Wednesday, May 18, 2022

Does Acid Put Holes In Your Brain

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Psychological Or Psychiatric Issues

How the food you eat affects your brain – Mia Nacamulli

Individuals who chronically abuse methamphetamine are more susceptible to the development of severe psychiatric disorders, including issues with psychotic-like behaviors, such as delusions, hallucinations, impaired reality testing, etc. Some of these psychotic-like behaviors can be rather idiosyncratic. For example, the term meth bugs refers to a psychiatric condition where chronic methamphetamine users have a sensation that their skin is crawling or itching with bugs even though no external stimulation is occurring. This condition will often remit but may return spontaneously in some individuals.

Individuals who enter a formal substance use disorder treatment program and are successful in maintaining abstinence often recover some level of functioning however, in many cases, significant residual effects remain. Research indicates that there is quite a bit of variability in recovery that is often related to a number of personal variables as well as the length and seriousness of an individualâs use of methamphetamine.

Smoking Or Chasing Cannabis With Tobacco Increases The High

In many places, cannabis is routinely mixed with tobacco when rolled into joints. In North America cannabis in any form is also often “chased” with a tobacco cigarette, and hollowed-out cigars filled with cannabis are also popular in some subcultures. Some users say that smoking tobacco increases the cannabis high, and this is often attributed to either the nicotine or additives such as menthol. Until recently this was based solely on anecdotal evidence. There may be at least some truth to this legend, as a 2005 study found that a transdermalnicotine patch modestly enhanced the subjective “high” of cannabis relative to a placebo patchâbut only in males. Females actually saw a slight reduction in subjective effects. Reasons for the enhancement are not well understood, and this study appears to be the only one as of 2010 that found such effects. However, another study found a significant downside to the practice. It appears that tobacco, which is known to be highly addictive, also enhances the likelihood of developing cannabis dependence symptoms when the two substances are used concurrently.

What About Becoming Permafried

The term permafried not a medical term, by the way has been around for decades. It refers to the myth that LSD can cause permanent brain damage or a never-ending trip.

Again, weve all heard the horror stories of someone who was never the same after they used LSD.

Based on case studies and other research on LSD, HPPD is the only known effect of LSD that bares any resemblance to the permafried myth.

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Secondhand Exposure Will Cause A Positive Test

This legend is technically true but highly misleading. According to a U.S. Army study, the amount of secondhand cannabis smoke needed to cause a false positive result is quite large indeed, and would require being sealed in an unventilated car or small room filled with marijuana being actively smoked for several hours. Hair testing, however, is a different matter, particularly with passive exposure to crack/cocaine, which can deposit onto hair and be readily incorporated into it. With regards to cannabis, however, typically only metabolites are tested rather than THC, so failure is unlikely to result from non-extreme passive exposure.

Mdma Puts Holes In Your Brain

7 myths about psychedelic drugs like LSD that are doing ...

This one seems to have come from a study that associated MCPP, a related but significantly different compound from MDMA, with a Parkinsons-like syndrome. Compton explains that the MCPP caused structural damage to the dopamine system, and that while there are MDMA-related compounds that can cause serious changes to your brain, there are no significant direct brain structural changes that scientists have associated with MDMA itself. Certainly under the influence of MDMA theres a flood of serotonin, but researchers havent found changes to the structure of serotonin systems in MDMA users.

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Physical And Psychological Effects From Lsd

Short-term effects from LSD begin within 30-90 minutes after it is ingested, which is often either in liquid form using a dropper or dried onto a piece of blotter paper and placed on the tongue. Initial effects from the hallucinogen are likely to last for 6-12 hours, depending on the size of the dose. These effects can include:

  • Dilated pupils
  • Rapid changes in blood pressure
  • High body temperature or fever
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures
    • While serotonin syndrome is an acute risk, the effects of seizures or high fever can cause brain damage that will last for a long time. Brain damage may heal, with immediate and appropriate medical attention however, there is a risk that mood conditions, memory trouble, or learning disorders from brain damage may never go away.
    • Drug-induced psychosis: LSD will not cause psychosis, but for people who are predisposed for this type of mental illness, the condition may be triggered by any potent hallucinogen, including LSD. It is important to understand ones family history as part of the risk associated with abusing drugs, including hallucinogens, which may be promoted anecdotally through popular culture as safe. There is no such thing as safe substance abuse.
    • Psychosis can be treated, but it will not go away. Even bad trips on LSD will end, but a psychotic disorder is a chronic health condition that requires a combination of therapy and medication to prevent or manage severe symptoms.

