Black And Hispanic Americans And Adhd
There is research to support the existence of racial and ethnic disparities in ADHD in both diagnosis and treatment.
A study published in 2016 in the journal;Pediatrics;found that Black and Latino children were less likely to have an ADHD diagnosis or take ADHD medication even after controlling for social factors, ADHD symptoms, or other comorbid mental health symptoms.
A study that examined ADHD diagnosis from kindergarten to eighth grade published in Pediatrics found that compared with white children, Hispanic children were 56 percent less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, and Black children were 36 percent less likely to be diagnosed. Investigators also found that children diagnosed with ADHD were much less likely to use prescription medication for the disorder if they were Hispanic or Black. ;These studies suggest that there are barriers to both diagnosis and medical management of ADHD in Black and Latino children. These issues will require further study and strategies to ensure that there is optimal care for all children with ADHD regardless of race.
Mechanisms Of Action In Ritalin
Since Ritalin is a psychostimulant, it therefore increases brain activity. When administered orally, Ritalin is absorbed into the bloodstream and then carried to the brain. In the 60- 90 minutes after a person takes it, the drug reaches its peak concentration. When in the brain, Ritalin blocks dopamine transporters which in turn results in increased levels of extracellular dopamine. Effectually amplifying dopamine signals in the brain, nerve signals are thereby increased which helps the person to concentrate better.
Ritalin has a strong affect on the reward and pleasure centers of the brain and reduces its ability to create the new neural pathways that can lead to hyperactivity. In some ways it also decreases the intensity of constantly being distracted by all the stimuli in the world. In many patients, it creates a sense of wellness that they might otherwise not feel. There are certainly some side-effects and concerns to understand which you can read about in Pros and Cons for Ritalin Treatment in Adult ADHD.
Type : Temporal Lobe Add
People with this type of ADD have the hallmark features of ADD plus symptoms associated with temporal lobe problems, such as issues with learning, memory, mood instability, aggression, temper outbursts, and sometimes, even violence. It is not unusual to see this type of ADD in people who have had head injuries.
Common symptoms in Temporal Lobe ADD
- Core symptoms of ADD
- Dark thoughts
- Possible learning disabilities
- May or may not be hyperactive
Temporal Lobe ADD SPECT scan findings show decreased activity activity in the temporal lobes at rest and during concentration, as well as decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia during concentration.
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Issues With Sexual Drive
Many men who take Adderall find they have difficulty becoming aroused. They will generally have a lack of sex drive. The cause of this is the constriction of the blood vessel. This vessel directs blood away from the extremities to focus on the core body functions.
Men with Adderall prescriptions may find that they have little interest in sex. Some have reported a visible shrinkage of the genitalia.
Increased Heart Rate And Blood Pressure
The stimulants found in Adderall cause the brain to work at a high capacity. This motivates the body to stay active. This means that your blood will pump faster, as your brain is convinced to work at peak efficiency.
Stimulants also cause blood vessels to constrict. This then results to constrict blood flow and cause issues with circulation. This also lead to high blood pressure or an elevated heart rate. If left unchecked, these issues can cause severe damage to the body. This happens most especially in patients with a history of heart disease.
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Adhd Superpowers: The Upside No One Talks About
Hyperfocus, humor, drive, passion, and of course, the famously-ADHD out-of-the-box thinking are among the many unique traits and positive abilities associated with ADHD. People with ADHD are known to be creative upside-down thinkers who care deeply for others and have lots of energy. When we think about the challenges of ADHD, within the challenge, there are many gifts associated with it, Rossillo said. Among them:
- Ingenuity. When ADHD creativity is harnessed it can lead to solutions to problems that have repeatedly stump others.;Some employers see a competitive advantage in a workforce that supports this type of diversity. Today, a growing number of companies are increasingly recruiting more neurodivergent thinkers .13,14
- Hyperfocus. When someone with ADHD is engaged in something interesting to them, they can focus for hours, so, theres a reason why your child can spend half a day playing Nintendo or skateboarding and five minutes on his homework.
- Intuition. People with ADHD are often highly sensitive and intuitive with a keen ability to pick up on what others may be feeling. This can make them very empathetic, loving, and kind.
Its important to recognize that many people with ADHD are very intelligent but they learn differently and may need more structure, extra time, and specific tools to realize their full potential and truly thrive.
How Is Adhd Diagnosed
There are three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and a combination of both. Symptoms of inattention include chronic disorganization, frequently forgetting or losing things, making careless mistakes, poor time management, and getting easily sidetracked, says Michael L. Goldstein, MD, FAAN, former chair of the section of pediatric neurology for the American Academy of Neurology. People with hyperactivity and impulsivity may struggle to sit still or to engage in quiet activities. They may fidget frequently, interrupt conversations or talk too much, and find it hard to wait for their turn or stand in line. To be diagnosed with ADHD, an adult must have at least five symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness, or both, says Dr. Goldstein.
