Characteristics Of Stage 4 Lung Cancers
Lung cancer is staged to classify the severity of the disease. The staging of NSCLC helps doctors choose the most appropriate course of treatment based on the likely outcome, referred to as the prognosis.
The stage of lung cancer is determined using the TNM classification system, which categorizes the severity of the disease based on three conditions:
- The size and extent of the primary tumor
- Whether nearby lymph nodes have cancer cells in them
- Whether distant metastasis has occurred
With stage 4 lung cancer, all three of these conditions will have occurred. With that said, the extent of metastasis can vary along with the prognosis.
For this reason, stage 4 NSCLC was broken down into two substages with the release of the new TNM classification system in 2018:
- Stage 4a lung cancer, in which cancer has spread within the chest to the opposite lung or to the lining around the lungs or the heart or to the fluid around the lungs or heart
- Stage 4b lung cancer, in which cancer has spread to one area outside of the chest, including a single non-regional lymph node
- Stage 4c lung cancer, in which cancer has spread to one or multiple places in one or more distant organs, such as the brain, adrenal gland, bone, liver, or distant lymph nodes.
Stage 4 lung cancer is incurable. Treatments, therefore, are focused on slowing the progression of the disease, minimizing symptoms, and maintaining an optimal quality of life.
Treating Secondary Breast Cancer In The Brain
Treatment for secondary breast cancer in the brain aims to relieve symptoms and slow down the growth of the cancer.
Treatments may be given alone, in combination or in sequence.
Your care will continue under your breast oncologist. They will often ask the advice of doctors who specialise in treating tumours in the brain. These include neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, clinical nurse specialists and radiographers.
When deciding how best to treat you, your treatment team will consider:
- How many tumours you have
- The total amount of space taken up by the secondary breast cancer in the brain
- Which parts of the brain are affected
- Whether the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body
- Whether any other areas of secondary breast cancer are under control
- Any symptoms you have
- What treatment youve had in the past
- The features of the cancer
- Whether youve been through the menopause
- Your general health
Your treatment team should discuss any recommendations for treatment with you and take into account your wishes.
They will talk with you about your options, explain what the aim of treatment will be and help you weigh up the potential benefits against the possible side effects you may have.
Help With Making Plans
It can be helpful to talk through your options with your closest family or friends while you are able. This can help to avoid misunderstanding about what everyone thinks is best. Talking through the options will help everyone to make plans that you all agree on.
You might feel happier knowing that you have made the best decisions for all of you. It can be a very heavy burden on families to decide what to do during a crisis. It might be easier if they know what you would have wanted.
Caring for someone that is dying can be a huge emotional and physical challenge. It’s important that you get all the help and support you need.
Don’t Miss: Injury To Hippocampus
The Cause Of Brain Cancer Is Usually Unknown
Most people diagnosed with a primary brain tumor do not have any known risk factors. However, certain risk factors and genetic conditions have been shown to increase a persons chances of developing one, including:
- The risk of a brain tumor increases as you age.
- People who have been exposed to ionizing radiationsuch as radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs have an increased risk of brain tumor.
- Rare genetic disorders like Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis may raise the risk of developing certain types of brain tumors. Otherwise, there is little evidence that brain cancer runs in families.
What Happens When Cancer Spreads To The Brain
Cancer cells can break away from the primary tumor and travel to the brain, usually through the bloodstream. They commonly go to the part of the brain called the cerebral hemispheres or to the cerebellum, where they form a mass.
Some metastatic brain tumors appear many years after the primary cancer. Others metastasize so quickly that they are identified before the primary cancer.
When the cancer cells reach the brain and form a tumor, it may lead to a variety of symptoms that can be shared by nonmetastatic brain tumors as well.
Recommended Reading: What Does The Hippocampus Do In The Brain
What Are The Symptoms Of A Brain Tumor
Some people with a brain or central nervous system tumor have no symptoms. In some cases, doctors discover a tumor during treatment for another issue.
As a brain tumor grows and presses on surrounding nerves or blood vessels, it may cause symptoms. Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor vary depending on the tumorâs location and type, size and what the affected part of the brain controls. They can include:
- Headaches that are ongoing or severe or that occur in the morning or go away after vomiting.
- Behavior or personality changes.
- Trouble with memory, thinking, speaking or understanding language.
Support For Living With Secondary Breast Cancer In The Brain
Everyones experience of being diagnosed with secondary breast cancer is different, and people cope in their own way.
For many people, uncertainty can be the hardest part of living with secondary breast cancer.
