A Brief Social & Pharmaceutical History Of Methamphetamine
Like all powerful and dangerously addictive substances, methamphetamine was originally developed for medical purposes. Produced by chemically adjusting its parent drug, amphetamine, in Japan, during the early 20th century, methamphetamine was originally used in nasal decongestant medications and bronchial inhalers.
Methamphetamine was used widely during World War II, as a way to keep troops awake and alert. However, thanks to the false sense of euphoria users experience, it was successfully used in high doses when given to Japanese Kamikaze pilots before their suicide missions. After the war, meth abuse by injection in Japan reached epidemic proportions when supplies stored for military use became available to the public.
In the mid-20th century, it was regularly used as a nonmedical stimulant by U.S. college students, truck drivers, and even athletes, and abuse of the drug spread rapidly. In 1970, the U.S. government made it illegal for most uses. In the 1990s, Mexican drug cartels set up huge illegal labs in California, prompting the arrival of smaller private labs in U.S. kitchens and apartments. Thats why one of meths names is stovetop.
X Models Of Psychosis
recently reviewed the topic of serotonergic hallucinogens as translational models relevant to schizophrenia. In their review, they note the many early groups that studied the effects of LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin, who concluded that these drugs produced mental states that resembled the earliest phases of schizophrenia. Although the similarities between the effects of serotonergic psychedelics and schizophrenia are not as great as were initially believed, a number of animal models have nevertheless been developed to facilitate understanding of the role that 5-HT plays in schizophrenia, to help characterize interactions between 5-HT and other neurotransmitter systems, and to identify novel pharmacotherapies. The four widely used animal behavioral models are startle habituation, PPI, HTRs in rodents, and deficits in temporal processing . Each of these models is extensively discussed in this review, and it is pointed out that the 5-HT2A receptor plays a fundamental role in each of them and is also known to be an important target for atypical antipsychotic drugs.
How Meth Affects The Brain
Meth produces potent neurological effects. Over time it can physically alter the way the brain is wired and operates. Meth works through amplifying certain neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. There is a surge of all three of these neurotransmitters, but dopamine function is amplified much stronger than the others. Amphetamines produce their effects by indirect means. Meth acts by directly stimulating neurotransmitter release. It will also inhibit reuptake. This promotes the release of stored dopamine and causes reverse transport in the receptors themselves.
Through chronic use, crystal meth produces long-term effects on brain structure and function. Certain areas of the brain, such as the striatum and the ventral tegmental area, are affected. This can have far-reaching consequences for higher-level reasoning. As parts of the limbic system, they are sometimes referred to as the reward center of the brain. The limbit system handles feelings of reward, positive reinforcement, motivation, and fine motor control. Meth-induced changes to the limbic system accelerate addictive behavior, reduce empathy for others, and increase risk-taking behavior.
Recommended Reading: Corpus Callosum Coronal
Landmark Study Reveals The Effect Of Lsd On The Brain
According to Professor David Nutt of Imperial College in London, two things happened in 1943 that changed the world forever: The explosion of the first atomic bomb, and the birth of Lysergic acid diethylamide, also known as LSD or, simply, acid. These were two of the most important events of the twentieth century, he says. They genuinely changed western society not many things have done that.
Now, for the first time scientists have been able to glimpse what happens in the brain when we take LSD more than seventy years after the drug was first synthesised. The world has waited half a century for this, says Nutt, who led the research, first conceived of by him and his team a decade ago. In terms of a scientific study, this is the most difficult thing Ive ever done.
But not everybody shares Professor Nutts views. Many members of the scientific community have valid concerns about the drugs medical applications and its potential to provide therapeutic benefits.
How Does It Work
Limited research has been conducted into how LSD produces its psychoactive effects. One study on psilocybin, the hallucinogenic substance in magic mushrooms, found it led to decreased activity and connections in the brain, as well as causing changes in blood flow. The link to blood flow suggests Hofmans theory about LSD affecting circulation could be true.
Other scientists have suggested LSD affects the brains serotonin receptors that regulate moods, appetite, sex drive and perception.
The Effects Of Meth On Weight
- As a powerful stimulant, meth functions as an appetite suppressant, and it has historically been used as a diet pill. However, meth is far from just a harmless diet aid.
- Meth users experience a severe loss of appetite and often neglect to eat regularly, potentially going days without food. Because meth also speeds up the bodys metabolism, this can lead to rapid weight loss so severe that meth users may take on an emaciated appearance.
What Drug Tests Can Detect Lsd
Its important to know that LSD does not show up in any mainstream drug tests. This means that if someone gets tested by the government or by an employer, there will not be evidence that he or she ingested LSD. Because people feel the LSDs effects from such a small amount, its nearly impossible for your average urine test to detect it.
