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How Are Brain Tumors Formed

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Appendix: Some Cns Tumors And Tumor

Brain Tumors: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. These tumors are named by their location in the body, cell of origin, rate of growth, and malignancy. Some tumor types are more prevalent in children than in adults. Here is a listing of some common benign and malignant CNS tumors.

Glioma

Glioma tumors grow from several types of glial cells, which support the function of neurons. Gliomas usually occur in the brains cerebral hemispheres but may also strike other areas. Gliomas are classified based on the type of normal glial cells they resemble.

Mixed gliomas contain more than one type of glial cell and are usually found in the cerebrum. These tumors can spread to other sites in the brain. Other gliomas are named after the part of the body they affect. Among them are:

  • Brain stem gliomas are found at the lowest part of the brain, which controls many vital body functions.
  • Optic gliomas are found on or near the nerves that travel between the eye and brain vision centers and are particularly common in individuals who have neurofibromatosis.

ChordomaChordomas are rare congenital tumors which develop from remnants of the flexible spine-like structure that forms and dissolves early in fetal development . Chordomas often occur near the top or the bottom of the spine, outside the dura mater, and can invade the spinal canal and skull cavity.

For information on some rare brain and spinal cord tumors, see: .

A Tumor That Starts In Another Part Of The Body And Spreads To The Brain Is Called A Metastatic Brain Tumor

Tumors that start in the brain are called primary brain tumors.Primary brain tumors may spread to other parts of the brain or to the spine. They rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Often, tumors found in the brain have started somewhere else in the body and spread to one or more parts of the brain. These are called metastatic brain tumors . Metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors.

Up to half of metastatic brain tumors are from lung cancer.Other types of cancer that commonly spread to the brain include:

What Are The Possible Symptoms

Brain and spinal cord tumors cause many different symptoms, which can make detection tricky. Symptoms depend on tumor type, location, size, and rate of growth. Certain symptoms are quite specific because they result from damage to particular areas of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms generally develop slowly and worsen as the tumor grows.

Brain tumor

In infants, the most obvious sign of a brain tumor is a rapidly widening head or bulging crown. Other more common symptoms of a pediatric brain tumor can include:

  • Headaches that may become more frequent or severe
  • Seizures
  • Feelings of pressure inside the skull
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sudden onset of vision problems

In older children and adults, a tumor can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, seizures, balance problems, and personality changes.

Other symptoms may include endocrine disorders or abnormal hormonal regulation, difficulty swallowing, facial paralysis and sagging eyelids, fatigue, weakened sense of smell, or disrupted sleep and changes in sleep patterns.

Spinal cord tumors

Common symptoms of a spinal cord tumor include:

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How Is Brain Cancer Treated

There are several treatments for brain cancer. Treatment for primary brain cancer will be different from treatment for cancers that have metastasized from other sites.

You may receive one or more treatments depending on the type, size, and location of your brain tumor. Your age and general health are also factors.

Treatments include:

What Causes Brain And Spinal Cord Tumors In Adults

Brain tumor treatment in Nice

Many different types of tumors can start in the brain or spinal cord. These different tumors are unlikely to all have the same causes, but they might share some things in common.

The cause of most brain and spinal cord tumors is not fully understood, and there are very few well-establishedrisk factors. But researchers have found some of the changes that occur in normal brain cells that may lead them to form brain tumors.

Normal human cells grow and function based mainly on the information in each cells DNA. Brain and spinal cord tumors, like other tumors, are caused by changes in the DNA inside cells. DNA is the chemical that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look.

Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:

  • Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
  • Genes that help keep cell division under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or make cells die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

Cancers can be caused by DNAchanges that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. These gene changes can be inherited from a parent, but more often they happen during a persons lifetime.

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What Stands Out About Yale Medicines Approach To Patient Care

At Yale Medicine, our multidisciplinary teams work closely together and communicate frequently to ensure that patients receive the best care for their cancers based on the latest medical evidence. We are interested in being pioneers, moving the field forward and developing the next steps to further improve care in order to prolong survival, as well as improve every patients quality of life, says Dr. Chiang.

Yale Medicine has the benefit of working closely with the Yale Genetics Center and many basic science laboratories. This means that patients with no remaining standard care options have the opportunity to be considered for clinical trials where they may be eligible to receive new drugs or treatment.

More avenues of research are allowing us to develop new approaches to cancer treatment for our cancer patients, says Dr. Chiang.

