Friday, May 13, 2022

Does The Brain Have Nerves

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What The Nervous System Is And Does

Nervous Tissue || Structure II 3D Animation Video

There are two main parts that make up the nervous system the brain and spinal cord which in combination forms the central nervous system including your motor and sensory nerves, which makes up the peripheral nervous system.

You see, the brain and spinal cord receive signals from your nerves while sending out large patterns of signals to the muscles controlling your arms, legs, and spinal movements. The spinal cord consistently receives updates to your sensors that detect your muscle flexibility, endurance and strength.

So in a nutshell, sensory nerves send impulse updates to your brain through your spinal cord. The brain then sends updates to the motor nerves, which is the reason why we perform actions.

Reflexes And Other Stimulus

The simplest type of neural circuit is a reflex arc, which begins with a sensory input and ends with a motor output, passing through a sequence of neurons in between. For example, consider the “withdrawal reflex” causing the hand to jerk back after a hot stove is touched. The circuit begins with sensory receptors in the skin that are activated by harmful levels of heat: a special type of molecular structure embedded in the membrane causes heat to change the electrical field across the membrane. If the change in electrical potential is large enough, it evokes an action potential, which is transmitted along the axon of the receptor cell, into the spinal cord. There the axon makes excitatory synaptic contacts with other cells, some of which project to the same region of the spinal cord, others projecting into the brain. One target is a set of spinal interneurons that project to motor neurons controlling the arm muscles. The interneurons excite the motor neurons, and if the excitation is strong enough, some of the motor neurons generate action potentials, which travel down their axons to the point where they make excitatory synaptic contacts with muscle cells. The excitatory signals induce contraction of the muscle cells, which causes the joint angles in the arm to change, pulling the arm away.

Do Earthworms Have Any Sense Organs

Earthworms dont have the sense organs like eyes, cirri, and tentacles, but they do have other well-developed sense organs like epidermal receptors, buccal receptors, and photo-receptors.

These sense organs are actually very complex functioning and are quite simple in their structure consisting of a single cell or a group of many specialized cells.

The Epidermal receptors cells are located on all over the outer surface of the earthworms skin mostly on the lateral sides and ventral surface of the body.

These epidermal receptors have very simple hair like projections coming out of the skin surface and are very much sensible to touch and can respond to chemical stimuli and also to the changes in temperature.

The Buccal receptors cells are located on the outer skin surface of only the buccal chamber in the mouth of the earthworm at the anterior end.

These buccal receptors also have many better developed sensory hair like projections that can feel the taste and smell and can also respond to the other chemical stimuli through its mouth.

The cells are located only on the dorsal surface of the earthworm, and these are totally absent in the clitellum. These cells also gradually decrease in number from the anterior towards the posterior end of the body.

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According To The Direction In Which The Nerve Impulse Is Transmitted

Nerves can be classified in 3 ways, depending on the direction in which they transmit the nerve impulse.

Motor nerves

The motor nerves are responsible for all voluntary skeletal and somatic movement , they conduct the nerve impulse to the muscles and glands.

Sensitive nerves

The sensitive nerves are responsible for conducting the nervous impulse towards the central nervous system, that is, from the receptors to the coordination centers

Mixed nerves

Mixed nerves conduct nerve impulses in both directions and have both sensory and motor axons.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Brain And Nerve Cell Photograph by Pixologicstudio/science ...

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

Do Earthworms Have A Head

No, earthworms dont have a distinct head and sense organs like eyes, ciri, and tentacles. In other words, the anterior end of the earthworm do look like a head but it is not a true head.

It looks like a head because the first segment of the anterior end of the body is called buccal segment or peristomium bearing the mouth.

Moreover, the portion above the clitellum is what sometimes referred to as the head, but that is not the true head as already said.

This portion above the clitellum is called the head because it contains all the cerebral nerves, the brain, circum-pharyngeal connective nerves, the sub-pharyngeal ganglia, the upper portion of the ventral nerve cord, and many segmental nerves.

