Stage 3 Minimally Conscious State
When in the minimally conscious state, a person may drift in and out of consciousness. But unlike the vegetative state, they now have a limited awareness of the world around them.
At this stage, a doctor might prescribe medicines to help stimulate the brain to help the patient fully regain consciousness.
Once the patient consistently responds to instructions and can communicate verbally and/or nonverbally, they have reached the fourth stage of traumatic brain injury recovery.
What Are The 10 Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery Stages
Traumatic brain injury recovery can be a long and difficult process. To offer an idea of what this process might look like, this article will cover all the major TBI recovery stages patients may experience.
Well also give you some tips on how to maximize your chances of getting through to the last stage.
Is A Brain Hemorrhage Painful
Blood also irritates brain tissues, creating a bruise or bump called a hematoma, which can also place pressure on brain tissue. Occasionally, you wont feel any initial symptoms. When symptoms of brain hemorrhage appear, they may come as a combination of the following: A sudden and very severe headache.
Recommended Reading: Hippocampus Removal Side Effects
Tip 2use It And Improve It
When you perform a task and practice it over and over again, the same network of connections in the brain is activated over and over again. Repeated activation of that network causes it to be strengthened and work more efficiently, which ultimately leads to improved performance of the task. For example, when you practice playing an instrument, your performance gets better with practice as the network of connections in your brain that you use to play your instrument is strengthened. Therapists encourage patients to keep practicing their exercises and using their impaired side, as this will lead to positive changes in those specific brain networks.
Causes Of A Hemorrhagic Stroke
There are two possible causes of a ruptured blood vessel in the brain. The most common cause is an aneurysm. An aneurysm occurs when a section of a blood vessel becomes enlarged from chronic and dangerously high blood pressure or when a blood vessel wall is weak, which is usually congenital. This ballooning leads to thinning of the vessel wall, and ultimately to a rupture.
A rarer cause of an ICH is an arteriovenous malformation . This occurs when arteries and veins are connected abnormally without capillaries between them. AVMs are congenital. This means theyre present at birth, but theyre not hereditary. Its unknown exactly why they occur in some people.
You May Like: Sneezing Kills Brain Cells
What Are The Symptoms Of Subdural Hematoma
Because a subdural hematoma is a type of traumatic brain injury , they share many symptoms. Symptoms of a subdural hematoma may appear immediately following trauma to the head, or they may develop over time even weeks to months.
Signs and symptoms of a subdural hematoma include:
- Headache that doesnt go away.
- Confusion and drowsiness.
- Slurred speech and changes in vision.
- Dizziness, loss of balance, difficulty walking.
- Weakness on one side of the body.
- Memory loss, disorientation, and personality changes, especially in older adults with chronic subdural hematoma.
- Enlarged head in babies, whose soft skulls can enlarge as blood collects.
As bleeding continues and the pressure in the brain increases, symptoms can get worse. Symptoms, at this point, include:
- Breathing problems.
- Loss of consciousness and coma.
Sometimes people have no symptoms immediately following a head injury. This is called a lucid interval. They develop symptoms days later. Also, its important to know that subdural hematomas that develop more slowly might be mistaken for other conditions, such as a brain tumor or stroke.
Also Check: How Long Is Surgery To Remove Brain Tumor
What Does Rehabilitation After A Brain Bleed Entail
The goals of long-term treatment are to help you regain the functions needed for daily living, as much and as soon as possible, and to prevent future brain hemorrhages. Rehabilitation and recovery time vary according to each persons unique brain bleed and the extent of rehabilitation possible.
Long-term rehabilitation treatment may include:
- Physical therapy.
- Control blood sugar levels if you have diabetes.
Recommended Reading: Eeg Diffuse Slowing
Types Of Bleeding And A Traumatic Brain Injury
There are many different types of brain injuries and various brain bleeds go along with these injuries. One of the more common types of brain bleeds is called an epidural hematoma. Someone who suffers trauma to the side of their skull can cause blood to leak out from the middle meningeal artery. This gradual bleed can cause someone to pass out several minutes after the event. Other times, people could already have a brain aneurysm and a traumatic event is just the spark that causes the aneurysm to burst. Finally, ruptures of the veins can be just as serious as arterial ruptures and can also place someone in a dire situation.
Stroke From Brain Bleed
A stroke from brain bleed is a special kind of stroke. A regular stroke is caused by a blockage of blood flow to the brain, while a stroke from brain bleed is caused by a bleeding artery inside the brain. Before treating any stroke, the most important task is to make sure that it is not a stroke from brain bleed.
In the last 15 years, I have personally treated many patients hospitalized with regular strokes as well as strokes from brain bleed. In this article, I will describe what a stroke with brain bleed is and distinguish it from other types of bleeding in the brain. I will also compare strokes with brain bleed to regular strokes, and tell you the risk factors for a stroke with brain bleed. Finally, I will tell you what to expect when hospitalized with a stroke from brain bleed.
