What Are The Symptoms Of Brain Bleeds
Symptoms of a brain hemorrhage depend on the area of the brain involved. In general, symptoms of brain bleeds can include:
- Sudden tingling, weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, arm or leg, particularly on one side of the body.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Loss of vision or difficulty seeing.
- Loss of balance or coordination.
- Stiff neck and sensitivity to light.
- Abnormal or slurred speech.
- Difficulty reading, writing or understanding speech.
- Change in level of consciousness or alertness, lack of energy, sleepiness or coma.
- Trouble breathing and abnormal heart rate .
How Does Blood Flow Through Your Brain
The four main arteries that supply blood to your brain are the left and right internal carotid arteries and the left and right vertebral arteries. These arteries connect and form a circle at the base of your brain. This is called the circle of Willis. Smaller blood vessels also branch off from these arteries to nourish different sections of your brain.
Your brain also has venous sinuses. These types of veins carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products away from your cranium. Some of them connect with the veins of your scalp and face.
Nutrient and waste exchange occurs across the blood-brain barrier. This barrier helps protect your brain.
When your cerebral circulation is impaired, less oxygen and glucose reach your brain. This can cause brain damage and neurological problems. Some conditions related to impaired cerebral circulation include:
- cerebral edema
Gaining Entry Into The Brain
This new research is also from Wyss-Coray, by the way. His team has published a study in Nature showing that hundreds of proteins that occur naturally in healthy young mice’s blood routinely gain entry into the mice’s brains — provided the proteins present the proper credentials.
Earlier research had shown almost no such permeability. But those studies had traced the passage into the brain of injected proteins that are naturally absent or rare in the blood; Wyss-Coray’s team used a different approach.
They added fluorescent labels to all of the hundreds of different proteins naturally occurring in mouse plasma , injected them back into mice, and then looked for the proteins in the mice’s brains. In young mice, about 2-3% of those labeled proteins ended up in the brain.
The proteins’ entry, Wyss-Coray and his colleagues determined, was enabled by specialized receptors found on the cells lining cerebral blood vessels. Each protein in the blood must fit into a corresponding receptor, like a key fitting into a lock, before it gains access to the brain. When the right “key” is inserted, the receptor guides it out of the vessels and into the brain.
Oh, yes –Â;a few blood-borne protein molecules did manage to bypass the receptors; microscopic bubbles filled with whatever proteins happened to be in the neighborhood budded off from blood vessels and diffused into the brain.
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Why Sufficient Blood Flow To The Brain Is Critical
A steady flow of blood delivers life-giving oxygen plus glucose, vitamins, amino acids, minerals, and other nutrients that your brain needs to survive and thrive.
Cerebral blood circulation also carries away things your brain doesnt need, such as carbon dioxide, toxins, and metabolic waste products.
The brains blood supply keeps it hydrated which is critical since your brain is over 70% water.;
Blood brings your brain the hormones and neurotransmitters it needs to function and keeps your brain at a constant temperature and pH .;
To do all this, one liter of blood flows through the 400 miles of blood vessels in your brain every minute!
But when circulation is restricted, brain cells suffer and can even die.
Theres solid evidence that reduced cerebral blood flow puts you at risk for brain disorders like vascular dementia and Alzheimers.;
Clearly, maintaining sufficient blood circulation to the brain is of the utmost importance to brain health and function.
Insufficient Blood Supply To The Brain
Inadequate blood supply to the brain can result in a brain attack, also known as ischemic stroke. The condition requires prompt medical attention. Read on to know the symptoms of different types of strokes….
Inadequate blood supply to the brain can result in a brain attack, also known as ischemic stroke. The condition requires prompt medical attention. Read on to know the symptoms of different types of strokes.
Brain ischemia or cerebral ischemia is a serious condition which is experienced by an individual due to insufficient blood supply to the brain. Insufficient blood supply deprives the brain of oxygen , and can lead to necrosis of the brain tissue. The condition is also known as cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke . The ischemia can be confined to a small part of the brain, or it can damage wide areas of brain tissue. It leads to affected brain metabolism, resulting in reduced metabolic rate and impaired energy production.
As brain contains several centers that control various activities, insufficient blood flow to the brain results in affected vision, restricted movement, depending upon which areas of the brain are affected by ischemia. A mini stroke is referred to as Transient Ischemic Attack , and is said to have occurred when there is insufficient blood supply to an area of the brain for a brief period only. About 80% of strokes are ischemic strokes.
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What Happens During A Brain Hemorrhage
When blood from trauma irritates brain tissues, it causes swelling. This is known as cerebral edema. The pooled blood collects into a mass called a hematoma. These conditions increase pressure on nearby brain tissue, and that reduces vital blood flow and kills brain cells.
Bleeding can occur inside the brain, between the brain and the membranes that cover it, between the layers of the brain’s covering or between the skull and the covering of the brain.