Some people often get confused thinking that Earthworms may have two heads as it can move both forward and backward.

But, in reality, the earthworm does have only one head and not two heads as it can move both in forward as well as backward direction.

The head portion of the earthworm is always located at the anterior end closest to the clitellum.

And, it has also been seen that the earthworm will usually extend their head first when crawling and thats the general body mechanism.

Another reason to support the presence of only a single head in the anterior part of the earthworm is the way it can regenerate itself after being cut in half.

Now there are two scenerios that can happen if you cut the earthworm at any of its segment behind the clitellum.

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How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have

The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”

Structure And Function Of The Spine

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The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.

Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.

Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.

Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.

Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.

Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.

Between the vertebrae are the discs .

Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.

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What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System

The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:

  • The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
  • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.

The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.

Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.

How Are Nerve Pain And Nerve Damage Treated

In many instances, nerve damage cannot be cured entirely. But there are various treatments that can reduce your symptoms. Because nerve damage is often progressive, it is important to consult with a doctor when you first notice symptoms. That way you can reduce the likelihood of permanent damage.

Often, the first goal of treatment is to address the underlying condition that’s causing your nerve pain or nerve damage. This may mean:

  • Regulating blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
  • Correcting nutritional deficiencies
  • Changing medications when drugs are causing nerve damage
  • Physical therapy or surgery to address compression or trauma to nerves
  • Medications to treat autoimmune conditions

Additionally, your doctor may prescribe medications aimed at minimizing the nerve pain you are feeling. These may include:

  • Pain relievers
  • Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and desipramine , as well as other antidepressants, including duloxetine and venlafaxine
  • Certain anti-seizure drugs, including neurontin pregabalin
  • Capsaicin cream

Complementary and alternative approaches may also help alleviate your nerve pain and discomfort. These include:

  • Acupuncture

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The Role Of The Spinal Cord In Pain Response

Your spinal cord is a complex array of bundles of nerves, transmitting all kinds of signals to and from the brain at any given time. It is a lot like a freeway for sensory and motor impulses. But your spinal cord does more than act as a message center: it can make some basic decisions on its own. These decisions are called reflexes.

An area of the spinal cord called the dorsal horn acts as an information hub, simultaneously directing impulses to the brain and back down the spinal cord to the area of injury. The brain does not have to tell your foot to move away from the rock because the dorsal horn has already sent that message. If your brain is the bodys CEO, then the spinal cord is middle management.

What Role Does The Spinal Cord Play In Response To Pain

The Brain And Nervous System. Are they working right?

The complexity of the spinal cord, with all its bundles of nerves transmitting all sorts of signals back and forth from the brain at will. Calling it the Indy 5000 for motor and sensory impulses would fit well. Look at your spinal cord like the office manager, not only does it send and receive messages it also makes basic decisions, known as reflexes.

At the same time directing impulses to the brain and back down the spinal cord to the injured area is the information hub. The information hub is an area of your spinal cord known as the dorsal horn. So, when you stepped on that truck, the first impulse was to quickly lift your foot, right? Thats because your dorsal horn had already sent the message. So again, your spinal cord is like an office manager, but your brain is the CEO running the show.

DRG neurons arise from the spinal nerves of the dorsal root, which carries sensory messages from several receptors, inclusive of the response from the nervous system towards pain and temperature. Ask your specialist at Southeast Pain & Spine Care if Dorsal root ganglion stimulation could be an option for your chronic pain.

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Does The Brain Have Nerves

Yes, the brain has nerves that come directly from the brain to the brain, these are called cranial nerves.

Nerves are structures made up of bundles of neuronal fibers , located outside the central nervous system, which are responsible for conducting nerve impulses and communicating the nerve centers of the brain and spinal cord with the rest of the organs of the body, and vice versa.