Tests That Examine The Brain And Spinal Cord Are Used To Detect Childhood Brain And Spinal Cord Tumors

The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patients health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a persons mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro exam or a neurologic exam.
  • MRI with gadolinium: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of the brain and spinal cord. A substance called gadolinium is injected into a vein. The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging .
  • Serum tumor marker test: A procedure in which a sample of blood is examined to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers.

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Copyright 2020 American Brain Tumor Association

Mindee PluguesABTA, Member

Mindee Plugues serves as Chair of the Development Committee of the ABTA Board of Directors. Since joining the ABTA board in 2017, she previously served as Chair of the Mission Committee.

Mindee is an experienced executive and senior leader in brand and business management, integrated marketing, and people development. She has a proven track record of driving topline, margin, and share growth on multi-million/billion-dollar businesses. Over the course of her 15-year brand management career, she has led transformative marketing and breakthrough innovation on some of the most universally recognized brands such as Kraft Foods, Oscar Mayer, Lunchables, Halls, Trident, and Applebees.

A seasoned brand strategist, Mindee is passionate about mining consumer, customer, and category insights to build businesses, brands, and teams globally and domestically. In her spare time, she continues to consult with start-ups and non-profits on building strong brand foundations and developing effective go-to-marketing strategies. Prior to brand management, she spent a decade in software development and product management leading process improvement and digital innovation in business systems and electronic banking.

A Michigan native, Mindee holds an MBA from the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan and a B.A. in psychology from Michigan State University. She currently resides in Los Angeles, CA with her husband Matthew and their young daughter.

Other Primary Brain Tumors

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Other primary brain tumors include:

  • pituitary tumors, which are usually benign
  • pineal gland tumors, which can be benign or malignant
  • ependymomas, which are usually benign
  • craniopharyngiomas, which occur mostly in children and are benign but can have clinical symptoms like changes in vision and premature puberty
  • primary central nervous system lymphomas, which are malignant
  • primary germ cell tumors of the brain, which can be benign or malignant
  • meningiomas, which originate in the meninges
  • schwannomas, which originate in cells that produce the protective cover of your nerves called Schwann cells

Most meningiomas and schwannomas occur in people between the ages of 40 and 70. Meningiomas are more common in women than men. Schwannomas occur equally in both men and women. These tumors are usually benign, but they can cause complications because of their size and location. Cancerous meningiomas and schwannomas are rare but can be very aggressive.

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Causes And Risk Factors For Brain Cancer

The exact cause of brain cancer is unknown. However, factors that can increase your risk of brain cancer include exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation and a family history of brain cancer.

Cancer in another part of your body is also a risk factor for developing a tumor in the brain, though these arent called brain cancer. They are cancers that have spread to the brain.

Cancers that commonly spread, or metastasize, to the brain include:

  • melanoma, which is a type of skin cancer

Other factors that might be related to developing brain cancer include:

  • increased age
  • long-term smoking
  • exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer
  • working with elements that can cause cancer, such as lead, plastic, rubber, petroleum, and some textiles

What Are The Symptoms

Tumors can affect the brain by destroying normal tissue, compressing normal tissue, or increasing intracranial pressure. Symptoms vary depending on the tumorâs type, size, and location in the brain . General symptoms include:

  • headaches that tend to worsen in the morning
  • seizures
  • speech problems
  • vision problems, abnormal eye movements
  • weakness on one side of the body
  • increased intracranial pressure, which causes drowsiness, headaches, nausea and vomiting, sluggish responses

Figure 2.

Specific symptoms include:

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Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy

You may be given chemotherapy drugs to destroy cancer cells in your brain and to shrink your tumor. Chemotherapy drugs may be given orally or intravenously.

Radiation therapy may be recommended to destroy tumor tissue or cancer cells that cant be surgically removed. This is done with high-energy waves, such as X-rays.

Sometimes, you may need to undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy at the same time. Chemotherapy may also be done after radiation treatment.

A Childhood Brain Or Spinal Cord Tumor Is A Disease In Which Abnormal Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Brain Or Spinal Cord

GRAPHIC PHOTO: Baby has fully

There are many types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors. The tumors are formed by the abnormal growth of cells and may begin in different areas of the brain or spinal cord.

The tumors may be benign or malignant . Benign brain tumors may grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread into other brain tissue. Malignant brain tumors may be low grade or high grade. High-grade tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other brain tissue. Low-grade tumors tend to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade tumors. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs or symptoms, need treatment, and can recur .

Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system .

This summary is about primary benign and malignant brain and spinal cord tumors.