However, if an employer, probation officer, or another relevant person has reason to believe that someone took LSD, then they have the right to have him/her take a test that specifically tracks LSD. Those two tests are called Abuscreen and EMIT. Abuscreen screens everything, from blood, serum, urine and stomach contents. On the other hand, EMIT is a series of tests that check most of the same bodily areas.
Also Check: Does Prevagen Help With Memory Loss
Drug Linked To Increase In Brain Hemorrhage Cases
- American Academy of Neurology
- The rate of brain hemorrhages associated with blood thinning drugs quintupled during the 1990s, according to a study published in the January 9, 2007, issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. In people over age 80, the rate increased more than tenfold.
The rate of brain hemorrhages associated with blood thinning drugs quintupled during the 1990s, according to a study published in the January 9, 2007, issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology. In people over age 80, the rate increased more than tenfold.
Most of the increase is due to greater use of the drug warfarin, which is commonly prescribed to prevent blood clotting. Blood clots can lead to ischemic stroke, the most common type of stroke. An intracerebral brain hemorrhage is a stroke caused by bleeding in the brain.
The use of warfarin increased after studies showed it reduced the risk of stroke caused by blood clots for people with atrial fibrillation, a condition that causes irregular heart rhythm and becomes more common as people age.
“Warfarin is highly effective in preventing ischemic stroke among people with atrial fibrillation,” said study author Matthew L. Flaherty, MD, of the University of Cincinnati. “For many people, the benefits of preventing ischemic stroke continue to outweigh the risk of a hemorrhagic stroke.
Some Surprising Effects Of Crystal Meth
Due to its highly addictive nature, the street drug crystal meth has become a threat to the health of some people at risk for or who have HIV. Before delving into research on recovering from crystal meth, we first provide some background about the effects of this drug, some of which may be surprising.
Also Check: Does Gabapentin Affect Memory
How People Smoke Meth
Most people smoke crystal meth or ice out of specialized glass pipes. They also use a variety of homemade contraptions, such as pen cases, aluminum foil and light bulbs.
Smoking meth usually leaves brown or black residue on the pipe or makeshift pipe. Dirty aluminum foil, tubes, pipes or other contraptions can be .
When people smoke meth, they usually dont hold the meth vapors in their lungs for a long time. Theyre often aware of the damage that meth can do to their lungs.
Few people smoke meth one time per session. Most people who use the drug smoke it every 10 to 15 minutes to prevent the high from fading. The effects of meth can last between six and 12 hours, but the initial high or rush from the drug lasts for less than 30 minutes.
Some people smoke meth continuously for multiple days. Repeatedly smoking meth drains the brain of dopamine, a chemical in the brain that affects mood and happiness. When people smoke the drug for multiple days, they lose the ability to get high because their dopamine levels drop so low.
These binges change the way the brain operates. The organ reprograms itself to crave meth so it can achieve the same feelings of happiness. The more often a person smokes meth, the more addicted theyll become to the drug.
Final Thoughts On Lsd
LSD has received a lot of bad press over the years. While some examples are based on reality, much information has been twisted or exaggerated by the drugs opponents. Research is ongoing, but the current evidence suggests it is relatively safe and even beneficial combined with professional supervision or therapy.
Much information on LSD has been twisted or exaggerated by the drugs opponents.
That said, LSD remains illegal in the majority of places, except for during clinical trials. We do not condone illicit drug use, and this article is for informational and harm reduction purposes only.
Read Also: Is Fluoride Bad For Your Brain
See Also: Yale University To Revive The Field Of Psychedelic Research
7. Feelings of fear, paranoia, and a loss of control may occur
These side effects are typically tied to a bad trip, but sometimes LSD can cause users to essentially freak out due to feelings of anxiety, paranoia, and a loss of control. This often happens when the trip becomes too intense and the user feels a complete disconnect from reality, which can understandably be downright scary.
Because of the possibility of losing control, its recommended to use LSD in groups instead of alone. That way, others can be around to try and help an individual who has spiraled into a bad trip.
8. Your neurons fall out of synchrony
Researchers at Imperial College London used fMRI to scan the brains of people on LSD, and they observed that the neurons that are supposed to fire together within a network fell out of synchrony. This is why LSD users can experience confused or distorted thoughts at times.
9. Your ego gets broken down which can be bad or good
Since LSD changes a persons thought process, it can encourage individuals to see themselves in a completely new light, which is described as a breakdown of the ego. What an individual previously thought about him or herself can forever be changed in either a positive or negative way.
Iii Mechanism Of Action
Stanislov Grof characterized LSD as a powerful nonspecific amplifier of the unconscious . This empirical observation was based on his personal supervision of more than a thousand clinical administrations of LSD. also stated that the phenomena induced by LSD cannot be predicted or understood in purely pharmacological terms the personality of the drug taker plays an enormous and critical role in determining how much effect there will be and of what particular type.