These fiber bundles are surrounded by a thin membrane, the perineurium, which surrounds the bundle of nerve fibers and in turn, the complete nerve formed by the union of several fascicles is covered by another structure, called the epineurium.

As we will see later, some nerves originate from the spinal cord, while others originate from the brain. There are different types of nerves, being able to be sensitive, motor or mixed, and this will depend on the function that each one of them fulfills within our nervous system.

But before delving into it, we will briefly see how the human nervous system works and what its characteristics are.

Neural Precursors In Sponges

Sponges have no cells connected to each other by synaptic junctions, that is, no neurons, and therefore no nervous system. They do, however, have homologs of many genes that play key roles in synaptic function in other animals. Recent studies have shown that sponge cells express a group of proteins that cluster together to form a structure resembling a postsynaptic density . However, the function of that structure is currently unclear. Although sponge cells do not show synaptic transmission, they do communicate with each other via calcium waves and other impulses, which mediate some simple actions such as whole-body contraction .

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How Do I Keep My Nervous System Healthy

Your nervous system is the command center for your entire body. It needs care to keep working correctly. See your doctor regularly, eat a healthy diet, avoid drugs, and only drink alcohol in moderation. The best way to avoid nerve damage from disease is to manage conditions that can injure your nerves, such as diabetes.

What Are The Cranial Nerves

Easiest Way to Remember Cranial Nerves | Corporis

In general, it can be said that the human brain communicates with almost all the nerves of the brain through the spinal cord.

Thus, for example, the information that reaches us about what we touch with our hands is collected by nerves that run through the arm until it reaches the spinal cord and from there to the brain, from where the order will be issued to continue examining the object.

This efferent order will also leave the brain through the spinal cord, and will reach the corresponding arm through the nerve fibers that leave it.

However, this is not a rule that is always followed, since there are also some nerves that leave directly from the brain, without being born in the spinal cord.

These are the cranial nerves, or cranial nerves, that arise from the lower part of the brain and reach their destination areas through small holes scattered around the base of the skull. From these orifices, the cranial nerves communicate with peripheral areas.

Also, although it may seem strange, not all of these cranial nerves have the function of reaching areas and organs that are in the head. Some extend to the neck and even the abdomen area.

We are going to know below which are the cranial nerves one by one, and their main functions.

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What Food Is Good For Your Babys Brain

Because your baby’s nervous system starts developing right out of the gate, it’s important to consume 400 micrograms of folate daily before getting pregnant and up that amount to 600 mcg once you do. Ideally, aim to start taking prenatal vitamins about three months before trying to conceive.

Folate is essential for fetal cell growth, tissue development and DNA. Consuming enough before pregnancy reduces a baby’s chance of serious neural tube defects by 70 percent. Research also suggests that consuming enough of the nutrient can reduce the chances of an autism spectrum disorder by up to 40 percent.

So take your prenatal vitamin , and make sure to eat plenty of folate-rich foods .

Another important nutrient for brain development: omega-3 fatty acids, specifically DHA . Getting enough especially during your third trimester, when your baby’s brain is developing the fastest is vital, since it’s a major structural fat in the brain and eyes.

The good news: DHA is found in lots of safe-to-eat fatty, cold water fish , along with DHA-fortified eggs. If youre vegan, talk to your doctor about whether you should take algal oil supplements to boost your DHA intake.

What Are The Symptoms Of Nerve Pain And Nerve Damage

With nerve damage there can be a wide array of symptoms. Which ones you may have depends on the location and type of nerves that are affected. Damage can occur to nerves in your brain and spinal cord. It can also occur in the peripheral nerves, which are located throughout the rest of your body.

Autonomic nerve damage may produce the following symptoms:

  • Burning
  • Problems with positional awareness

In some instances, people with nerve damage will have symptoms that indicate damage to two, or even three, different types of nerves. For instance, you might experience weakness and burning of your legs at the same time.

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