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Brain Tumors In Children

  • 13,657 children are estimated to be living with a primary brain tumor in the U.S.
  • Approximately 4.3% of all brain tumors cases diagnosed each year occur in children ages 0-14
  • An estimated 3,460 new cases of childhood brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2021
  • Brain tumors are the most common solid cancer in persons age 0-14 years
  • The five-year relative survival rate for all primary childhood brain tumors is 82.5%
  • For malignant tumors, the five-year survival rate is 75.4%
  • Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death among children ages 0-14 years
  • The most prevalent brain tumor types in children are:
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma
  • How Are Tumors Graded

    The grade of a tumor may be used to tell the difference between slow-growing and fast-growing types of the tumor. The World Health Organization tumor grades are based on how abnormal the cancer cells look under the microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. Some tumors change grade as they progress, usually to a higher grade. The tumor is graded by a pathologist following a biopsy or during surgery.

    • Grade I The tumor cells look more like normal cells under a microscope and grow and spread more slowly than grade II, III and IV tumor cells. They rarely spread into nearby tissues. Grade I brain tumors may be cured if they are completely removed by surgery.
    • Grade II The tumor cells grow and spread more slowly than grade III and IV tumor cells. They may spread into nearby tissue and may recur . Some tumors may become a higher-grade tumor.
    • Grade III The tumor cells tend to grow rapidly and can spread quickly into other CNS tissue. Tumor cells will look different than those in surrounding tissue.
    • Grade IV The tumor cells do not look like normal cells under a microscope and grow and spread very quickly. There may be areas of dead cells in the tumor. Grade IV tumors usually cannot be cured.

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    Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy

    Laser Thermal Ablation is a newer technique that some centers are using to treat smaller tumors particularly in areas that may be more difficult to reach using previous open surgery procedures. This involves placing a tiny catheter within the lesion, possibly completing a biopsy, then using laser to thermally ablate the lesion. This technique is only more recently used in brain tumor treatments, therefore the long term efficacy has not been established.

    What Are The Complications Associated With A Brain Tumor

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    Some people with a brain tumor â whether it is benign or malignant â experience complications as the tumor grows and presses on surrounding tissue. These complications include:

    • Faster or slower breathing and pulse rates.
    • Numbness that interferes with feeling pressure, heat or cold on the body.
    • Weakness or inability to move a leg or arm on one side of the body.
    • Vision, hearing and smelling problems.

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    Treatment Of Benign Tumors

    In many cases, benign tumors need no treatment. Doctors may simply use “watchful waiting” to make sure they cause no problems. But treatment may be needed if symptoms are a problem. Surgery is a common type of treatment for benign tumors. The goal is to remove the tumor without damaging surrounding tissues. Other types of treatment may include medication or radiation.

    Gene Changes Acquired During A Person’s Lifetime

    It’s usually not known why people without inherited syndromes develop brain or spinal cord tumors. Most exposures that cause cancer, such as chemicals in tobacco smoke, somehow damage DNA. But the brain is relatively protected from most cancer-causing chemicals that we might breathe in or eat, so these factors are not likely to play a major role in these cancers.

    Several different gene changes usually occur in normal cells before they become cancerous. There are many kinds of brain tumors, each of which may have different sets of gene changes. A number of gene changes have been found in different brain tumor types, but there are probably many others that have not yet been found.

    Researchers now understand some of the gene changes that occur in different types of brain tumors, but its still not clear what causes most of these changes. Some gene changes might be inherited, but most brain and spinal cord tumors are not the result of known inherited syndromes. Other than radiation, no known lifestyle-related or environmental factors are clearly linked to brain tumors. Most gene changes are probably just random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.

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    Benign Vs Malignant Brain Tumors

    Benign brain tumors arenât aggressive and normally donât spread to surrounding tissues, although they can be serious and even life-threatening. Benign brain tumors usually have clearly defined borders and usually arenât deeply rooted in brain tissue. This makes them easier to surgically remove if theyâre in an area of the brain where itâs safe to operate. But they can come back. Benign tumors are less likely to come back than cancerous ones.

    Even a benign brain tumor can be a serious health problem. Brain tumors can damage the cells around them by causing inflammation and putting increased pressure on nearby tissue, as well as inside your skull.

    Malignant primary brain tumors are cancers that start in your brain, typically grow faster than benign tumors, and quickly invade surrounding tissue. Although brain cancer rarely spreads to other organs, it can spread to other parts of your brain and central nervous system.

    Secondary brain tumors are cancer. They come from cancer that started somewhere else in your body and spread, or metastasized, to your brain. About 1 in 4 people with cancer develop a secondary brain tumor.

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