of smell need to have alarms for these gases and must be pay closer attention to what they eat.
Feasible But Not Yet Studied In Detail: The Path From The Nose Into The Brain
Many researchers around the world are studying how drugs can travel from the nasal mucosa into the blood stream. However, only a handful of researchers are specifically studying the intranasal transport of drugs into the brain.
Flamm’s task is no small one. He needs to find a way to bring a drug into the olfactory region without it being taken up by the entire body, where it can lead to undesired adverse drug effects. In addition, the immune system of the nasal mucosa is very active as it produces a large number of antibodies and lymphocytes that recognise and destroy foreign substances. The planned drug application system therefore must not, under any circumstances, activate the immune system.
Flamm will work with two model drugs: a low-molecular weight muscle relaxer and a peptide hormone . Insulin can cross the blood-brain barrier by way of transcytosis . The hormone is an important growth and differentiation factor in the CNS and improves, as Zimmermann herself has shown, the cognitive ability of Alzheimer’s patients, at least for a short period of time. In addition, studies with Alzheimer’s patients and healthy individuals have shown that intranasally administered insulin exerts distinct influences on central nervous functions in humans. This is why the researchers from Biberach have decided to focus initially on insulin.
Nasal Swabbing And The Olfactory Epithelium
During a COVID-19 nasal test, Nasseri said normally the , an air-filled cavity at the top of the respiratory tract 3 inches behind the nose, is swabbed. The swab is in the nasopharynx for only a few seconds but can be very uncomfortable for patients.
“It’s a little bit of a trauma for a lot of people, they feel it’s very invasive,” he said.
And while some patients can have significant reactions, specifically fainting or light-headedness likely due to the “seal dive” reflex, illness due to olfactory epithelium injury during sampling is doubtful.
“Let’s say you took a knife and scraped the epithelium, long before that bacteria hit the blood supply, you would know,” Nasseri said. The usual telltale sign would be , inflammation of the tissues surrounding the brain and spinal cord, whose cardinal symptoms of fever, headache and stiff neck are hard to miss.
It’s important to note that the olfactory epithelium is ordinarily by daily allergens, airborne pollutants, microorganisms and other potentially harmful substances. Thankfully, stem cells within the structure are there to regenerate it every few weeks or so.
Surgeons Can Now Do Brain Surgery Through The Nose
29 May 2014
Before mummifying someone, the ancient Egyptians would remove the deceased’s brain through the nose. Today, neurosurgeons can operate on brain tumors using a similar method.
Gaining access to tumors in the pituitary gland and other regions at the skull base the bony ridge behind the nose and eyes is difficult, because these areas are close to critical nerves and blood vessels linked to the , head and spinal cord. Traditionally, removing these tumors required a large incision, known as a craniotomy, which leaves scars and can requires a lengthy recovery period.
But in recent years, surgeons have developed a much less invasive brain surgery method. Transnasal endoscopic skull-base surgery involves accessing the brain through the nostrils, removing the tumor and reconstructing the tissue along the entryway.
The new surgery method “removes bone instead of brain, to minimize collateral damage,” said Dr. Pablo Recinos, a neurosurgeon at Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, who has been one of the pioneers of this technique.
A major advance in skull-base surgery came as a result of the improvement in endoscopic techniques, which involve the use of a tiny, telescoping camera, Recinos told Live Science.
Performing transnasal brain surgeries requires two people to operate on the patient at the same time: a neurosurgeon to perform the surgery, and another doctor usually an ear, nose and throat specialist to control the endoscope.
Two surgeons, four hands
Why Does Snorting Drugs Affect My Nose
Drugs are used to affect your normal bodily functions. You may use them to keep you awake for longer or to release dopamine in the brain for euphoric feeling. Although your intention may be for the drugs to affect only the brain, drugs also have an impact on anything they touch before they reach that destination including your respiratory system. The respiratory system is made up of your nose, mouth, throat and lungs. And if your choice of high is to snort the drug, then you are directly placing a harmful substance into the area that allows you to breathe.
