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How Does A Stroke Affect The Brain

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What Is The Treatment For Stroke

How Stroke Affects the Brain

    A stroke is a medical emergency, but prompt intervention can restore blood supply to the brain if stroke patients receive medical care early enough.

    As in many emergencies, the first consideration is the CABs to make certain that the patient has blood pumping, no airway blockage, and can breathe, and then has adequate blood pressure control. In severe strokes, especially those that involve the brainstem, the brain’s ability to control breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate may be lost.

    Patients will have intravenous lines established, oxygen administered, appropriate blood tests, and noncontrast CT scans performed. At the same time, the health care professional assesses to make the clinical diagnosis of stroke and decides whether thrombolytic therapy or clot retrieval is an option to treat the stroke.

    How stroke is treated

    Hemorrhagic strokes are difficult to treat, so it’s imperative to consult a specialist immediately to help determine whether any treatment options are available to the patient . Treatment for hemorrhagic strokes, in contrast to ischemic strokes, does not use tPA or other thrombolytic agents, as these could worsen bleeding, make the symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke worse, and cause death. Consequently, it is important to distinguish between a hemorrhagic stroke and an ischemic stroke before treatment begins.

    How many stroke patients receive tPA?

    Discuss the latest stroke guidelines with your doctor.

    Recovering From A Stroke

    People who survive a stroke are often left with long-term problems caused by injury to their brain.

    Some people need a long period of rehabilitation before they can recover their former independence, while many never fully recover and need ongoing support after their stroke.

    Local authorities should provide free reablement services for anyone assessed as needing them.

    These services help the person recovering from a stroke learn or relearn the skills they need to live at home independently.

    Some people will continue to need some form of care or help with their daily activities.

    For example, a care worker may come to the person’s home to help with washing and dressing, or to provide companionship.

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    Problems That Occur After A Stroke

    There are many problems that may happen after a stroke. Most are common and will improve with time and rehabilitation.

    Common physical conditions after a stroke include:

    • Weakness, paralysis, and problems with balance or coordination.
    • Pain, numbness, or burning and tingling sensations.
    • Fatigue, which may continue after you return home.
    • Inattention to one side of the body, also known as neglect in extreme cases, you may not be aware of your arm or leg.
    • Urinary or bowel incontinence.
    • Speech problems or difficulty understanding speech, reading, or writing.
    • Difficulty swallowing.
    • Memory problems, poor attention span, or difficulty solving problems.
    • Visual problems.
    • Depression, anxiety, or mood swings with emotional outbursts.
    • Difficulty recognizing limitations caused by the stroke.

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    Emotional And Personality Changes After Stroke

    If you have suffered a stroke, it is common to have changes in your mood and personality. Some emotional changes may be caused by damage to the brain from the stroke, but you can also experience a range of emotions, as well as depression, as a response to the change in your situation.Depression is common in the first year after a stroke, but it is particularly common in people who have trouble understanding, finding words and communicating after a stroke.The symptoms of depression include:

    • feeling sad most of the time
    • feeling tired
    • losing a sense of pleasure in activities you used to enjoy
    • losing interest in food or eating too much
    • losing weight or gaining weight.

    After a stroke, people can also have anxiety either on its own or with depression. Anxiety is more than just feeling stressed. People who are anxious can:

    • find it difficult to calm down
    • feel worried most of the time
    • feel frightened by intense panic
    • have recurring thoughts that increase their anxiety
    • avoid situations that can cause them to be anxious.

    Personality and behavioural changes are also common and can include:

    • irritability reacting to things that would normally not annoy you
    • aggressiveness physical or verbal
    • apathy or lack of motivation
    • repetitive behaviour becoming stuck in the repetition of words or behaviours
    • disinhibition tendency to say and do things that are socially inappropriate
    • impulsiveness can also include sudden and socially inappropriate actions.

    Supplying The Brain With Blood

    How a Stroke In The Right brain Affects The Body &  How to ...

    Worldwide, stroke is the second most common cause of death. In the United States, strokes are the fifth most common cause of death and the most common cause of disabling nervous system damage in adults. In the United States, about 795,000 people have a stroke, and about 130,000 die of stroke each year.

    Strokes are much more common among older people than among younger adults, usually because the disorders that lead to strokes progress over time. Over two thirds of all strokes occur in people older than 65. Stroke is more common among women than among men, and nearly 60% of deaths due to stroke occur in women, possibly because women are on average older when the stroke occurs.

    Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Alaska Natives are more likely than non-Hispanic whites or Asians to have a stroke. The risk of having a first stroke is nearly twice as high for blacks as for whites. Blacks are also more likely to die of a stroke than whites.

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    Stroke Recovery Helping The Brain Heal Itself

    There is hope for stroke recovery with elderly and previously ill individuals. This recovery involves proactive and comprehensive post-stroke care and early rehabilitation efforts.

    Rehabilitation helps stroke survivors relearn skills that have been lost or compromised. It teaches survivors new ways of performing tasks based on their disabilities, such as learning to bathe or dress using only one hand. Experts believe that repetition is important. While learning any new skill requires patience and practice, a repetitive rehabilitation program helps the brain heal.

