Wednesday, June 15, 2022

How Do People Get Brain Tumors

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Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy

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You may be given chemotherapy drugs to destroy cancer cells in your brain and to shrink your tumor. Chemotherapy drugs may be given orally or intravenously.

Radiation therapy may be recommended to destroy tumor tissue or cancer cells that cant be surgically removed. This is done with high-energy waves, such as X-rays.

Sometimes, you may need to undergo chemotherapy and radiation therapy at the same time. Chemotherapy may also be done after radiation treatment.

Other Types Of Brain Tumors

  • Hemangioblastomas are slow-growing tumors, commonly located in the cerebellum. They originate from blood vessels, can be large in size and often are accompanied by a cyst. These tumors are most common in people ages 40 to 60 and are more prevalent in men than women.
  • Rhabdoid tumors are rare, highly aggressive tumors that tend to spread throughout the central nervous system. They often appear in multiple sites in the body, especially in the kidneys. They are more prevalent in young children, but also can occur in adults.

What Happens During Radiation Therapy

For conventional radiation therapy, you will consult with a radiation oncologist a doctor who specializes in radiation therapy. During the first visit, the oncologist will review the history of your illness and perform a physical exam. You may consult with other members of your treatment team at this time, too.

After you and your doctor decide on a course of treatment, you will begin treatment planning. During this first treatment planning phase, a radiation oncologist will simulate your radiation therapy treatment using either conventional x-rays or a CT scan. Most cases will require an MRI scan. Doctors use these exams to plan the type and direction of radiation beams they will use to treat the cancer.

You will need to lie still on the treatment table during simulation, although no radiation therapy will be given at that point. The treatment team will usually create an immobilization mask at this time to prevent head movement. Typically, treatment begins one to two weeks after your treatment planning session. Planning and verifying your treatment plan will require significant medical physics before you begin treatment.

For more information about specific radiation therapy procedures and equipment, visit the following pages:

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Can Viruses Cause A Brain Tumour

The Epstein-Barr virus has been indicated as a possible contributory factor to the development of gliomas, but it is not clear what role the virus may play, if any.

The Epstein-Barr virus is a member of the gamma herpes simplex family of DNA viruses and has been shown to cause infectious mononucleosis . It is strongly linked with the development of several cancers, including B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal, and gastric carcinomas, which is why it has also been investigated in the context of brain tumours.

What Are The Symptoms Of A Brain Tumor

How do people get brain tumors?

Some people with a brain or central nervous system tumor have no symptoms. In some cases, doctors discover a tumor during treatment for another issue.

As a brain tumor grows and presses on surrounding nerves or blood vessels, it may cause symptoms. Signs and symptoms of a brain tumor vary depending on the tumorâs location and type, size and what the affected part of the brain controls. They can include:

  • Headaches that are ongoing or severe or that occur in the morning or go away after vomiting.
  • Behavior or personality changes.
  • Trouble with memory, thinking, speaking or understanding language.

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Can The Risk Of A Brain Tumour Be Inherited

There is evidence that, in a very small number of cases, inherited genetic factors or conditions have contributed to the development of a brain tumour. These conditions include Li-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Turcot syndrome, and von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Scientists have also found clusters of brain tumours within some families without a link to these known hereditary conditions. Studies are underway to try to understand more.

Choosing Not To Have Treatment

If your tumour is at an advanced stage or in a difficult place in the brain, a cure may not be possible and treatment may only be able to control the cancer for a period of time. This means you will be getting the side effects of treatment without getting rid of the tumour.

In this situation, it may be difficult to decide whether or not to go ahead with treatment. Talk to your doctor about what will happen if you choose not to be treated, so you can make an informed decision.

If you decide not to have treatment, you will still be given palliative care, which will control your symptoms and make you as comfortable as possible.

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What Are The Stages Of Brain Cancer

Brain cancers are staged according to their cell type and grade because they seldom spread to other organs, while other cancers, such as breast or lung cancer, are staged according to so-called TMN staging which is based on the location and spread of cancer cells. In general, these cancer stages range from 0 to 4 with stage 4 indicating the cancer has spread to another organ .

When To See Your Gp

Brain Tumors: Frequently Asked Questions | Jon Weingart, M.D.

It’s important to see a doctor if you develop persistent and worrying symptoms that may be caused by a brain tumour. While it’s unlikely that you have a tumour, it’s best to be sure by getting a proper diagnosis.

If your GP is unable to identify a more likely cause of your symptoms, they may refer you to a neurologist for further assessment and tests, such as a brain scan.

Read more about diagnosing malignant brain tumours.

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How Common Are Brain Tumors And Are They Dangerous

In the United States, brain and nervous system tumors affect about 30 adults out of 100,000. Brain tumors are dangerous because they can put pressure on healthy parts of the brain or spread into those areas. Some brain tumors can also be cancerous or become cancerous. They can cause problems if they block the flow of fluid around the brain, which can lead to an increase in pressure inside the skull. Some types of tumors can spread through the spinal fluid to distant areas of the brain or the spine.