Recommended Reading: What Does K2 Do To Your Brain
What Did The Authors Do
In their article, Electrographic seizures and periodic discharges after intracerebral hemorrhage, Dr. Claassen and colleagues discuss several important issues that affect people who have bleeding into the brain . They used a retrospective review to study problems associated with bleeding within the brain. There are problems with this type of study. However, it is this kind of study that often leads to further research.
In a retrospective study, the authors select a group of people with a particular problem or illness. For instance, the authors might look for a group of people who have migraines. They start carefully looking for problems that the group share. For instance, many people with migraine take pain medications. In a retrospective study, the use of pain medications would be something shared by a large number of these people. Two statements are possible. The first is that people who are in pain are more likely to take a pain medication. A second possibility is that the medication caused the headaches. Remember that the retrospective study only shows those things that a group of people have in common. It does not necessarily tell us whether the illness caused a problem or vice versa.
Recommended Reading: Does Microwave Popcorn Cause Memory Loss
What’s The Difference Between A Ruptured And An Unruptured Brain Aneurysm
A ruptured aneurysm, sometimes called a brain bleed, is when blood breaks through the aneurysm’s wall and starts bleeding. This causes severe symptoms, such as a very painful headache like you’ve never felt before, and requires immediate medical care. With rapid, expert treatment, patients can often recover fully.
An unruptured brain aneurysm may cause zero symptoms. People can live with them for years before detection. If a brain aneurysm is unruptured, no blood has broken through the blood vessel walls. This means the “balloon” in your blood vessel remains intact.
For unruptured brain aneurysms, doctors will treat aneurysms that are more likely to bleed and leave certain others alone.
Once a brain aneurysm bleeds, or ruptures, it requires immediate medical care in a medical center designed to handle emergencies. If you think you are experiencing a ruptured brain aneurysm, dial 911 immediately.
Neurosurgeons use specialized procedures to treat ruptured and unruptured brain aneurysms, when appropriate:
- Microsurgical clipping: Neurosurgeons make a small opening in the skull and then place a titanium clip over the aneurysm to stop blood flow into the aneurysm.
- Endovascular coiling/stenting: In this newer approach, neurosurgeons place a stent, or tube, or other devices, such as coils, inside a blood vessel or aneurysm to divert blood flow away from an aneurysm.
Don’t Miss: How To Shrink A Meningioma Brain Tumor Naturally
Diagnosing And Treating Brain Hemorrhaging After Traumatic Accidents
Doctors sometimes miss certain internal brain bleeds after an accident. Brain swelling can impact initial diagnostic testing, or medical professionals may not perform all necessary tests. Brain bleeds are emergencies necessitating immediate medical intervention. Doctors can typically find these bleeds with CT scans, MRIs, or a brain magnetic resonance angiogram . Brain bleeds may also cause optic nerve swelling, a condition that doctors may see with a quick eye exam. Its important to tell your doctor about any recent head trauma, even seemingly minor bumps.
Treating brain hemorrhaging depends on the severity of the bleed and available medical resources. Some patients need emergency surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, allowing it to swell and cauterize the broken blood vessels.
Quick surgical intervention during strokes can also prevent irreversible brain damage or death. If patients immediately recognize the signs of strokes, including facial palsy, doctors can administer thrombolytic drugs to break up blood clots.
Depending on the location of the bleed, doctors can sometimes remove the hematoma with advanced endovascular procedures. Specialized stroke and brain injury centers may insert a tube through patients major arteries and subsequently guide repair devices to the brain bleeds. These specialized coils can typically stop major bleeding, prevent further bleeds, and even repair vessel damage.
How Is The Treatment Done
In case of brain haemorrhage, it is necessary to seek immediate medical treatment in the form of surgery. However, the type of surgery will depend on the age of the patient, his health condition in total and the intensity of damage caused to the brain and the location of the damage.
The decompression surgery helps to relieve the pressure possessed by the brain. A neurosurgeon will skilfully the pooled blood and also repair the damage that has been inflicted on the brain. If the hematoma is drained then size of the pooled blood is reduced and the patient can get relief from his/her pain. In order to do this the doctor can perform craniotomy or open surgery In this surgery, the surgeon will partially remove a part of the skull and perform an open surgery in order to drain the hematoma. In the process he will also drain the blood vessels that have ruptured. This surgery is performed only when the hematoma has become very large.
In the Simple aspiration surgical method the surgeon will with the help of a needle make a hole in the skull in order to drain the hematoma. The difficulty of this surgery lies in locating the very source of bleeding. The endoscopic evaluation method is similar to the simple aspiration method with the only difference being in the use of an endoscopic or camera in order to locate the position of the hematoma. In the stereotactic aspiration method a CT along with suction tool will be used for locating and draining the hematoma respectively.
You May Like: Are Brain Hemorrhages Hereditary
Striking And Construction Accidents
Falling materials from construction sites, flying roadway debris, and household accidents also contribute to brain trauma. Eligible claimants might seek compensation from property owners, workers compensation insurers, and even liable state entities in such cases. Further, claimants might recover damages from the designers and distributors of dangerous products that caused the head trauma.