Snorting these substances irritates the lining of the nose as it travels into your system. This can cause rhinorrhea, which means excess mucus drains from the nose and continually makes it run. Nose sores are also a horrible side effect that you can get from snorting cocaine, which can be painful and irritating. If you take the drug frequently, it can eventually lead to septal perforation, which means it destroys the lining that separates your nostrils.
Neurologic Manifestations Occur In 50% Of Hospitalised Patients
Secondary infections which are coming with Covid are also causing direct brain involvement. The mucus spreads from nose to the brain or from the ear to the brain and sometimes through the blood vessels, to reach the brain and cause a lot of brain damage. Other secondary infections of brain are also increasingly in view of Covid caused immuno suppression as well as medication induced immuno suppression. According to the experts, neurologic manifestations occur in approximately half of hospitalised Covid patients.
The Nose Swab Can’t Damage The Brain
A picture showing a swab test being taken has been circulated widely on Facebook and Instagram along with claims that the swab is taken at the “blood-brain barrier”.
The idea you could access the blood-brain barrier through a swab up the nose is a complete misunderstanding of what it is and how it works.
The brain has lots of layers of protection. First and mostly obviously is the skull and within that, the brain is further encased in a protective membrane and fluid.
Within the blood vessels that line the brain, the blood-brain barrier is a tightly packed layer of cells that stops molecules circulating in the blood from passing into the brain, while allowing in things like oxygen and nutrients.
A swab stick inserted into the nose would need to break through multiple layers of tissue and drill through a bone and into the blood vessels to reach the blood-brain barrier.
“The swab cannot reach the blood brain barrier without significant force that breaks several layers of tissue and bone. We have not seen any complications from Covid swabs in our neurology practice”, says Dr Liz Coulthard, a committee member of the British Neuroscience Association .
The nasopharyngeal swab checks for coronavirus in the back of the nasal passage and is one of a range of swabbing techniques.
A combined nose-and-throat swab is routinely used to test for Covid-19 in the UK.
Some of these have been rated “false” by fact-checking organisations on Facebook.
So We’re Using The Smaller Ones Right
Australia’s national guidelines recommend the use of the 2-3cm swab.
“However, this advice does not preclude the use of a nasopharyngeal swab,” a Federal Department of Health spokesperson said.
According to the update log for the national guidelines, references to nasopharyngeal swabs were updated with the current deep nasal swabbing advice on April 1.
So, the longer ones haven’t been ruled out, but the shorter ones are favoured.
And while these are just recommended guidelines, the states take them on board.
In NSW, for example, these swabs have been widely used across the state since June.
“NSW Health’s preferred method for testing is the mid-turbinate swab, which is less invasive than the nasopharyngeal swab,” a NSW Health spokesperson said.
But this depends on the type of test you’re going for.
If you’re being tested for other respiratory illnesses at the same time, which is something your doctor might request to work out what could be behind your symptoms, then the nasopharyngeal swab might be used.
Currently, the guidelines say the same swab that goes up your nose can also be used to take a sample from the back of the throat.
But it’s worth noting that the PHLN guidelines suggest the mouth sample should be taken before the nasal sample.
Public Health Laboratory Network
It’s important both the back of the throat and the nasal cavity are swabbed “because the virus may be found in one location and not the other early in an infection“, a NSW Health spokesperson explained.
Lymph Nodes In Your Neck
Like other parts of the body, the head and neck contains lymph nodes . These small, bean shaped glands are part of the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes are often the first place cancer cells spread to when they break away from a tumour.
There are major groups of lymph nodes in the neck. Nasal and paranasal sinus cancers can spread to these nodes.
You may need an operation to remove lymph nodes. This will usually be on the same side of your neck as the cancer.
More rarely, a surgeon may suggest removing nodes from both sides of your neck. These operations are called neck dissections. You may hear your surgeon call this type of surgery a radical neck dissection.
A specialist in human tissues examines the lymph nodes to see if they have cancer cells. It helps them to find out how advanced the cancer is. This is also called the stage of the cancer and helps doctors decide on the most suitable treatment for you.