However, until we understand the fundamental nature of consciousness and its underlying neuronal substrates, as well as the unconscious, it will not be possible to scientifically test Grofs hypothesis. What can be discussed are the findings that point to involvement of specific receptors in certain brain areas that lead to the overt effects of psychedelics. In addition, recent brain scanning technologies, including PET, fMRI, EEG, magnetoencephalography , and pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging , have also allowed the identification of key brain areas that must be involved in the actions of psychedelics.
You May Like: Diabetes And Memory Loss Symptoms
Because Of Cocaines Effects On Blood Vessels And The Heart Severe Internal Damage Can Occur Learn How Cocaine Can Cause Internal Bleeding And What To Do If Internal Bleeding Is Suspected
With over a decade of editing experience, Tom is a content specialist for Advanced Recovery Systems,… read more
Dr. Jessica Pyhtila is a Clinical Pharmacy Specialist based in Baltimore, Maryland with practice sites in… read more
Cocaine use is known to harmmany aspects of a persons health. Not all damage from cocaine use is visible. Much of the physical damage caused by cocaine is on the inside of the body. Cocaine users might not even know that their bodies are injured. One of the types of damage cocaine can cause is internal bleeding, or bleeding on the inside of the body. Cocaine can cause internal bleeding in many different organs. Doctors recognize that cocaine can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, intestines, lungs and spleen.
Crystal Meth & Stomach And Digestive Issues: How Meth Damages The Stomach
The toxins found in meth can foundationally alter your bodys functionality and overall digestive health. Since meth is a lethal poison, the body will instinctively try to eliminate the substance from your system as quickly as possible.
This often results in meth stomach pain, diarrhea and other digestive issues. In addition, meth is known to have a dampening effect on your appetite, causing disruption to your normal digestion process and stalling the manner in which your body processes food when you begin eating again.
Other known stomach and intestinal issues caused by meth use include:
- Intestinal ischemia
This refers to the condition where your blood vessels become constricted to the point that the intestines stop receiving enough oxygen, and their ability to properly function is compromised.
This can cause diarrhea, intestinal cramping and even result in your digestion slowing down or even stopping completely. This can lead to reduced nutrient absorption, as the normal digestive functions of your gut are disrupted.3
- Increased risk of developing blood clots
Recent studies have indicated that consistently using meth can contribute to intestinal issues by blocking blood flow, resulting in necrosis and the presence of ulcers and perforations in the stomach and intestines.
This can also lead to an increased potential for the development of gangrene in the gastrointestinal system, which can leave you struggling with long-term stomach pain and serious digestive issues.3
Also Check: Why Do People Get Brain Freeze
Psychiatrists And Financial Conflicts Of Interest
Its worth noting that Hackam also says that these drugs are, overall, quite safe. Perhaps hes neglected to look at the Emory University School of Medicines findings that antidepressants thickened arteries 400 percent more than aging, which is the foremost factor of athersclerosis. Still other studies indicate that Cymbalta and other antidepressants cause 1 in 5 patients to feel worse than when administered placebos.
Why, then, are so many patients treated with powerful psychotactive drugs instead of a personalized combination of vitamin D, probiotis, diet, acupuncture, yoga, and other natural remedies? Perhaps because 70 percent of panel members to the 5th editionof the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders have financial ties to pharmaceutical companies.
Can It Really Repair Parts Of The Brain
If these same results can be replicated in humans , LSD may help reverse the process, resulting in improved treatments for a range of mental health conditions.
You May Like: Is Prevagen Safe For Diabetics
Instant Effects Of Meth
Crystal meth is a potent central nervous system stimulant that can lead to addiction. It reaches the brain and signals it to produce large amounts of dopamine, the happy chemical. This produces a rush or a feeling of high that methamphetamine users crave.
Recreational use of methamphetamine is considered abuse and can be legally prosecuted.
The Short-Term Effects Of Meth Are:
- Euphoria or feelings of intense pleasure
- Increased alertness
- Increased risk of Parkinsons disease
- Chronic apathy
Some psychological, emotional, and behavioral effects of meth abuse hinder the users ability to function effectively as a responsible member of society, form and sustain healthy relationships, perform at the workplace, and hold on to jobs. , the variation of the drug in the Philippines, has shown even more serious side effects.
How Prevalent Is Lsd Use
If you associate LSD use with the psychedelic 60s, you may be surprised to learn that the drug is alive and well today, especially among the younger generation. What percentage of Americans have used LSD over the course of their whole lifetime?
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the 2014 lifetime prevalence rates among Americans are as follows:
- Ages 12-17: 1.2%
- Ages 26 and up: 10.9%6
2013 estimates for first-time LSD use in the U.S. are as follows:
- Roughly 480,000 people ages 12 and over started using LSD for the first time in the past year. This estimate is similar to if not higher than those of the 10 previous years.
- The average age of first hallucinogen use among Americans ages 12-49 was 19.9 years.7
Read Also: Why Do People Get Brain Freeze