Increase Cerebral Blood Flow With Food
And finally, the food you eat really can make a difference to your circulation.
Several of the supplements mentioned above are derived from foods and can easily be incorporated into your diet.
Ginger, garlic, rosemary, and turmeric are spices that not only make food more delicious, but also increase circulation.
Shellfish and dark meat poultry are top sources of the amino acid taurine.;
Fish, especially cold-water, oily fish like salmon, is the original source of the omega-3s found in fish oil.
Resveratrol is a phytonutrient credited for many of red wines health benefits.
It is also found in berries, grapes, peanuts, and chocolate.;
Beets are an excellent source of nitrate, a potent blood flow regulator.;
Chocolate has been shown to increase cerebral blood flow with the effects lasting for several hours after ingestion.;
And theres one final tip that can make a big difference to your brain circulation drink more tea and less coffee.
The relatively large amount of caffeine in coffee restricts blood flow to your brain.
While tea does contain caffeine, albeit substantially less than coffee, it also contains l-theanine.
L-theanine is a relaxing compound that offsets the reduction in cerebral blood flow caused by caffeine.;
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Using Glucose Alone Vs Glucose And Ketones For Brain Fuel
If you eat a moderate-carb to high-carb diet, your brain isnt adapted to using ketones. Therefore, glucose will be the major fuel source for the brain.
Once your body has adapted to eating a very-low-carb or carb-free diet, the brain uses ketones to meet a large portion of its energy needs, and the liver makes as much glucose as is needed to meet the remainder.10 Consequently, blood sugar levels remain stable and the brain gets all the fuel it needs, even though carbs arent being consumed.
This makes a lot of sense from an evolutionary point of view. Its known that hunter-gatherers often went for several hours or even days without eating while searching for food. The ability to use a combination of ketones and glucose to fuel their brains was likely key to their survival.
What Are The Symptoms
Stroke symptoms may occur alone or in combination and may last a few minutes or several hours. If you or someone around you notices one or more of these warning signs, seek immediate medical attention. Poor public knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors limits effective stroke intervention and prevention. Even if stroke symptoms disappear, they are a clear warning that a larger stroke may follow.
- Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, usually on one side of the body;
- Difficulty speaking or understanding language;
- Sudden, severe headache;
- Unexplained loss of balance or dizziness;
If you notice signs of a stroke, think “FAST” and do the following:
- Face. Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
- Arms. Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to raise up?
- Speech. Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is his or her speech slurred or strange?
- Time. If you observe any of these signs, call 911 immediately. Note the time when symptoms first started.
Transient Ischemic Attacks Sometimes strokes are preceded by mini-strokes, called transient ischemic attacks , which last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. TIAs occur when blood flow to the brain is temporarily interrupted and then restored. The symptoms resolve completely and the person returns to normal. TIAs are an important warning sign. It is possible to have several TIAs before a larger stroke occurs.
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Modulation Of The Bbb Following Hypoxia/ischemia And In Stroke
In vivo and in vitro stroke models have shown that cerebral vascular permeability increases in a time- and hypoxia-dependent manner. This leads to a subsequent increase in cerebral edema; however, the processes involved in the hypoxia-induced BBB permeability are not completely understood. Work in animal models of stroke has identified that there is a biphasic leakage of the BBB, with an early opening within hours following hypoxia/ischemia, followed by a refractory phase and then a second opening the next day . In addition, analysis in transgenic models has identified that there are stepwise alterations in the BBB, with an increase in transcytosis observed first followed by alterations in the TJs . There are also important changes in ion channel and efflux transporter expression and activity.
Molecular Alterations of the Tight Junctions
Changes in junctional structure formation or stability are now known to involve up-regulation in vascular endothelial growth factor , and inhibition of VEGF attenuates the hypoxia-induced increase in BBB permeability . In addition, hypoxia increases nitric oxide release by ECs and inhibition of NO synthase reduces the effect of hypoxia on cell permeability. Although the exact mechanisms involved in the VEGF- and NO-mediated changes in EC permeability are still being investigated, some reports have shown that NO may directly modify the TJ proteins by nitrosylation or nitrosation.
MMPs and the BBB
Modulation of Channels and Transporters
What Is A Brain Bleed
To most people, a brain bleed simply means any bleed inside your head. However, a doctor and specifically doctors who treats brain bleeds would say that a brain bleed is too broad of a term. These doctors further describe brain bleeds by their exact location.
To better understand brain bleeds, its important to have a basic understanding of the different types. First, there are two main areas where bleeding can occur bleeding can occur either within the skull but outside of the brain tissue, or inside the brain tissue. These areas are further divided as follows:
Bleeding within the skull but outside of the brain tissue
The brain has three membranes layers that lay between the bony skull and the actual brain tissue. The purpose of the meninges is to cover and protect the brain. Bleeding can occur anywhere between these three membranes. The three membranes are called the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.
