Saturday, May 14, 2022

How Are Presidents Elected Brainly

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Terms In Office: An Unwritten Rule

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Why was Franklin Roosevelt the only president to serve 3 terms? Although there was no formal legislation before 1947, there was something that restrained others from attempting to remain in the presidency any longer. Perhaps it was the fact that George Washington did not seek re-election after 2 terms. Whether that was because he was getting older or because he really felt that a person should not be president for any longer may not be known. Either way, he had set an example for future presidents.

Electoral Systems And Number Of Polling Days

FPTP, AV, BV, SNTV, List PR, Borda Count, and STV all generally require just one election on one day , as do Parallel and MMP systems. Two-Round systems are more costly and difficult to administer because they often require the whole electoral process to be re-run a week or a fortnight after the first round.

Making The Election Process Workable And Sustainable

Elections do not take place on the pages of academic books but in the real world, and for this reason the choice of any electoral system is, to some degree, dependent on the cost and administrative capacities of the country involved. Although donor countries often provide substantial financial support for the first, and even the second, election in a country in transition to democracy, this is unlikely to be available in the long term even if it were desirable.

A sustainable political framework takes into account the resources of a country both in terms of the availability of people with the skills to be election administrators and in terms of the financial demands on the national budget.

For example, a poor country may not be able to afford the multiple elections required under a Two-Round System or be able easily to administer a complicated preferential vote count.

However, simplicity in the short term may not always make for cost effectiveness in the longer run. An electoral system may be cheap and easy to administer but it may not answer the pressing needs of a countryand when an electoral system is at odds with a countrys needs the results can be disastrous.

Alternatively, a system which appears at the outset to be a little more expensive to administer and more complex to understand may in the long run help to ensure the stability of the country and the positive direction of democratic consolidation.

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Cost And Administrative Implications Of Electoral Systems

In any country, the logistics capacity and the availability of skilled human resources may constrain the available options for electoral system choice, as may the amount of money available. Even when donor funding is available, issues of the long-term sustainability of electoral system choice are important. This does not, however, mean that the most straightforward and least expensive system is always the best choice. It may well be a false economy, as a dysfunctional electoral system can have a negative impact on a countrys entire political system and on its democratic stability. Any choice of electoral system has a wide range of administrative consequences, including those addressed in the following files.

Serving More Than 2 Terms

What Was The Significance Of The 1876 Election Brainly ...

What president served more than 2 terms? The only president to serve more than two terms was Franklin D. Roosevelt . He started his first term as president in 1933. In 1940 he won the election for his third term. Four years later, in 1944, he ran again and became the only president to be elected to a fourth term. However, he was just a few months into his fourth term when he suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and passed away on April 12, 1945.

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How Is The Vice President Of India Elected

Like the election of the President of India, the election of the Vice-President is also an indirect election.

    As the race for Vice President gets underway, its the NDAs newly nominated candidate, Venkaiah Naidu, facing off against the Oppositions nominee, Gopalkrishna Gandhi. What happens now?

    Like the President of India, the Vice-President is also not directly elected by people. He is elected directly by the representatives of the people, ie: Members of Parliament from both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Even nominated MPs from both the houses are eligible to vote in this election.

    An Important 3 Term President

    While Congress members, periodically, have made efforts to repeal the 22nd Amendment, none of these efforts have made it out of committee. Therefore, FDR is and will remain our only 3 term president. If you want to learn more about FDR, explore his famous phrase “speak softly and carry a big stick.”

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    Highlights From The Democratic National Convention: Night 3

    Kamala Harris made history in accepting her official nomination for the vice presidency: She became the first woman of color to join a major partys national ticket.

    Covid-19 has upended both the The Democratic and Repubican National Conventions, but both parties may be facing an even more fundamental question, one that was playing out before the pandemic: What role do conventions have in elections today?

    In Both Parties Wonder: How Much Do Conventions Even Matter Anymore?, Adam Nagourney and Matt Flegenheimer write:

    For all the organizing, money, time and energy poured into a four-day extravaganza of parties, speeches, forums, lobbying and networking, there is a strong argument that they have become among the less consequential events on the political calendar.

    Yes, candidates get their prime-time perch to speak to the nation. Party delegates debate obscure bylaws and approve a platform that is likely to be forgotten the moment the final gavel is dropped. The events can provide a lift in the polls, but there is no shortage of convention nominees, John McCain and Michael S. Dukakis among them, who can attest to just how ephemeral that boost is.