What Causes Brain Tumours

Very often, the answer is that we just don’t know what will have caused your brain tumour. This can be one of the most difficult things to accept and can leave you feeling helpless and frustrated.

While it is thought that 3% of brain tumours in the UK are preventable, generally there is nothing you could have done, or not done, that would have prevented you from getting a brain tumour.

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What Are The Chances Of Surviving Brain Cancer

That is a very challenging question to answer. By looking at a group of people with a particular brain cancer, researchers can calculate the five-year survival rate the percentage of people alive after five years. These rates vary depending on the type of malignant brain tumor. But no one can provide an accurate answer for an individual, since there are so many other factors involved. We dont view the people we help as statistics, and we take a hopeful and upbeat approach. For aggressive cancers, we look to help you survive so you can try new treatments as they become available.

When 20-year-old Danielle Gillespie discovered she had Glioblastoma, she and her doctors were surprised. Even more surprising? Just six weeks earlier, 28-year-old Sasha Archer had come to Henry Ford with a glioblastoma too. Now, they celebrate 10 years of survivorship!

Types Of Brain Cancer

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Cancer is named based on where in your body it begins. Brain cancer begins in your brain. This is sometimes referred to as primary brain cancer.

You can also have cancer that has spread to your brain after starting somewhere else in your body. This is called metastatic brain cancer. Cancerous tumors in the brain are typically metastatic and not due to primary brain cancer.

There are also types and grades of brain tumors. The tumor type is based on where its located in your brain, and the grade indicates how quickly a tumor grows. The grades range from 1 to 4, with grade 4 having the fastest growth.

There are more than 120 types of brain tumors. However, theres no standard for naming them according to type, and there are many subtypes. Different doctors might use different names for the same tumor.

If you have symptoms of a brain tumor, your doctor may perform one of the following to make a diagnosis:

  • a neurological examination to determine if a tumor is affecting your brain
  • imaging tests, such as CT, MRI, and positron emission tomography scans, to locate the tumor
  • a lumbar puncture, which is a procedure that collects a small sample of the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord, to check for cancer cells
  • a brain biopsy, which is a surgical procedure in which a small amount of the tumor is removed for diagnostic testing and to determine if your tumor is malignant

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Brain Tumors By Race/ethnicity *

  • Overall, Black / African American people have slightly higher incidence rates of primary brain and other CNS tumors compared to other races at 23.88 per 100,000 persons in the U.S., followed by:
  • White â 23.83/100,000
  • Asian and Pacific Islander American â 15.04/100,00
  • American Indian and Alaskan Native â 14.23/100,000
  • Incidence of non-malignant brain tumors are highest in Black / African American people at 19.45/100,000 persons in the U.S., followed by:
  • White â 16.25/100,000
  • Asian and Pacific Islander American â 11.65/100,000
  • American Indian and Alaskan Native â 10.64/100,000
  • Incidence rates of malignant brain tumors are highest in white people at 7.58/100,000 persons in the U.S., followed by:
  • Hispanic / Latino/a / Latinx â 5.70/100,000
  • American Indian and Alaskan Native â 3.54/100,000
  • Asian and Pacific Islander American â 3.38/100,000
  • Incidence rates for specific brain tumor types vary**:
  • Incidence rates of glioblastoma are twice as high in white people compared to Black / African American people
  • Incidence rates of meningioma and pituitary tumors are significantly higher in Black / African American people compared to white people
  • Black / African American people have poorer survival outcomes compared to white people, with the exception of glioblastoma
  • Asian and Pacific Islander American individuals have better survival rates across many tumor types compared to white people, with the exception of choroid plexus tumors
  • What Is Brain Cancer

    Brain cancer is an overgrowth of cells in your brain that forms masses called tumors.

    Cancerous, or malignant, brain tumors can grow very quickly, depending on the type of tumor. They can disrupt the way your body works, and this can be life-threatening.

    However, brain cancer is quite uncommon. According to estimates from the American Cancer Society, people have less

    The symptoms of brain cancer depend on the size and location of the tumor.

    Common brain cancer symptoms include:

    • headaches that are usually worse in the morning
    • nausea
    • unexplained passing out, or syncope
    • drowsiness
    • numbness or tingling in the arms or legs
    • seizures

    Many of the symptoms of brain cancer are also caused by other, less-serious conditions. Theres no need to panic if youre experiencing these symptoms, but its a good idea to visit your doctor to have your symptoms investigated, just in case.

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    What Are The Complications Associated With A Brain Tumor

    Some people with a brain tumor â whether it is benign or malignant â experience complications as the tumor grows and presses on surrounding tissue. These complications include:

    • Faster or slower breathing and pulse rates.
    • Numbness that interferes with feeling pressure, heat or cold on the body.
    • Weakness or inability to move a leg or arm on one side of the body.
    • Vision, hearing and smelling problems.