Nasal and paranasal sinus cancer rarely spreads to other parts of the body such as the lungs, bones or liver.
Is A Runny Nose Common
As humans, were great at optimism bias, which is a term that describes believing nothing bad can ever happen to us. So, if you know people who have snorted for fun and never experienced a problem or become addicted, its reasonable to assume that the same drugs will have no or minor physical effect on you. But cocaine, heroin and cannabis will affect people differently, and its possible for drugs to cause physical health issues, in addition to the impact it has on your lifestyle and emotional wellbeing.
Is One Swab Better Than The Other
Obviously, the shallower swabs are more comfortable than the deeper swabs.
And because the deeper nasopharyngeal swabs are more likely to procure a reactive cough or sneeze from a potentially infected person, they’re riskier for clinicians to administer.
The PHLN says the shallower swabbing method is recommended “to optimise the chances of virus detection while minimising discomfort for the individual being tested”.
A US study of about 500 participants found mid-turbinate swabs were 96 per cent effective at detecting COVID-19, and that was when administered by the patients themselves, not trained professionals.
Another study from the US, with 40 participants, found that both types of swabs identified COVID-19 patients in the early course of their disease but the nasopharyngeal swabs were more reliable later in the disease course.
But if the test is being combined with other tests, the longer swab might be the better option.
Here’s what the ACT guidelines say:
“If also testing for other respiratory viruses, an NPS remains the specimen of choice for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis.
“For other respiratory viruses, a deep nasal swab is adequate.”
How Common Is Nasal And Paranasal Sinus Cancer
Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is rare. Only around 500 cases are diagnosed in the UK each year compared with around 42,317 cases of bowel cancer.
Cancer and its management J Tobias and D HochhauserWiley-Blackwell, 2015
Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology
VT De Vita, TS Lawrence and SA Rosenberg
Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2019
Tumors of the nasal cavity
R Dagan and others
What Do The Results Mean
Depending on your symptoms, you may have been tested for one or more types of infections.
A negative result means no harmful viruses or bacteria were found in your sample.
A positive result means a specific type of harmful virus or bacteria was found in your sample. It indicates you have a specific type of infection. If you are diagnosed with an infection, be sure to follow your provider’s recommendations for treating your illness. This may include medicines and steps to prevent spreading the infection to others.
If you are diagnosed with COVID-19, be sure to stay in touch with your provider to find out the best way to take care of yourself and protect others from infection. To learn more, check the websites of the CDC and your local health department.
Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.
Your Nose Shapes The Sound Of Your Voice
What we hear when people speak and sing is in large part related to the resonating structures of the throat and nose.
Your voice is produced in the larynx but that sound is really a buzzing sound. The richness of the sound is determined by how the sound is processed above the larynx, which occurs in your nose and throat.
According to Dr. Benninger, this is the same principle that separates a grand piano from a childs toy piano. The nasal voice we hear in someone with a and is due to a loss of this nasal resonation since air cant pass through the nose.
How Signals Get Sent
When the smell receptors are stimulated, signals travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is underneath the front of your brain just above the nasal cavity. Signals are sent from the olfactory bulb to other parts of the brain to be interpreted as a smell you may recognize, like apple pie fresh from the oven. Yum!
Identifying smells is your brain’s way of telling you about your environment. Have you ever smelled your toast burning? In an instant, your brain interpreted the smell and a problem and you knew to check on your toast.
You learned to associate a certain smell with burning and now your brain remembers that smell so you recognize it. Your sense of smell also can help you keep safe. For example, it can warn you not to eat something that smells rotten or help you detect smoke before you see a fire.
How Far Do Coronavirus Testing Swabs Go Up Your Nose
Most of us have heard a horror story about COVID-19 testing, where it feels like the swab goes right through to the person’s brain.
Obviously, swabs do not go anywhere near the point of jabbing someone’s brain.
In fact, Australian guidelines say swabs should only go a few centimetres up someone’s nostril.