    When we first published this post, back in May, we posted the following questions:

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    Electoral Systems And Conflict In Divided Societies

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    Ben Reilly and Andrew Reynolds1

    This work examines whether the choice of an electoral system in a culturally plural society can affect the potential for future violent conflict. We find that it can, but that there is no single electoral system that is likely to be best for all divided societies. We distinguish four basic strategies of electoral system design. The optimal choice for peacefully managing conflict depends on several identifiable factors specific to the country, including the way and degree to which ethnicity is politicized, the intensity of conflict, and the demographic and geographic distribution of ethnic groups. In addition, the electoral system that is most appropriate for initially ending internal conflict may not be the best one for longer-term conflict management. In short, while electoral systems can be powerful levers for shaping the content and practice of politics in divided societies, their design is highly sensitive to context. Consideration of the relationship between these variables and the operation of different electoral systems enables the development of contingent generalizations that can assist policy makers in the field of electoral system design.

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    Electoral Systems And The Registration Of Voters

    Voter registration is the most complex and controversial, and often least successful, part of electoral administration. By its nature, it involves collecting in a standardized format specific information from a vast number of voters, and then arranging and distributing these data in a form that can be used at election timemoreover, in such a way as to ensure that only eligible electors engage in the voting process and to guard against multiple voting, personation, and the like. The political sensitivity of these matters and the laborious nature of the task itself mean that voter registration is often one of the most expensive, time-consuming, and controversial parts of the entire electoral process.

    Voter registration requirements are influenced by the design of the electoral system. A system which uses single-member districts usually requires that each voter be registered within the boundaries of a specified district. This means that FPTP, AV, TRS, and BC are the most expensive and administratively time-consuming systems in terms of voter registration, alongside Parallel and MMP systems which contain single-member districts. The fewer, multimember districts of the BV, PBV, SNTV, and STV systems make the process a little easier, while large-district List PR systems are the least complicated.

    The Process Of Change

    The process through which an electoral system is designed or altered has a great effect on the type of the system which results, its appropriateness for the political situation, and the degree of legitimacy and popular support it will ultimately enjoy.

    Electoral systems are very rarely designed on a blank slate where no precedents exist. Even the efforts spent to design an electoral system in Afghanistan and Iraq had historical multiparty competitive precedents to draw on . Fiji, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Madagascar are recent examples of countries going from very tough circumstancesas coups détatto the establishment of electoral systems and institutions where previous experiences were considered.

    Some key questions of electoral system design, or on the change of an existing one, are:

    • Who designs? That is, who puts the idea of electoral system change onto the political agenda, and who has the responsibility for drawing up a proposed new or amended system and through what type of process?
    • What are the mechanisms built into the political and legal framework for reform and amendment?
    • What process of discussion and dialogue is necessary to ensure that a proposed new or amended system is accepted as legitimate? Once change has been decided upon, how is it implemented?

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    Elections For Different Tiers Of Governance

    As noted above, the requirements for designing an electoral system vary depending on the type of body to be elected and its function and powers. When a body is designed to serve supranational, provincial, or local interests, the considerations involved in the choice of system are different from those involved when designing national legislative bodies.

    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Bv

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    Advantages of BV

    The Block Vote is often applauded for retaining the voters ability to vote for individual candidates and allowing for reasonably-sized geographical districts, while at the same time increasing the role of parties compared with FPTP and strengthening those parties which demonstrate most coherence and organizational ability.

    Disadvantages of BV

    However, the Block Vote can have unpredictable and often undesirable impacts on election outcomes. For example, when voters cast all their votes for the candidates of a single party, the system tends to exaggerate most of the disadvantages of FPTP, in particular its disproportionality. When parties nominate a candidate for each vacancy in a Block Vote system and encourage voters to support every member of their slate, this is particularly likely. In Mauritius in 1982 and 1995, for example, the party in opposition before the election won every seat in the legislature with only 64 per cent and 65 per cent of the vote, respectively. This created severe difficulties for the effective functioning of a parliamentary system based on concepts of government and opposition. The use of best loser seats in Mauritius only partially compensates for this weakness.

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    Tell Us About What Matters To You Via Our Coming Of Age In 2020 Contest

    We had previously announced this as a photo contest, but in the intervening months weve decided to go much bigger. We are now running a multimedia contest called Coming of Age in 2020 that invites you to show or tell us, via writing or images, video or audio, about what you have experienced during this tumultuous year.

    While these submissions dont specifically have to focus on politics, we suspect that as students react to the pandemic, the protests for racial justice, and the coming election, many of them will. You can find details linked here.

    Keep in mind that what you create can, of course, be quite small, local or personal for example, pandemic journal entries, or photos taken in your home, neighborhood or community as long as what you submit touches on the larger thing of the teenage experience of living through these historic times.