“Although everyone has some of these issues at times, the difference is that adults with ADHD have symptoms that started before age 12 and affect them to a degree that causes distress or interferes with their ability to function well in work, school, relationships, and daily activities,” explains Roberto Olivardia, PhD, clinical psychologist at Harvard Medical School. “Because ADHD doesn’t affect intelligence, it’s possible for people to get straight A’s in school and still struggle with inattention. A common pattern is for people to excel at tasks, activities, and classes that interest them, and feel tortured when doing things they consider boring.”
What Happens If Adhd Is Left Untreated
Symptoms will continue if ADHD is left untreated and people are left to manage them on their own. Children may struggle at school, home and in social situations, and adults may struggle with work, education, interactions with friends and family and more. Untreated ADHD makes life harder than it has to be.
Treatment And Medication Options For Adhd
There’s no cure for ADHD, but the right treatment approach can help control many symptoms. This usually involves medication, certain behavioral strategies, and lifestyle changes to help with focus and organization.
For children under 6 years old with ADHD, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends behavioral therapy as a first line of treatment, before medication.
People with ADHD may also benefit from counseling especially behavioral therapy to improve behaviors and social skills. Parents and other family members may participate in counseling to help develop strategies for dealing with problematic situations.
Certain lifestyle changes and accommodations can create a better environment for people with ADHD. These include routines and schedules, reorganization of your home or workspace, physical reminders of tasks at hand, and removal of distractions.
Proper, comprehensive treatment can help control ADHD symptoms and lead to an improved quality of life.;
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How Do Doctors Tell If A Person Has Adhd
If you go to a doctor to get checked out for ADHD, the doctor will ask about what’s going on in your life and at school. The doctor will ask things like if you have trouble doing homework, sitting still, slowing down, or listening; and how long that’s been going on.
The doctor will check to make sure another health or learning issue is not the cause. The doctor will probably ask your parents and teachers to fill out checklists about signs they may have noticed.
Consuming Medical Marijuana For Adhd
In addition to its effectiveness, proponents of cannabis for ADHD highlight its wide variety of consumption methods and dosing options. While smoking is a popular method of consuming cannabis, studies warn against the lung damage that could be caused from regularly smoking it even for medical purposes. However, with medical cannabis becoming legally available in a growing number of places, patients now have other options.
Those who wish to take cannabis to get relief from their ADHD symptoms can take a dose in the form of oral sprays or convenient drops. Patches can help deliver medication through the skin. Vaporizers can deliver cannabis extract in a smoke-free form that is easy to dose and kicks in immediately. Children who consume cannabis for ADHD often do well with cannabis-infused treats that make taking their medication a pleasant experience.
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The Link Between Ahdh And Risky Behavior
Because people with ADHD have lower levels of dopamine, the chemical that gives you a sense of excitement and arousal, they may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors like drugs, alcohol, having sex at an earlier age, or even adrenaline-seeking activities like bungee jumping or car racing. This is because the thrill of the behavior increases dopamine in the brain. Its especially difficult for those with ADHD to do mundane, boring tasks because of their need for stimulating activities. Rossillo says.
But this doesnt mean that all people with ADHD should become stuntmen to be fulfilled; a 9-to-5 desk job just might not be their thing. Many individuals with ADHD may ultimately look for jobs that include constant movement, high intensity, or a fast-paced environment, Rossillo says. Emergency room doctor, anyone?
What’s It Like For People With Adhd
Having ADHD can be difficult sometimes. Kids and teens may get scolded for things they can’t help like not listening, losing their temper, or doing things too fast. That can make people feel bad about themselves or mistakenly blame themselves for ADHD. But ADHD is not your fault.
Parents, teachers, and therapists can help you get better at paying attention, slowing down, and gaining self-control. They can teach you to use your strengths and energy in good ways. With the right help and support, people with ADHD can improve their attention and self-control, do well in school and activities, and feel good about themselves.
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Morphometric Data Predicting Adhd Diagnosis
Overall, a single measure of white matter concentration best predicted ADHD diagnosis . The receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve was found at 0.917, which may be considered as a reasonably high discriminative power of this model. To assess the combined information of six measures , PCA was used to reduce the dimensionality to three measures, representing a cumulative variance of 97.5%. Subsequent LDA to develop a simpler classifier correctly predicted an ADHD diagnosis in 83.3% of all cases . A repeated random sub-sampling cross-validation with a 20% test set yielded a correct prediction rate of 81.4% .
Receiver Operating Characteristics for predicting ADHD based on white matter density.
The predictive power for the area under the curve is 0.917.
Physical Effects Of Adderall
There are many physical effects when taking prescription Adderall. Adderall typically kicks in between 20-30 minutes after it is taking. Though this can vary depending on the prescribed type of Adderall.
Increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters helps keep the body energized. It also increases your heart rate and blood pressure. This leaves the user feeling motivated, and can practically eliminate the sensation of body fatigue.
Patients who have difficulty with Adderall often report physical effects. The increase of blood pressure and heart rate could cause heart issues. This happens in patients who are prone to hypertension.
Some users experience difficulty breathing, sudden weight loss and seizures. Side effects such as these should be reported to a doctor immediately.
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Why Doesnt The Adhd Brain Always Make The Connection
The networks that carry information related to emotion and other aspects of brain functioning tend to be somewhat more limited in individuals with ADHD compared to most others. Years ago, most scientists thought that impairments of ADHD were due primarily to problems within specific regions of the brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex. New technologies, however, have shown that some of the impairments of people with ADHD may be more related to networks of fibers that support interactive communication between various regions of the brain. One type of communication between brain regions occurs via connections referred to as white matter. Imaging studies have shown abnormalities in the structure of white matter in brains of children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD.
Such abnormalities may explain some of the difficulties these individuals have keeping one thing in mind while doing something else. One study has shown that methylphenidate, used to treat ADHD, can normalize the connectivity limitations in the motivation and reward networks of children with ADHD when they are performing some assigned tasks. Thomas E. Brown, Ph.D., from his book Smart But Stuck
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More On Adhd Medication
There are two main types of ADHD medication: stimulants and non-stimulants. Each type targets a different neurotransmitter. Not all people respond equally well to different types, and its not uncommon to switch from one to the other.
Keep in mind that ADHD medication can cause side effects. This is true for stimulants and non-stimulants. Two of the most common side effects are decreased appetite and trouble sleeping.
Some people get anxious or restless when medication wears off. This is called a rebound effect. There are rarer side effects, too, like motor tics. Taking notes in an ADHD medication log can help you track side effects.
Remember that having ADHDand the brain differences that come with itdoesnt mean someone isnt smart. But these differences can make it harder for parts of the brain to communicate with each other and get stuff done.
Understood is not affiliated with any pharmaceutical company.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Adhd
Children, teenagers and adults with ADHD have an ongoing pattern of three types of core behaviors:
- Inattentiveness: Difficulty sustaining attention to tasks.
- Impulsivity: Doing things on sudden urges, without thinking such as talking out in class, throwing a toy, or interrupting someone in conversation. In adults, the impulses may be irresponsible such as spending too much money.
- Hyperactivity: Restlessness such as fidgeting, inability to stay seated when sitting is expected such as in church or school, moving or climbing when its inappropriate to do so.
Children, teens and adults with ADHD are diagnosed by the behavior pattern that is most actively present. The three most common ADHD presentations are Predominantly Inattentive, Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive and the combination of these types.
ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Presentation is defined by the following nine behaviors:
Behaviors of the ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity/Impulsive type include:
Symptoms Of Lack Of Attention:
- Theyre easily distracted
- They dont seem to listen
- They dont follow instructions and dont finish school or domestic tasks
- They have difficulty organizing their activities
- They avoid or do tasks unwillingly
- They lose objects
- Theyre easily distracted by external sources of stimulation
- They forget things
- They experience mood changes
However, each child may experience this disorder differently. Its possible to present some of these symptoms and not have ADHD.;
ADHD usually appears before the age of 5, but the diagnosis will be difficult to analyze because movement and lack of attention are common in children before this age.
Theyre an integral part of normal psychomotor development and not necessarily problematic.
A general evaluation of the child is essential because some of the symptoms of ADHD may have other causes. Physical health problems can produce the same symptoms as ADHD.
In addition, some other mental health problems, such as depression or anxiety, can sometimes have the same symptoms as ADHD.
In short, its important to consult a doctor in order to carry out a complete health check. In this way, an effective and timely intervention can occur.
25 June, 2018
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Adhd Symptoms And Brain Structure
In contrast to diagnosis, no association was found between brain macrostructure and ADHD symptoms. However, ADHD symptoms were associated with microstructural findings, which were more prominent for the childhood total symptoms , compared to the adult total symptoms . More specifically, the DTI analysis of the structural differences associated with childhood symptoms revealed: a region of increased FA, RD and MD in the left sub-gyral white matter of the frontal lobe; regions of increased RD and MD, including the right sub-gyral white matter of the frontal lobe and the left and right putamen and the adjacent external capsule; a region of decreased RD and MD in the right superior temporal gyrus; a region of decreased FA in the right putamen; a region of decreased RD in the right medial frontal gyrus; regions of increased AD in the right cingulate, frontal lobe, and left external capsule. The DTI analysis of the structural differences associated with adult symptoms revealed: a region of decreased FA and increased RD in the right dentate nucleus; a region of decreased FA, RD, MD, and AD in the left cingulum; regions of increased FA, including the white matter of the right lingual gyrus, left putamen, and the white matter of the right temporo-occipital gyrus.