You may find it helpful to talk to someone else whos had a diagnosis of secondary breast cancer.
- Chat to other people living with secondary breast cancer on our online Forum.
- Meet other women with a secondary diagnosis and get information and support at a Living with Secondary Breast Cancer meet-up.
- Live Chat is a weekly private chat room where you can talk about whatevers on your mind.
You can also call Breast Cancer Nows Helpline free on 0808 800 6000.
You May Like: Does Mike Tyson Have Brain Damage
What Goes Into A Prognosis
When figuring out your prognosis, your doctor will consider all the things that could affect the tumor and its treatment. Your doctor will look at risk estimates about the tumor. These are based on what researchers have found out over many years about many people with brain tumors. When possible, your doctor will use statistics for groups of people whose situations are most like yours to estimate your prognosis.
If your tumor is likely to respond well to treatment, your doctor will say you have a favorable prognosis. If your tumor is likely to be hard to control, your prognosis may be less favorable. It is important to keep in mind that a prognosis states what is probable. It is not a prediction of what will definitely happen. No doctor can be fully certain about an outcome.
Your chance of recovery may depend on:
The type of brain tumor
The location of the tumor
Whether the tumor can be removed completely
Your age and overall health
How the tumor responds to treatment
Other factors might also affect your prognosis.
If You Innovate Without Focusing On This Then Youre Arguably Not Really Innovating At All
As a musician, runner and Type A organizer, I have to admit that I do love me some wireless technology. So you can imagine how many circles popped in my bubble wrap when I read the following headline from Yahoos Rob Waugh: Wireless headphones like Apple Airpods could pose cancer risk, scientists warn.
Now, to be absolutely, painfully clear here, Waugh isnt singling out Applethat little word like is incredibly important. Rather, the bigger idea is that the in-ear style of wireless headphone exposes tissues in your head to high levels of radio-frequency radiation. Apple is merely an example with perhaps the most brand name recognition. Scientists who support the assertion say that electromagnetic frequencies have been shown to have a negative influence on living things even when exposure is below current guidelines. And conversely, scientists who say the concept is hogwash point out that numerous studies proving a link between mobile devices and cancer have been tossed out as bunk.
So currently, does wireless gear like the Apple AirPods truly have the potential to increase cancer risk?
The reality is, we still dont really know.
And thats my point.
So raise your bar. Invest in the research phase. Think beyond technical specifications and functionality. Take the time to get it right. Because remember, a product thats ultimately pulled off the market isnt going to earn you even one more dime.
Don’t Miss: How Do Brain Freezes Happen
Factors That Can Influence Survival Times
Questions about life expectancy are often the first ones asked when someone is diagnosed with stage 4 non-small cell lung cancer , the most advanced stage of the disease in which cancer has spread from the primary tumor to distant organs. The median survival time for those with stage 4 lung cancer is around four months, which means that 50% of patients will still be alive four months after their diagnosis.
As distressing as this statistic may be, it is important to remember that stage 4 lung cancer has no set course. Many will live for months and even years longer than this.
Multiple factors can influence survival times, some of which are modifiable. Newer targeted therapies and immunotherapies are also helping people with stage 4 cancer live longer with fewer side effects and a better quality of life.
Brain Tumors In Adolescents And Young Adults
- Approximately 31,299 adolescents and young adults are estimated to be living with a brain tumor in the U.S.
- Approximately 14.5% of all brain tumors occur in the AYA population
- An estimated 11,700 new cases of AYA brain tumors will be diagnosed in 2021
- Brain tumors are the third most common cancer overall in individuals age 15-39 years, the second-most common cancer in males, and third-most common in females in this age group
- Among adolescents only , brain tumors are the most common form of cancer, accounting for 21% of diagnoses in this age group each year
You May Like: How To Relieve Brain Freeze
Typically Brain Tumors Dont Have Obvious Symptoms
Headaches that get worse over time are a symptom of many ailments including brain tumors. Other symptoms may include personality changes, eye weakness, nausea or vomiting, difficulty speaking or comprehending and short-term memory loss.
Even benign or non-cancerous tumors can be serious and life threatening. If you experience these symptoms, speak with your doctor right away.
Bluetooth Headsets Are Dangerous
- Joel Moskowitz , director of the Center for Family and Community Health at the School of Public Health at UC Berkley. More than a dozen studies have shown that low-intensity microwave radiation similar to that emitted by Bluetooth can open up the blood-brain barrier, a layer of cells that block pathogens and toxins in the body from reaching the brain. That could lead to conditions such as autism, dementia, and brain cancer, Moskowitz says.
