Sunday, May 8, 2022

Can You Transplant A Brain

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Donor Recipient Selection Process

Why Can’t We Transplant Brains?

Brain cell transplant can be autologous or may use donor fetal cells. The use of fetal cells is somewhat controversial because these cells are typically obtained using aborted fetal materialand many people are opposed to using these types of cells.

Certain infections may be more likely with brain cell transplant than with other types of brain surgery. Prion diseases, which are rare conditions caused by harmful proteins, include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . This condition can occur as a complication of corneal transplant and other transplants that involve nerves or nerve tissue. Pre-screening all donor tissue for the presence of this protein is necessary prior to corneal transplant.

Can You Have A Brain Transplant

Yes, you can have a brain transplant. Right now scientists areworking on partial transplants , which would move part ofthe brain that stores memory and part of your identity-personalitywise. So yes people can have brain transplants because your brainis connected to the rest of your body . the brain is the part ofthe body that tells the heart to pump and keep your lungspumping….

A More Profound Situation

A more profound situation is this: What if parts of my neighbors brain were integrated into mine functionally attached to my brain? What would happen if two or more peoples brains were connected? Its important to realize that it is not unprecedented. There is a set of conjoined twins attached at the brain who share control of limbs and even appear to share some thoughts.

There is also a set of conjoined twins who have separate brains but a single body and share control of the body. The neurology of these twins is not fully understood, but there seems to be an implicit cooperation in movements and thoughts. My sense is that it is analogous to the ordinary cooperation of unconnected people in everyday life. We cooperate and do things together all the time we collaborate on projects, carry heavy things together, etc. Conjoined twins do so more spontaneously and intimately. Its strange but not completely unlike ordinary social life.

Now consider this: what if a small part of my neighbors brain say, a piece of his temporal lobe that mediates memory were transplanted into mine? Who would have the memories? The answer is that, unlike the previous scenarios, this kind of transplant is not currently possible, and there is no objective reason to think that it ever will be.

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Brains Eyes Testes: Off

Since the worlds first successful organ transplant in 1954a kidneythe discipline has advanced to the point where a wounded soldier could have his penis and scrotum replaced in a groundbreaking operation last month.

A Frenchman recently became the first person to receive a second face transplant after the first failed, and another made history by regrowing skin lost over 95 percent of his body, thanks to a graft from his twin brother.

Transplants are no longer limited to the vital organs: heart, liver, orlungs. Nowadays, people can get a new hand or even a uterus.

But some organs remain off-limits. For now.

Brain swap

Topping the list, brain transplants are a long way off, for both technical and ethical reasons, experts say.

The most challenging organ to transplant is anything related to the nervous system, as we do not have effective techniques for nerve growth/regeneration, explained transplant surgeon David Nasralla, of the University of Oxford.

For this reason, eye and brain transplants are currently beyond the scope of modern medicine, he told AFP.

Nerves carry messages through the body in the form of electrochemical pulses flitting between the brain and spinal cord, muscles and other organs.

An Italian-Chinese surgical duo recently set the science world aflutter by announcing they planned to remove a persons head and attach it to a decapitated donor body in what would be the first such procedure.

Fancy a pig heart?

Animal welfare is an added concern.

Recovering Vital Organs From The Nearly Dead Is Ethically Acceptable

Brain Transplant Under 1 Minute? (

If brain dead patients are near death but not really dead, recovering vital organs is nevertheless ethically well-grounded. Since 1968, the diagnosis of brain death has been understood to validate both withdrawal of life support and recovery of vital organs, and this does not change at all when brain dead individuals are understood to be in a state of irreversible coma, although still alive they still satisfy the conditions of the UDDA. Given valid consent for withdrawing life support and for organ donation, if it is acceptable to cause a brain dead patient’s death by withdrawing life support, then it logically must be acceptable to cause the patient’s death by recovery of vital organs before withdrawal of life support. The cause of death is irrelevant because the ethics of self-determination and informed consent that underlies withdrawal of life support are of paramount importance.

In the case of DCD, the same rationale is valid if the patient is near death and supported by artificial ventilation. If the patient or her proxy-surrogate decision maker exercises the right of self-determination by first consenting to withdrawal of life support and then consenting to recovery of vital organs, a chain of events is set in motion that causes the death of the patient. No harm or wrong is done to the patient or to others by this chain of events, so they should not be seen as a criminal act.

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These Successful Procedures Are Anything But

Many of Canaveros previous appearances in the media have been accompanied by claims of successfulhead transplant procedures. But, how are we defining successful here? Canaveros definition seems to be extremely generous at best.

For instance, he recently claimed to have successfully performed a head transplant on a monkey. But did he? While the monkey head did apparently survive the procedure, it never regained consciousness, it was only kept alive for 20 hours for ethical reasons and there was no attempt made at connecting the spinal cord, so even if the monkey had survived long-term it would have been paralysed for life. So, it was a successful procedure, if you consider paralysis, lack of consciousness and a lifespan of less than a day as indicators of success.