    How To Prevent Complications From Acid Reflux

    You may be able to reduce acid reflux and prevent complications by adopting the following habits:

    • Avoid certain foods. Greasy, fatty, acidic, and spicy foods are more likely to lead to reflux. Other foods, such as peppermint, tomato sauce, garlic, onions, citrus, and dark chocolate are also known to trigger reflux.
    • Change your eating habits. Try to eat meals at least 2 to 3 hours before you go to bed or lie down. This will give your stomach time to digest the food youve eaten. Also, eating smaller portions and chewing slowly may help prevent excess reflux.
    • Lose excess weight. Carrying excess weight around your middle can push your stomach upward, making it easier for acid to rise into your esophagus.
    • Limit alcohol and caffeine. Both alcohol and caffeine can increase acid reflux.
    • Quit smoking. Smoking makes it more difficult for the sphincter that separates your esophagus from your stomach to close properly after food enters your stomach.
    • Sleep on an incline. If acid reflux and heartburn strike at night, place some blocks under the head of your bed so that your upper body is slightly higher than your stomach. You can also look into special wedge pillows that are made for people with GERD.
    • Wear looser clothing. Tight-fitting pants can put additional pressure on your abdomen, forcing the contents of your stomach upward.

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    The Start Of The Trip

    The LSD story began when chemist Albert Hoffman was tinkering in the laboratories of Sandoz chemicals in Switzerland where he was developing drugs to treat post-partum hemorrhaging. When his fingers touched a bit of LSD-25, the world began to shimmer: I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense kaleidoscopic play of colours, he wrote in his diary. Intrigued, he decided on a self-experiment and dosed himself with 0.25mg of acid before riding home by bicycle. The world melted, and our understanding of the mind changed forever. That day 19 April 1943 is today known as Bicycle Day.

    Though the straight-laced Swissman had never dabbled in drugs before, he certainly did afterwards: he took the drug until he was 96 . Albert was the happiest human I have ever known, I think because he realized what a gift he had given to mankind, says Amanda Feilding, Founder of the Beckley Foundation, a drugs policy think tank. Feilding is a co-author of Nutts landmark study realising the promise she made to Hoffman shortly before his death, that she would do her part to help his dream of seeing the brain on LSD.

    With such profound capacity to change everything about the way we see, feel and think, Hoffman believed LSD could be an unparalleled tool for understanding the brain. For a time, his peers agreed: psychiatrists the world over-deployed the drug in their quest to understand the human condition.

    Drugs Like Ecstasy Can Put Holes In Your Brain

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    What you heard:

    Back in 2000, MTV ran a special on Ecstasy and how it’s basically forged by Satan in a bathtub of acid and children’s screams. They compared the brains of two girls, one of whom had used the drug, and showed a scrotum-shrivellingly terrifying image of the user’s brain looking like a lump of Swiss cheese.

    Not to be outdone by MTV, Oprah Winfrey decided to jump on the bandwagon, and she ran a special all about Ecstasy in which she hysterically pointed out that it will burn a bunch of holes in your brain, showing the same brain scan images. Because everyone listens to Oprah for some dangerous reason, the myth became entrenched in cultural consciousness.

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    The truth:

    It shouldn’t come within a thousand yards of surprising you that both Oprah and the producers at MTV badly misinterpreted a neurological brain scan image. This is why you wouldn’t call either of them to assist in your stroke rehabilitation.

    These images are actually maps of blood flow in the brain, and the so-called “holes” are just areas of lower blood circulation that the computer rendered to look like hollow cavities. There were never any holes in the girl’s brain, and even the low circulation doesn’t necessarily have anything to do with drugs.

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    An Allergic Reaction To Molecules Found In Marijuana Killed Bruce Lee

    A number of rumours surfaced surrounding the cause of action film star Bruce Lee‘s death in 1973, one of which was that he had been killed by the consumption of cannabis. Lee died of a cerebral edema several hours after taking the painkiller and muscle relaxant equagesic. His autopsy showed trace amounts of cannabis in his stomach, and he had been known to use cannabis. However, a doctor at the coroner‘s hearing was quoted as saying that the cannabis in Lee’s stomach was “no more significant than if Bruce had drunk a cup of tea that day.”

    At the time in Hong Kong, Cannabis was seen in an extremely negative light â worse than opium â and was “considered a ‘foreign’ drug with sinister and evil undertones.” Bruce Thomas, author of Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit stated that “this view had a massive impact on the official findings,” and that Wu’s inclusion of cannabis as a suspected cause of death “reflected this cultural and even political pressure.” Wu later said in a 1992 interview with Thomas:

    Professor Teare was a forensic scientist recommended by Scotland Yard he was brought in as the expert, so we can’t contradict his testimony. The dosage of cannabis is neither precise nor predictable, but I’ve never known anyone to die simply from taking it.

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    He says the binding technique is likely unique to LSD, as other hallucinogens like psilocybin and DMT have much shorter effects on the body. Roth and his team plan to use this new knowledge to potentially create novel drugs to treat depression, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Drugs used to treat these disorders also work by interacting with serotonin receptors. The idea would be to formulate a drug that gets trapped inside receptors in a similar fashion without causing the same hallucinogenic effects.

    This binding effect could also be common to other receptors, too, opening up the possibility for drugs that target things other than serotonin. Further, it may even be a way to give drugs at very low doses, Rother says. If the molecules stay in the receptor and dont leave, he says, then you may need far fewer of them to create the desired effect.