Even without lost consciousness, always consider seeking medical help following head trauma. Minor bumps can result in seemingly invisible brain bleeds that develop into brain hemorrhages and permanent brain damage. Brain injury attorneys could help claimants recover money for their medical damages, including necessary medical monitoring and emergency treatment, in appropriate cases.
Making Changes To Make Life Work
Today, Evan continues to experience fatigue, headaches, memory and concentration issues, and sleep disturbances. He can no longer multi-task and has to focus on one thing at a time.
Because it takes him longer to process conversation than most people, he has a hard time participating in groups. If he goes out to dinner with friends, for example, he and his wife, Amy, have worked out a system where she pauses before answering a question addressed to both of them. That gives Evan time to answer if he wants to otherwise, he wouldnt be able to answer quickly enough.
When it comes to tasks and chores, he has developed rituals to help him remember to complete them. For example, if he empties the dishwasher, he immediately puts soap in it when its empty. Otherwise, he would forget and run it later without putting in the soap.
He has similar ways of reminding himself to take his medication or remember appointments. For anything related to an appointment or a task that must be done at a specific time, he adds them to his phone calendar with an alarm to make sure he doesnt forget.
No matter what happens in a day, Evan tries to keep his challenges and mistakes in perspective. A patient in rehab with me used to ask herself the question Are my mistakes deadly? Are they fatal? he reflects. If the answer is no, then while you dont like making them, you need to keep it in perspective.
Read Also: Hippocampal Damage Symptoms
The Outlook For Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients
Your outlook for recovery depends on the severity of the stroke, the amount of tissue damage, and how soon you were able to get treatment. The recovery period is long for many people, lasting for months or even years. However, most people with small strokes and no additional complications during the hospital stay are able to function well enough to live at home within weeks.
Five Tips For Enhancing Neuroplasticity And Recovery After Stroke
Neuroplasticity, or the ability of the brain to change, is the key principle that guides how therapists design and deliver rehabilitation programs for patients. Typically, the first goal of rehabilitation is to help the patients get back to the way they were before the stroke. Unfortunately this is not always possible, so for some stroke survivors, the goal of therapy is to find a new way of doing things.
Below are five important tips about neuroplasticity that therapists must consider when treating a patient .
You May Like: Does Lsd Kill Brain Cells
What Are The Treatments For Subdural Hematoma
Healthcare providers treat larger hematomas with decompression surgery. A surgeon drills one or more holes in the skull to drain the blood. Draining the blood relieves the pressure the blood buildup causes on the brain. Additional surgery may be needed to remove large or thick blood clots if present. Usually, healthcare providers leave a drain in place for several days following surgery to allow the blood to continue draining.
Sometimes hematomas cause few or no symptoms and are small enough that they dont require surgical treatment. Bed rest, medications and observation may be all that is needed. The body can absorb the small amount of blood over time, usually a few months. Your healthcare providers may order regular imaging tests to monitor the hematoma and make sure it is healing.
Also Check: How Long Can You Live With A Brain Bleed
Conflict Of Interest Statement
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Kleim, J. A., and Jones, T. A. 2008. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J. Speech. Lang. Hear. Res. 51:S22539. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388
Don’t Miss: How Does Parkinson’s Disease Affect The Brain
Seizures And Seizure Prophylaxis
Upwards of 90% of seizures occur within the first 3 days of ICH., Seizure prophylaxis is associated with unchanged or worse outcomes and does not prevent long-term seizures.â The prophylactic use of antiepileptic drugs is thus discouraged by the American Heart Association , although seizure treatment with AEDs is warranted. In a rehabilitation setting, AEDs should be tapered off in ICH patients without a history of seizure or electrographic abnormalities. If the patient does have a seizure, precipitants such as infection, electrolyte abnormalities, or rebleeding should be ruled out and an AED should be initiated.
Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury Recovery Stages
Hopefully, this guide to traumatic brain injury recovery stages has helped you get an idea of what your recovery journey may look like.
We just have one final word of advice: If you feel stuck on a particular stage for a long time, do not give up. Its common to experience plateaus during recovery, where it seems like you just arent making progress anymore.
However, the key to remember is that plateaus are only temporary. If you persevere with your therapy, eventually you may begin to make progress again and reach those higher recovery stages.
And with that, we wish you the best of luck on your traumatic brain injury recovery journey.
Recommended Reading: Compare And Contrast Heat Exhaustion And Heat Stroke Brainly
It’s Easy To Get The Care You Need
See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.
Youve survived the shock of realizing that you or your loved one had a stroke. Now youre ready for recovery. But how long will it take?
Theres not a single answer that applies to everyone. Recovery time depends on a few important factors:
- Where the stroke occurred in the brain and which functions it damaged
- How quickly the blood clot or bleeding that caused the stroke was stopped by medical intervention
- The age and general health of the person who had the stroke
- The quality and comprehensiveness of rehabilitation following the stroke
Some people have trouble speaking, while others have difficulty understanding words spoken by others.