There was also his successful rat head transplant, which involved grafting a severed rat head onto a different rat, a living one that still had its head. Exactly how this counts as a transplant is anyones guess. Its adding a appendage onto an otherwise healthy subject.

Why Is The Eye So Difficult To Transplant

A heart or a kidney is a well-defined package that can be cut out and sutured in. The transplant is not easy by any means, but surgical teams do it all the time.

The vision system, by contrast, has three complex components:

  • The eyeball, whose cornea and lens bend light waves and focus them on the light-sensitive nerves of the retina.

  • The optic nerve, which attaches to the retina and transmits visual information to the brain.

  • The visual cortex, the brains bundles of nerves that translate visual signals into eyesight.

These components do not lend themselves to transplants that restore vision. A donor eyeball could presumably be transplanted but it cannot restore vision because the optic nerve will not survive the cut. For a transplant to work, the optic nerve would have to regenerate itself in two places: the donated eye and the person getting the donation.

Scientists are working on ways to get the optic nerve to regenerate. If they figure that out, eye transplantation might become a reality.

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No There Hasnt Been A Human Head Transplant And There May Never Be

Neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero is in the news again, claiming to have performed the first successful human head transplant. But even cursory analysis reveals that he hasnt. And scientific logic suggests he never will

In February 2015, Sergio Canavero appeared in this very publication claiming a live human head will be successfully transplanted onto a donor human body within two years. Hes popped up in the media a lot since then, but two years and nine months later, how are things looking?

Well, hes only gone and done it! As we can see in this Telegraph story from today, the worlds first human head transplant has been successfully carried out. Guess all those more timid neurobods who said it couldnt be done are feeling pretty foolish right now, eh?

Well, not quite. Because if you look past the triumphant and shocking headlines, the truth of the matter becomes very clear, very quickly. In the interest of full disclosure, I do not know Dr Sergio Canavero, hes done nothing to me directly that Im aware of. However, Im now seriously doubting his motivations. Ive discussed my reasons for this elsewhere before now, but here they are again in one place for ease of reading.

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Withdrawing Life Support Causes Death

What Would Happen if You Had a Brain Transplant? | QUESTION EVERYTHING #2

Ever since the New Jersey Supreme Court’s decision in the Karen Ann Quinlan case in 1976, a generally accepted ethical norm is that withdrawal of life support does not cause the patients death, rather, withdrawing life support allows the patient to die it is the disease that causes the patients death, not the physician. Yet, this view cannot be correct, because the agent that is the proximate cause of the patient’s death is the physician. Miller and Truog illustrate this by hypothesizing two patients who are in identical clinical situations both are ventilator-dependent. One patient is disconnected from the ventilator by someone who wants to kill the patient, and the other is disconnected by a physician responding to the patient’s request to remove unwanted end-of-life technology. It is patently inconsistent to claim that in the first case, death was caused by the person who disconnected the ventilator , yet in the second case, the death was not caused by the physician who disconnected, but by the disease. There is obviously an enormous moral difference between the two acts, but the agent causing death in both cases is the person who withdrew support.

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No There Hasnt Been A Human ‘head Transplant’ And There May Never Be

Neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero is in the news again, claiming to have performed the first successful human head transplant. But even cursory analysis reveals that he hasnt. And scientific logic suggests he never will

In February 2015, Sergio Canavero appeared in this very publication claiming a live human head will be successfully transplanted onto a donor human body within two years. Hes popped up in the media a lot since then, but two years and nine months later, how are things looking?

Well, hes only gone and done it! As we can see in this Telegraph story from today, the worlds first human head transplant has been successfully carried out. Guess all those more timid neurobods who said it couldnt be done are feeling pretty foolish right now, eh?

Well, not quite. Because if you look past the triumphant and shocking headlines, the truth of the matter becomes very clear, very quickly. In the interest of full disclosure, I do not know Dr Sergio Canavero, hes done nothing to me directly that Im aware of. However, Im now seriously doubting his motivations. Ive discussed my reasons for this elsewhere before now, but here they are again in one place for ease of reading.

We Are Not Just Concocting This In Some Secret Frankenstein Lab

It goes without saying that up until the point when the worlds first head transplant is performed and even after the procedure will be a topic of much debate.

Will the procedure cure thousands of people from paralysis? Or will it go down in history as a failed attempt by someone whom others claim to be a crazy scientist? Only time will tell.

However, Dr. Canavero is confident that in just over 2 years from now, he and his Chinese colleagues will have completed the worlds first ever human head transplant:

It will be a success. There is a step-by-step, no-risk approach to all this. If step one doesnt pan out, we will work more on that step until it works, move on and so on.

There is a detailed plan we are not just concocting this in some secret Frankenstein lab. We are way ahead now into the project, everything is moving it is no longer science fiction.

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Could We Transplant Existing Brains

What about a head transplantor, if you prefer, a whole-body transplant? Doable? White thinks it is, even as he acknowledges that the financial costs would be prohibitive.

Could you keep an isolated human head alive? Thats creepy. Very creepy.