    Roth says this new understanding of LSD may also help explain the apparent wonders of LSD microdosingwhere people claim that even tiny, undetectable amounts of the drug provide a tangible effect, boosting creativity and relieving depression . When Roth and his team exposed cells in a petri dish to tiny amounts of LSD, the serotonin receptors signaling was altered, meaning that some change was occurring. The researchers plan to further study this effect and what it means.

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    You Only Use 10 Percent Of Your Brain

    We’ve often been told that we only use about 10 percent of our brains. Famous people such as Albert Einstein and Margaret Mead have been quoted as stating a variation of it. This myth is probably one of the most well-known myths about the brain, in part because it’s been publicized in the media for what seems like forever. Where did it come from? Many sources point to an American psychologist of the early 1900s named William James, who said that “the average person rarely achieves but a small portion of his or her potential” . Somehow, that was converted into only using 10 percent of our brain.

    This seems really puzzling at first glance. Why would we have the biggest brain in proportion to our bodies of any animal if we didn’t actually use all of it? Many people have jumped on the idea, writing books and selling products that claim to harness the power of the other 90 percent. Believers in psychic abilities such as ESP point to it as proof, saying that people with these abilities have tapped into the rest of their brains.

    Here’s the thing, though it’s not really true. In addition to those 100 billion neurons, the brain is also full of other types of cells that are continually in use. We can become disabled from damage to just small areas of the brain depending on where it’s located, so there’s no way that we could function with only 10 percent of our brain in use.

    Mdma Causes Parkinson’s Disease

    Facts About the Human Body That Will Blow Your Mind

    Another legend, often mentioned together with the “holes in the brain” myth discussed above, is that MDMA causes Parkinson’s disease, possibly with even one night of exposure. This was partially based on an animal study that found neurotoxicity to dopaminergic neurons after administering the drug to monkeys. However, the study has been retracted by the researchers who conducted it because they had accidentally given methamphetamine instead of MDMA to the animals, given the similar chemical names . Ironically, it is now being investigated as a possible treatment for Parkinson’s disease.

    The neurotoxicity of MPTP was first hinted at in 1976 after Barry Kidston, a 23-year-old graduate chemistry student in Maryland, synthesized MPPP with MPTP as a major impurity, and self-injected the result. Within three days he began exhibiting symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The National Institute of Mental Health found traces of MPPP, MPTP, and other pethidine analogues in his lab. They tested the substances on rats, but due to rodents’ tolerance for this type of neurotoxin nothing was observed. Kidston’s parkinsonism was successfully treated with levodopa but he died 18 months later from a cocaine overdose. Upon autopsy, destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was discovered.

    Like MDMA, MPPP is a designer drug, but its effects are more akin to morphine or other opiates. Despite the similarity in name, MDMA and MPPP are unrelated and should not be conflated.

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    You Can Get Holes In Your Brain Through Drug Use

    Exactly how different drugs affect your brain is a pretty controversial subject. Some people claim that only the most severe drug use can have any lasting effects, while others believe that the first time you use a drug, you’re causing long-term damage. One recent study states that using drugs like only cause minor memory loss, while another claims that heavy marijuana use can permanently shrink parts of your brain. When it comes to using drugs like cocaine or Ecstasy, some people even believe that you can actually get holes in your brain.

    In truth, the only thing that can actually put a hole in your brain is physical trauma to it. Researchers do claim that drugs can cause short-term and long-term changes in the brain. For example, drug use can lower the impact of neurotransmitters like dopamine, which is why addicts need more and more of the drug to achieve the same feeling. In addition, changes in the levels of neurotransmitters can result in problems with neuron function. Whether this is reversible or not is also up for debate.

    On the other hand, a study in New Scientist from August 2008 states that long-term use of some drugs actually causes certain structures in the brain to grow, resulting in a permanent change. They claim that this is which is why it’s so difficult to change the behaviors of addicts.

    Next up, let’s see exactly what alcohol does to your brain.

    Cocaine And Brain Aging

    As a person grows older, their brain will naturally change and begin to lose gray matter. In a healthy brain, this is a decades-long process, and it does not appear until a person has reached older adulthood. Memory problems, changes in cognitive ability, and even dementia are linked to reduction of gray matter.

    A recent study through the University of Cambridge examined the aging of the brain in people who abused cocaine and those who had no previous history of substance abuse. The group found that the average brain normally loses 1.69 milliliters of gray matter per year however, people who had abused cocaine in the past, or who were currently cocaine-dependent, doubled the rate of gray matter loss, for an average of 3.08 milliliters per year.

    Another study, conducted by Johns Hopkins University, found that cocaine may cause brain cells to cannibalize themselves. The study describes cocaine triggering autophagy in neurons in mice, or the process of the cells eating themselves from the inside out. The cells threw out useful resources during metabolism, leading to a stress reaction of cannibalizing other internal cell structures. Mice whose mothers had been fed cocaine during pregnancy, but who were not cocaine-dependent themselves, also showed this phenomenon.

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