You May Like: What Happens If The Prefrontal Cortex Is Damaged
Normal Anatomy And The Development Of Brain Tumors
The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system . The CNS interprets sensory information, and regulates functions like body temperature, digestion, and coordinating physical movements. The brain also is responsible for memory, learning, and emotions.
Certain functions of the brain lie in specific areas. The 3 main areas of the brain and the functions that they are responsible for include:
With Gbm Agile The Future Looks Promising
Glioblastoma multiforme is the deadliest of all brain cancers and is widely regarded as incurable and universally fatal, killing 95% of patients within five years of diagnosis.
To combat this deadly disease, NFCR is part of a robust, international coalition working on innovative ways to defeat GBM utilizing a rigorous adaptive trial platform known as GBM AGILE . Led by some of the best and brightest brain cancer researchers in the world, GBM AGILE is re-engineering the way clinical trials are conducted to develop more effective treatments faster than ever before.
To learn more about adaptive clinical trials and GBM AGILE, .
In addition to specific projects listed below, genomics research is helping us attack brain cancers and all types of cancer. NFCR has distinguished itself from other organizations by emphasizing long-term, transformative research and working to move people toward cancer genomics.
The Director of NFCRs Scientific Advisory Board, Dr. Web Cavenee, has partnered with NFCR-funded scientist Dr. Paul B. Fisher to discover a new pharmacological agent that could with additional chemistry lead to a new drug to prevent radiation-induced invasion of GBM cells. The researchers have tested their pharmacological agent in combination with radiation and have seen profound survival benefits in pre-clinical models.
You May Like: Does Prevagen Help With Memory Loss
What About Bluetooth Technology
Many wireless devices use Bluetooth® technology, which may be used to connect your phone to your car or your televisions to remote speakers. With your Bluetooth earbuds in, you can listen to an audiobook loaded on your smartphone or crank up your playlist during your daily workout. Billions of Bluetooth devices are in use today.
When Apple released its Bluetooth AirPods in 2019, it raised questions about whether Bluetooth technology may raise cancer risk. Bluetooth uses the generally harmless non-ionizing type of electromagnetic waves. In fact, the American Cancer Society says Bluetooth earpieces send out radiofrequency waves at significantly lower levels than even cell phones.
Armin Ansari, PhD, a health physicist who leads the radiological assessment team at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toldInsider that people concerned about reducing cell phone radiation should consider wearing a Bluetooth headset or headphones.
Whats the difference between Bluetooth and wi-fi? Both use forms of radio waves to send signals, but they differ in other ways.
- Bluetooth uses short-range signals to allow devices to connect to one another and transfer data. It does not need an internet connection to work.
- Wi-fi allows devices to connect to the internet. It requires an internet connection to work.
What Do Scientists Say
Some scientists have expressed their concerns about the effect of the radiation on a humans body, but they dont have enough evidence to show that cellphones are a danger. Theyre not urging people to stop using technology. They do suggest that we try to limit our exposure to technology and perhaps spend some time in nature, without our devices.
One study on male rats revealed that exposure to extensive daily cellphone radiation could be linked to a higher number of heart tumors. Extensive daily radiation means that during the experiment, rats spent almost 24 hours a day surrounded by devices emitting strong radiation.
Its hard to compare rats and humans as, among other differences, rats bodies are smaller and more susceptible to the effects of radiation. If we wanted to conduct a similar study on humans, we would need to have gigantic AirPods larger than our bodies. And thats certainly not the level of radiation were exposed to in everyday life.
Read Also: Does Mike Tyson Have Brain Damage
You May Like: Does Prevagen Help With Memory Loss
What Are The Side Effects Of Brain Cancer Treatment
Side effects of brain cancer treatment vary with the treatment plan and the overall health status of the patient. Most treatment plans try to keep all side effects to a minimum. For some patients, the side effects of brain cancer treatment can be severe. Treatment plans should include a discussion of potential side effects and the likelihood of them developing, so the patient and their caregivers can make appropriate treatment decisions in conjunction with their medical team. Also, if side effects develop, the patient has some knowledge of what to do about them such as when to take certain medicines or when to call their doctor to report health changes.
Surgical side effects include an increase in current symptoms, damage to normal brain tissue, brain swelling, and seizures. Other symptoms of changes in brain function such as muscle weakness, mental changes, and decreases in any brain-controlled function can occur. Combinations of these side effects may happen. The side effects are most noticeable shortly after surgery but frequently decline over time. Occasionally, the side effects do not go away.