Ive had plenty of time to think about it, and the operation itself, although complex, really involves structures in and about the neck, White told me. Youre not cutting into the brain, and youre not cutting into the body, just severing everything at the neck. Its a very complex operation, because you have to make sure that the bodys kept alive and the heads kept alive. But this has all been worked out in smaller animals.

Forty years ago, in studies that to some commentators smacked of Dr. Frankenstein, White and his team experimented with transplanting the newly detached head of a live rhesus monkey onto the body of another monkey that had just had its head removed. The longest-lived such hybrid, which reportedly showed unmistakable signs of consciousness, lasted eight days.

With the significant improvements in surgical techniques and postoperative management since then, White wrote in a 1999 Scientific American article, it is now possible to consider adapting the head-transplant technique to humans. White acknowledges that a quadriplegic who got a new body today would remain paralyzed below the neck, because successfully reconnecting the brain to the spinal column remains beyond our reach.

Can An Organ Transplant Change A Recipients Personality Cell Memory Theory Affirms Yes

Will We Ever Be Able To Transplant A Brain?

Organ donors may be doing more than just saving lives. They may be giving a new life to organ transplant recipients. According to Donate Life Americas 2011 statistics, there were 8,127 deceased organ donors and 6,017 living organ donors in the United States, adding up to 28,535 organ transplants overall. The most common organ transplants include the cornea, kidney, and heart with a heart transplant ranking the highest in five-year post-transplant survival rate of 74.9 percent. The heart ultimately stores memories through combinatorial coding by nerve cells, which allows the sensory system to recognize smells, according to cellular memory theory.

Heart Transplants and Cell Memory

At the School of Nursing at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu, researchers sought to evaluate whether changes experienced by organ transplant recipients were parallel to the history of the donor. Researchers focused on 10 patients who received a heart transplant and found two to five parallels per patient post-surgery in relation to their donors history. The parallels that were observed in the study were changes in food, music, art, sexual, recreational, and career preferences in addition to name associations and sensory experiences. In the study, a patient received a heart transplant from a man who was killed by gunshot to the face, and the organ recipient then reported to have dreams of seeing hot flashes of light directly on his face.

Liver Transplant and Blood Type

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Two Surgeons In China Developing A Method To Transplant A Human Head

  • Italian scientist Sergio Canavero and Chinese surgeon Xiaoping Ren are developing a plan to transplant a human head right down to neck bolts and electricity.
  • Their focus is to help patients with spinal cord injuries and paralysis.
  • The surgeons have already performed the procedure on mice, rats and a dog, all of which survived the surgery and even regained some motor function.
  • Although the scientific and medical advancements necessary for human head transplantation are rapidly approaching plausibility, major ethical and moral hurdles remain.

A jolt of electricity is delivered to a body with bolts attaching its head to its neck. It’s a scene straight out of a horror movie, but it is eerily close to Italian neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero and Chinese surgeon Xiaoping Ren’s plan to transplant a human head down to the neck bolts and electricity.

Canavero and Ren recently performed a trial run on two cadavers, prompting outrage from the medical community, which has declared human head transplantation “fake news.” An examination by a team of independent scientists published this month, however, suggests that, while fantastical seeming, the scientific and medical advancements necessary for human head transplantation are rapidly approaching plausibility. Nevertheless, major ethical and moral hurdles remain.

Still, surgical, immunological, psychological and ethical hurdles remain.

A Neighborhood In My Skulll

But one issue arises that cannot be resolved by clarification of language: What about transplantation of parts of my brain? What would be the metaphysical status of a person with hybrid brains a lobe of my brain connected to a lobe of my neighbors brain? What if tiny bits of the brains from all the people in my neighborhood were transplanted into my brain? Would I incorporate my neighbors? Would they incorporate me? Or both or neither? Would there be a neighborhood in my skull?

What would become of my soul and the souls of my neighbors if our brains were blended like this? I think there is an answer, and it has profound implications.

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Can I Get An Eye Transplant For My Blind Child

There is no such thing as a whole-eye transplant. The optic nerve, which goes directly to the brain, cannot be transplanted and this nerve is damaged for many people who are blind. The eye transplant would not work without also transplanting the optic nerve.

In some cases the eye is not even the problem. The problem is actually inside the brain, where images are interpreted. Most people cannot comprehend this kind of explanation. In my family we settled for a simple explanation: doctors dont transplant the whole eye. They only transplant the cornea, which is the clear part that you see through, if it is damaged. My cornea wasnt damaged when I was a child. Other parts of my eye were. Ironically, I later developed damage to my cornea and have since had two cornea transplants as well as an artificial cornea implant.

Donor eyes are taken from people following death. The eyes are then taken to eye banks and cornea tissue is matched according to various factors to ensure the least possibility of rejection. It is not possible to donate an eye to a particular individual. Unlike bone marrow or some other organs, corneas are not only matched according to blood type or familial background. I have no idea who my cornea donors were. I ended up rejecting both, probably due to my own autoimmune disease.

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