    Physical, recreational, and occupational therapy and other rehab programs are essentialsimilarly, awareness, sensitivity, and patience in helping a stroke victim recover.

    Rehabilitation For Brain Stem Stroke Patients

    After the initial stay in the hospital, many stroke survivors spend time in inpatient rehabilitation, where they participate in 3-4 hours of therapy per day. During this time, a team of therapists work with survivors to regain lost functions.

    For instance, if a stroke survivor struggles with loss of sensation , an occupational therapist can help them with sensory retraining. This therapy helps retrain the brain to process sensation.

    If the survivor struggles with locked-in syndrome, therapists can help the survivor accomplish passive range-of-motion exercises to help stimulate the brain and encourage recovery.

    One of the overarching goals during rehabilitation is to spark neuroplasticity: the brains ability to rewire itself. Although its impossible to revive dead areas in the brain, neuroplasticity allows new areas of the brain to take on lost function.

    It takes hard work and consistency, because neuroplasticity is activated through massed practice. This involves practicing the skills you want to improve on a regular basis.

    This means that, after discharge from inpatient therapy, its imperative that stroke survivors continue with rehabilitation both at home and at outpatient therapy. To stay motivated and consistent, survivors can look into interactive neurorehabilitation devices that can be used at home.

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    What Else Should I Know

    At this time, there’s no treatment that can fix brain cells that have died. But undamaged brain cells can learn to do the jobs of cells that have died, especially in young people.

    In many cases after a stroke, kids can learn to use their arms and legs and speak again through brain retraining. This process is usually slow and difficult. But kids have an edge over adults because their young brains are still developing. Most kids who have had strokes can interact normally and be active members of their communities.

    Why Does A Stroke Affect Different Parts Of The Body

    Stroke and how it affects the brain

    Nerve cells in the brain tissue communicate with other cells to control functions including memory, speech and movement. When a stroke occurs, nerve cells in the brain tissue become injured. As a result of this injury, nerve cells cannot communicate with other cells, and functions are impaired. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, the left side of the body is affected, and vice versa.

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    Is Coffee Good For Stroke Patient

    Saver, caffeine intake is fine for patients who have suffered a stroke. But moderate is the key word here. Past studies have shown that those with high caffeine intake — defined as five or more cups of coffee a day — are clearly at greater risk of hemorrhagic stroke, which is, essentially, bleeding inside the brain.

    Does Lack Of Blood Flow Cause Stroke

    Interruption of Blood Flow to the Brain This is called ischemia. The immediate consequence is that the lack of blood makes it difficult for the affected region of the brain to function. If the lack of blood flow is very brief, and then restored, a reversible stroke, also called a TIA or a mini-stroke will ensue.

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    What Are The Symptoms

    Stroke symptoms may occur alone or in combination and may last a few minutes or several hours. If you or someone around you notices one or more of these warning signs, seek immediate medical attention. Poor public knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors limits effective stroke intervention and prevention. Even if stroke symptoms disappear, they are a clear warning that a larger stroke may follow.

    • Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, usually on one side of the body
    • Difficulty speaking or understanding language
    • Sudden, severe headache
    • Unexplained loss of balance or dizziness

    If you notice signs of a stroke, think “FAST” and do the following:

    • Face. Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
    • Arms. Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to raise up?
    • Speech. Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is his or her speech slurred or strange?
    • Time. If you observe any of these signs, call 911 immediately. Note the time when symptoms first started.

    Transient Ischemic Attacks Sometimes strokes are preceded by mini-strokes, called transient ischemic attacks , which last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours. TIAs occur when blood flow to the brain is temporarily interrupted and then restored. The symptoms resolve completely and the person returns to normal. TIAs are an important warning sign. It is possible to have several TIAs before a larger stroke occurs.

    How Is A Stroke Diagnosed

    What Are the Different Types of Stroke and How Do They ...

    Perinatal and early childhood strokes can be hard to diagnose, especially if a child has no clear signs or symptoms. In some cases, a stroke is found to be causing seizures or developmental delays only after many other conditions have been ruled out.

    If stroke is suspected, a doctor will probably want the child to have one or more of these tests:

    • blood tests
    • magnetic resonance imaging : a safe and painless test that uses magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to produce very good pictures of internal body parts, such as the brain
    • magnetic resonance angiography : an MRI of specific arteries
    • magnetic resonance venography : an MRI of specific veins
    • computed tomography scan : a quick and painless test that produces pictures of bones and other body parts using X-rays and a computer
    • computed tomography angiography : an X-ray of specific arteries
    • cranial ultrasound: high-frequency sound waves that bounce off organs and create a picture of the brain
    • lumbar puncture

    Treatment for a stroke is based on:

    • the child’s age
    • what signs and symptoms the child has
    • which area of the brain is affected
    • how much brain tissue was damaged
    • whether an ongoing condition caused the stroke

    Many different treatments are possible. For example:

    • A child who has seizures may need anti-seizure medicines.
    • A child with a heart defect might need blood-thinning medicine.