Why Might I Need Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery
Endoscopic endonasal surgery can be used to remove tumors in areas near the base of the brain or skull, and at the top of the spine. It can also be used to treat problems with the sinuses. This approach allows the surgeon to reach these areas without the need for large incisions or removal of parts of the skull. This often makes recovery quicker and less painful.
The Claim: The Spot That Gets Sampled During The Covid
A July 6 post claims that the area sampled during a COVID-19 nasal swab is a part of the body called the blood-brain barrier. An image accompanying the post associates the blood-brain barrier with the target site for sample collection.
“I was wondering why the PCR test for COVID-19 had to be so far back and it got me thinking… how far does it go?
“So I did some research and found these two pictures and overlapped them. The surprising evidence was shocking!
“The blood brain barrier is exactly where the swab test has to be placed.
“Coincidence??? I don’t think so.”
The author of the post intensifies the claim by stating if the blood-brain barrier is compromised by a contaminated test, a condition called “leaky blood-brain barrier,” or inflamed brain, results leading to bacterial infection, toxin exposure, a whole host of syndromes and diseases, and ultimately death.
However, the author later concedes it’s not necessary for the blood-brain barrier to be directly jeopardized.
“t doesn’t need to penetrate the blood brain barrier. It only needs to violate and bypass the mucus membrane, the olfactory epithelium, then toxins can access the olfactory nerves and reach the neurons/brain,” he writes.
“This might be a way for the evil agenda folks to bypass this protective layer… and actually increase the risk of sickness,” he claims.
The author of the post has not yet responded to USA TODAY’s request for comment.
Runny Nose Or Nose Sores
Page last updated 22 May 2020
If you have recently snorted drugs and are worried about a sore or running nose, there are a few options we will talk you through that you can try. These treatments will offer a short-term solution to stop the nasal irritation.
Although managing your runny nose is a quick fix, it wont stop your nose from becoming damaged by repeated drug use.
So, if your nose is continually running, bleeding, or contains sores, or the reason you inhaled drugs was because you craved an immediate hit, one of the best remedies you can reach for is a phone. Speaking to a professional about rehab treatment will ensure that your body is free from harmful substances and can heal itself back to health.
Your Nose Helps You Find A Mate
Its amazing how many of our body functions are directed toward sexual activity and reproduction, Dr. Benninger says.
Not only does your olfactory system trigger memory, but your nose plays a critical role when paired with your olfactory system in your perception of sex.
That characteristic smell of a persons perfume, cologne or the scent of their shampoo or soap is important to sexual arousal. The smell of human perspiration also has a direct effect on sexual receptors in the brain. And loss of smell correlates with decreased sexual drive.
Another interesting and widely debated area is the impact of pheromones. These are very important to reproduction in animals, as well as on human sexuality and stimulation.
A small accessory organ in the nose the vomeronasal organ is related to the olfactory system. Some refer to it as the sixth sense. The VNO is located at the base of your nasal septum and almost all animals, including amphibians, have it.
In humans, the VNO is largely vestigial or non-functional, acting as an old remnant like your . But some researchers believe that it still plays a role in pheromone and other chemical communication, Dr. Benninger says.
How Does My Nose Work
Molecules are released by substances around us. When they enter your nostrils, they can stimulate receptors located on the olfactory sensory neurons in the back of the nose. Those neurons send messages to your brain, which identifies the smell.
Smells can also reach the sensory neurons through a channel that connects the top of the throat to the nose. For example, when you chew food, the molecules can stimulate those neurons.
What Are The Sinuses
The sinuses are hollow spaces in the skull and the face bones around your nose. There are four pairs of sinuses, named for the bones that theyre located in:
- The maxillary sinuses are located on each side of your nose, near the cheek bones.
- The frontal sinuses are located above the eyes, near your forehead.
- The ethmoid sinuses are located on each side of the bridge of your nose, near your eyes. There are three small pairs of the ethmoid sinuses.
- The sphenoid sinuses are behind the eyes, deeper into your skull.
These sinuses collectively are called the paranasal sinuses.
The name sinus comes from the Latin word sinus, which means a bay, a curve, or a hollow cavity.