    One good example of how a theme can be interpreted in many ways can be seen in the results of our 2018 and 2019 challenge toteenagers to analyze media and adult stereotypes about their generation, then take photos to counter them. In her artists statement about the photo above, a 2018 winner, Rawan Saleh, wrote:

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    Advantages And Disadvantages Of Av

    Advantages of AV

    One advantage of transferring ballots is that it enables the votes of several candidates to accumulate, so that diverse but related interests can be combined to win representation. AV also enables supporters of candidates who have little hope of being elected to influence, via their second and later preferences, the election of a major candidate. For this reason, it is sometimes argued that AV is the best system for promoting centrist politics, as it can compel candidates to seek not only the votes of their own supporters but also the second preferences of others. To attract these preferences, candidates must make broadly-based appeals rather than focusing on narrower issues. The experience of AV in Australia tends to support these arguments: the major parties, for example, typically try to strike bargains with minor parties for the second preferences of their supporters prior to an electiona process known as preference swapping. Furthermore, because of the majority support requirement, AV increases the consent given to elected members, and thus can enhance their perceived legitimacy.

    The experience of AV in Papua New Guinea and in Australia suggests that it can provide significant incentives for accommodatory and cooperative politics. In recent years, AV, or its variant the Supplementary Vote, has also been adopted for presidential and mayoral elections in Bosnia, London, and San Francisco.

    Disadvantages of AV

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    Electoral System Tiers And Hybrid Systems

    Many electoral systems, both plurality/majority and proportional, have a single tier of representation: each voter in the country votes once and there is one set of elected representatives. In one-tier List PR systems, the lists may be at national level, as in Namibia and the Netherlands, or at regional level, as in Finland and Switzerland.

    In mixed systems, there are usually two tiers of representatives, those elected under the plurality/majority system and those elected under the proportional system. In Hungary, however, there are three tiers: plurality/majority representatives of single member districts elected using TRS and representatives at both regional and national levels elected using List PR.

    It is also possible for an electoral system to have two tiers without being mixed in character. Two-tier proportional systems may have both national and regional lists or regional lists only . In the two-tier plurality/majority system of the British Virgin Islands, there are representatives elected from single-member districts using FPTP and representatives elected from the Islands as a whole using Block Vote.

    Table 6: Variations on Proportional Representation

    Table 7: Five Electoral System Options: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Advice For Electoral Systems Designers

    58th Founding Anniversary of Southern Leyte (Speech) 7/2/2018

    One of the clearest conclusions to be drawn from the comparative study of electoral systems is simply the range and utility of the options available. Often, designers and drafters of constitutional, political, and electoral frameworks simply choose the electoral system they know bestoften, in new democracies, the system of the former colonial power if there was onerather than fully investigating the alternatives. Sometimes the elements of a peace settlement or external pressures constrain the options available.

    The major purpose of this text is to provide some of the knowledge for informed decisions to be made. It does not necessarily advocate wholesale changes to existing electoral systems in fact, the comparative experience of electoral reform to date suggests that moderate reform, building on those parts of an existing system which work well, is often a better option than jumping to a completely new and unfamiliar system.

    The following guidelines summarize the advice contained in this topic area:

    Keep It Simple and Clear

    Effective and sustainable electoral system designs are more likely to be easily understood by the voter and the politician. Too much complexity can lead to misunderstandings, unintended consequences, and voter mistrust of the results.

    Don’t be Afraid to Innovate

    Pay Attention to Contextual and Temporal Factors

    Don’t Underestimate the Electorate

    Err on the Side of Inclusion

    Process is a Key Factor in Choice

    Try to Maximize Voter Influence

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    Providing Incentives For Conciliation

    Electoral systems can be seen not only as ways to constitute governing bodies but also as mechanisms for conflict management within a society. Some systems, in some circumstances, will encourage parties to make inclusive appeals for electoral support outside their own core vote base for instance, even if a party draws its support primarily from black voters, a particular electoral system may give it the incentive to appeal also to white, or other, voters. Thus, the partys policy platform would come less divisive and exclusionary, and more unifying and inclusive. Similar electoral system incentives might make parties less ethnically, regionally, linguistically or ideologically exclusive. Examples of how different electoral systems have worked as tools of conflict management are given throughout this text.

    The prospects for a stable and efficient government are not determined by the electoral system alone, but the results a system produces can contribute to stability in a number of important respects.

    The key questions are

    • whether voters perceive the system to be fair,
    • whether government can efficiently enact legislation and govern, and
    • whether the system avoids discriminating against particular parties or interest groups.

    Get To Know The Candidates

    For a side-by-side comparison of their statements and stances on key issues, check out ProCon.

    But in the midst of this pandemic, voters are not only looking for someone whose positions they support, but also someone who can lead us through this crisis. Saharsh Satheesh, a student from Collierville High School in Tennessee, wrote this in response to our Student Opinion question What Makes a Great Leader?:

    A good leader isnt just someone who tells people what to do they have to set an example themselves and quite literally lead the people down the correct path. They must be upstanding and a good role-model. We need effective leaders now more than ever to be an example to everyone around them.

    Do you agree? What qualities do you think our next president should have? Why? Do either of the candidates demonstrate these qualities? Share your thoughts on our question, which will be open for comment all summer.

    _________

    transcript

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