    For most kids, treatment also involves:

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    What Is The Prognosis For A Person That Suffers A Stroke

    Stroke remains a major killer in the United States and worldwide. In the U.S., 20% of stroke patients will die within a year. However, with the ability to intervene with thrombolytic therapy to reverse the stroke and with more aggressive rehabilitation, the goal is to increase patient survival and function after recovery.

    Specialized stroke centers — hospitals that have the doctors, equipment, and resources to intervene quickly and treat strokes aggressively — have shown to increase stroke survival as well as patient function and recovery. These hospitals are certified by The Joint Commission, the American Stroke Association, and the health departments of some states. It is to your advantage to know which hospitals in your area are designated stroke centers because they will have the specialists and equipment needed to minimize diagnosis-to-treatment times.

    Many complications can develop in stroke patients, some of whom may not be able to return to full-time employment because of disability. Patients are affected physically with decreased body function, mentally with decreased cognition, and emotionally with depression and anxiety.

    Seizures may be a complication in up to 10% of patients. The more severe the stroke, the more likely that seizures may develop.

    Which Is A More Favorable Prognosis For A Stroke

    Name the type of stroke which generally has a more favorable short-term prognosis than other subtypes of stroke. A weakened or damaged blood vessel in the brain that balloons out and fills with blood is called __. Identify the location of deficits a patient with a right hemispheric stroke would experience.

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    What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of A Stroke

    Signs of a stroke in older children are often similar to signs in adults, such as:

    • sudden weakness
    • slurred speech
    • blurred vision

    Babies who have a perinatal stroke often don’t show any signs of it until months or years later. In some cases, they develop normally, but at a much slower pace than other kids. They also might tend to use one hand more than the other.

    Children whose perinatal strokes cause more brain injury might have seizures. The severity of seizures can vary, ranging from the child simply staring into space to violent shaking of an arm or leg.

    Signs of a strokein infants:

    • seizures in one area of the body, such as an arm or a leg
    • problems eating
    • trouble breathing or pauses in breathing
    • early preference for use of one hand over the other
    • developmental delays, such as rolling over and crawling later than usual

    A seizure may be the first sign that an older child or adolescent has had a stroke. These children might also have sudden paralysis or weakness on one side of the body, depending on the area of the brain that’s affected and the amount of damage the stroke causes. More likely, a parent first notices changes in the child’s behavior, concentration, memory, or speech.

    Common signs of strokein kids and teens:

    • seizures
    • memory loss
    • sudden mood or behavioral changes
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    What Does The Right Brain Control

    How Stroke Happens Animation – How Strokes Affect the Brain Video

    When it comes to physical movement, the right side of the brain is responsible for carrying out functions for the left side of the body. The same is true for the oppositethe left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. Although we essentially live with crossed wires in our system, the same principles dont necessarily apply when it comes to certain cognitive functions for each.

    Specific duties performed by the right side consist of:

    • Spatial Reasoning
    • Emotion
    • Imagination

    Taking these things into consideration, its easy to see why any disruption to the right brain can be devastating. Unfortunately, a stroke can occur on either side of the brain depending on where the damage takes place. If you or a loved one has suffered from a right brain stroke, its important to be aware of what kinds of complications may arise.

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    Two Types Of Stroke: Ischemic And Hemorrhagic

    Ischemic stroke. This type of stroke occurs when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain. The clot may have traveled from another part of the body or formed inside an artery that supplies blood to the brain .

    Strokes that result from a blood clot make up about 87 percent of all strokes, according to the American Stroke Association. Medications that dissolve a clot can prevent severe damage if given quickly after stroke symptoms appear.

    Hemorrhagic stroke. When a blood vessel in the brain breaks or leaks due to weakness in the vessel wall, blood flows into or around the brain and creates swelling and pressure. This bleeding damages brain cells and tissue.

    Strokes from bleeding make up about 13 percent of all strokes, says the American Stroke Association, but they are the most deadly, causing about 40 percent of stroke deaths.

    When a loved one or a family member has a stroke, knowing which type is really important for the physician because the treatment and the care is really different, says neurointerventionalist Bryan Ludwig, MD. Dr. Ludwig describes the two kinds of strokes.

    What Happens When A Stroke Affects The Left Side Of The Brain

    What happens when a stroke affects the left side of the brain? Effects of a left hemisphere stroke in the cerebrumThe effects of a left hemisphere stroke may include: Right-sided weakness or paralysis and sensory impairment. Problems with speech and understanding language Visual problems, including the inability to see the right visual field of each eye.

    What side of the brain is worse for a stroke? The terms Left Brain Stroke and Right Brain Stroke refer to the side of the brain where the obstruction causing the stroke occurs. There is not a worse or better side to have a stroke on as both sides control many important functions, but a more severe stroke will result in amplified effects.

    Can you recover from a left sided stroke? Left Hemisphere Stroke Recovery

    Strokes that occur in the left side of the brain often result in language-related impairments along with physical impairments on the right side of the body. Patients can benefit from participation in physical therapy and speech therapy to help restore these functions.

    How long does it take to recover from a stroke on the left side? The most rapid recovery usually occurs during the first three to four months after a stroke, but some survivors continue to recover well into the first and second year after their stroke.

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