- Epidural bleed : This bleed happens between the skull bone and the utermost membrane layer, the dura mater.
- Subdural bleed : This bleed happens between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane.
- Subarachnoid bleed : This bleed happens between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
Brain bleeds can occur within the meninges, which is the area inside the skull but outside the actual brain tissue.
Bleeding inside the brain tissue
Two types of brain bleeds can occur inside the brain tissue itself intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventicular hemorrhage.
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Tip 2use It And Improve It
When you perform a task and practice it over and over again, the same network of connections in the brain is activated over and over again. Repeated activation of that network causes it to be strengthened and work more efficiently, which ultimately leads to improved performance of the task. For example, when you practice playing an instrument, your performance gets better with practice as the network of connections in your brain that you use to play your instrument is strengthened. Therapists encourage patients to keep practicing their exercises and using their impaired side, as this will lead to positive changes in those specific brain networks.
How To Increase Blood Flow To The Brain With Supplements
There are many supplements known to improve circulation to the brain.
Heres a list of supplements proven to increase blood flow to the brain:
This long list can be overwhelming.
If you arent sure where to begin, I suggest trying curcumin.
This compound, extracted from the spice turmeric, works like exercise in a bottle.
Research confirms that it improves blood flow as well as physical exercise!;
If you have low blood pressure, try licorice root extract.
It can help raise blood pressure if yours is too low.;
A Supplement to Avoid
One supplement to avoid is yohimbine.
It is often taken for weight loss and erectile dysfunction.
This herb directs blood flow away from the brain.;
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Your Brain Needs A Constant Energy Supply
Your brain is arguably the busiest organ in your body. It enables you to make decisions, read, speak, and perform hundreds of other actions instantly.
Its also responsible for several involuntary processes that are crucial for survival, including breathing, regulating body temperature, and secreting hormones. It serves as the headquarters of the central nervous system, receiving and sending messages throughout your body that allow you to do things like spot a car that suddenly pulls in front of you and then brake or swerve out of the way to avoid it.
Although it accounts for only 2% of your body weight, your brain consumes 20% of your daily energy.1
In order to carry out its important functions, the brain requires a steady fuel supply. The brain can use two main fuels, glucose or ketones, both of which cross the blood-brain barrier.
In people who eat a diet moderate to high in carbohydrates, the brains main energy source is glucose. In people who eat a low-carb, ketogenic diet, the brain can use ketones to meet a major portion of its energy needs.2
What Is A Stroke
Stroke is a sudden interruption of the blood supply to the brain.;Most strokes are caused by an abrupt blockage of an artery . Other strokes are caused by bleeding into brain tissue when a blood vessel bursts . The effects of a stroke depend on the severity and which area of the brain is injured. Strokes may cause sudden weakness, loss of sensation, or difficulty with speaking, seeing, or walking. Since different parts of the brain control different areas and functions, it is usually the area immediately surrounding the stroke that is affected. Hemorrhagic strokes have a much higher;death rate than ischemic strokes.
Ischemic stroke – is caused by a blockage of an artery from a blood clot or from clogged blood vessels due to atherosclerosis . In atherosclerosis, cholesterol plaques are deposited within the walls of the arteries, narrowing the inside diameter of the artery . As the artery narrows, less blood is able to pass to the brain, and blood pressure increases to meet the demands of the body. The normally smooth inner wall of the artery is now roughed with plaque deposits, causing blood cells to build up and form clots . Clot build-up usually occurs in large blood vessels of the neck and base of the brain.
Embolic stroke – is caused when a clot breaks off from the artery wall it becomes an embolus, which can travel farther down the bloodstream to block a smaller artery. Emboli usually come from the heart, where different diseases cause clot formation.
Regulation Of The Bbb By Astrocytes
The persistence of a functional BBB throughout adulthood is maintained and regulated by numerous factors unique to the microniche of the neurovascular unit . AstrocyteBBBEC interactions are known to regulate EC morphology, angiogenesis, and to influence the phenotype of the barrier under physiological and pathological conditions .
Astrocytes are known to produce factors that modulate endothelial functioning during development and adulthood. One of these pathways is the Hedgehog signaling cascade known to be involved in embryonic morphogenesis, neuronal guidance, and angiogenesis. Astrocytes secrete Sonic Hh , and BBB ECs express the Hh receptor Patched-1, the signal transducer Smoothened , as well as transcription factors of the Gli family. Interestingly, transendothelial electrical resistance and permeability experiments showed that activation of the Hh pathway induced expression of junctional proteins and promoted a BBB phenotype. In addition, mice genetically engineered to lose the signal transducer Smo on ECs had a significant increase in BBB permeability that correlated with a decrease in junctional protein expression and disturbed BMs , supporting the concept that the Hh pathway has a significant influence on BBB function.