    Brain Tumor Facts And Figures

    Why Do So Many People Get Cancer?
    • There are approximately 120 different types of brain tumors. These tumors can be malignant or benign. In either case, they can be life threatening due to their effect on brain function.
    • More than 200,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a brain tumor each year.
    • Overall, the chance that a person will develop a malignant tumor of the brain or spinal cord in his or her lifetime is less than 1% .

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    Symptoms Caused By The Position Of A Tumour

    Different areas of the brain control different functions, so the symptoms caused by a brain tumour will depend on where the tumour is located. For example, a tumour affecting:

    • the frontal lobe may cause changes in personality, weakness in one side of the body and loss of smell
    • the temporal lobe may cause forgetfulness, language problems and seizures
    • the parietal lobe may cause aphasia and numbness or weakness in one side of the body
    • the occipital lobe may cause loss of vision on one side
    • the cerebellum may cause a loss of co-ordination, flickering of the eyes, vomiting and a stiff neck
    • the brain stem may cause unsteadiness and difficulty walking, facial weakness, double vision, and difficulty speaking and swallowing

    What Does A Brain Tumor Feel Like How Do You Know If You Have A Brain Tumor

    You may not notice some tumors until they grow larger. Others may cause a range of symptoms earlier on, which doctors evaluate during brain tumor diagnosis.

    While you dont directly feel a brain tumor, many brain tumors cause swelling and headaches. Brain tumor headaches may have features that can distinguish them from other headaches:

    • Often severe and intolerable
    • May develop even in people who rarely get headaches
    • Can come on quickly
    • Dont respond to typical over-the-counter remedies
    • Have a greater intensity in the morning, as swelling can increase while sleeping

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    Brain Tumors In Children And Adults

    Brain tumors can appear differently in children in comparison to adults. The median age for all primary brain tumors is 59, but brain tumors are the most common form of solid tumors among children under age 15, and represent about 20 percent of all childhood cancers.

    It is estimated that more than 4,800 children and adolescents received a diagnosis of primary brain tumor, either benign or malignant, in 2017. Although children of any age may be affected, brain tumors are the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for children up to age 14.

    The most common brain tumors in children are:

    • Astrocytomas
    • Brainstem gliomas

    Brain and central nervous system tumors are the third most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer death occurring among adolescents and young adults between age 15 and 39.

    Types Of Benign Brain Tumors

    Glioblastoma Brain Cancer

    Types of Malignant Brain Tumors

    Gliomas are the most prevalent type of adult brain tumor, accounting for 78 percent of malignant brain tumors. They arise from the supporting cells of the brain, called the glia. These cells are subdivided into astrocytes, ependymal cells and oligodendroglial cells . Glial tumors include the following:

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    Questions To Ask Before Treatment

    The following questions provide a starting point for what you may want to ask your healthcare professional.

  • What is the name and grade of my tumor? Is it a primary or metastatic tumor?
  • Is my tumor benign or malignant?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • What are the possible side effects of each treatment option?
  • Which treatment would you choose if you had my tumor?
  • If I am more interested in quality of life rather than how long I live, which treatment would you recommend?
  • Are there any clinical trials for which I am eligible and, if so, what questions are those clinical trials asking?
  • Who would you recommend that I see for a second opinion?
  • What factors do you take into consideration to predict how I am going to do?
  • How can I reach you or someone else in your office if I have questions after today?
  • Brain Tumour Risk Factors We Know About:

    Non-preventable

    Genetics

    According to Cancer Research UK, inherited genetics are thought to account for a very small proportion of brain tumours.

    But it does not mean that you will develop a brain tumour.

    The following factors therefore may affect your risk of developing a brain tumour:

    • If an immediate family member has a tumour of the central nervous system, you may have a slightly higher chance of developing a brain tumour, although it is important to stress that the risk is still very low.
    • If you have one of the following, relatively rare, genetic conditions, your risk of developing a brain tumour is increased:
    • neuro-fibromatosis types 1 or 2
    • tuberous sclerosis complex

    There is nothing you could have done to prevent developing a brain tumour in these cases.

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    Causes And Risk Factors For Brain Cancer

    The exact cause of brain cancer is unknown. However, factors that can increase your risk of brain cancer include exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation and a family history of brain cancer.

    Cancer in another part of your body is also a risk factor for developing a tumor in the brain, though these arent called brain cancer. They are cancers that have spread to the brain.

    Cancers that commonly spread, or metastasize, to the brain include:

    • melanoma, which is a type of skin cancer

    Other factors that might be related to developing brain cancer include:

    • increased age
    • long-term smoking
    • exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer
    • working with elements that can cause cancer, such as lead, plastic, rubber, petroleum, and some textiles

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