Cbd As An Allosteric Modulator
CBD also functions as an allosteric receptor modulator, which means that it can either enhance or inhibit how a receptor transmits a signal by changing the shape of the receptor.
Australian scientists report that CBD acts as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. In other words, CBD interacts with the GABA-A receptor in a way that enhances the receptors binding affinity for its principal endogenous agonist, gamma-Aminobutyric acid , which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. The sedating effects of Valium and other Benzos are mediated by GABA receptor transmission. CBD reduces anxiety by changing the shape of the GABA-A receptor in a way that amplifies the natural calming effect of GABA.
Canadian scientists have identified CBD as a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, which is concentrated in the brain and central nervous system. While cannabidiol doesnt bind to the CB1 receptor directly like THC does, CBD interacts allosterically with CB1 and changes the shape of the receptor in a way that weakens CB1s ability to bind with THC.
As a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor, CBDlowers the ceiling on THCs psychoactivitywhich is why people dont feel as high when using CBD-rich cannabis compared to when they consume THC-dominant medicine. A CBD-rich product with little THC can convey therapeutic benefits without having a euphoric or dysphoric effect.
What Makes Cbd Different From Thc And Other Cannabinoids
CBD is notably different from other cannabinoids, or chemicals which are found in hemp and cannabis. While all other cannabinoids interact with two significant receptors in the nervous system, CB1 and CB2, CBD has very little effect on both of them. CB1 receptors are found in different parts of the brain, including those concerned with emotion, sensory perception, memory, and cognition. CBD does not induce a mind-altering state.
An illustration of neurons firing in a human head. The unique effects of CBD in the brain lead to a host of healing benefits from this popular supplement.
Tetrahydrocannabinol , on the other hand, is another story. It is the chemical responsible for majority of cannabiss psychological effects, sending you on a cerebral adventure. It is found mainly in the resin secreted by the glands of the marijuana plant. THC attaches itself to both CB1 and CB2 receptors. This activates them and affects a persons thinking, perception, memory, pleasure, and concentration, making the person feel high.
CBD may also moderate the effects of THC. While some people report anxiety from consuming marijuana, strains which are high in CBD tend to cause less of these effects. CBD itself may be beneficial in the treatment of anxiety.
Can Cbd Cause Hallucinations Or Paranoia
There is a great deal of confusion surrounding what CBD can and can’t do.
We’ve dived into many key pathways across the body and brain.
For hallucinations, we have to focus on the brain.
Most of the confusion comes from THC and how it works versus CBD.
Very different animals entirely.in fact, opposite in many effects.
The so-called “entourage effect” actually speaks to CBD’s ability to counter many of THC’s psychoactive effects.
They both come from the cannabis plant but work entirely differently.
Let’s dive into the question at hand:
- Does CBD cause hallucinations or paranoia
- How does CBD work in the brain versus THC
- Is CBD psychoactive or psychomimetic
- Does the type of CBD matter for hallucinations?
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Epilepsy And Cbd Oil: How It Works And What You Should Know
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with epilepsy, you may have been doing research and learned of a recent shift towards CBD oil as a means to reduce the symptoms associated with the disease. But does it actually work? And if so, how?
In fact, CBD oil can offer some people a way to control and reduce the frequency of seizures, pain, and anxiety with little to no side effects.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects over 50 million people worldwide. It can be caused by a variety of factors including head injury, stroke, and genetics. The frequency, severity, and type of seizure experienced depends on where in the brain the abnormal activity is occurring. Some seizures are characterized by full body convulsions, while others appear as a loss of consciousness lasting for mere seconds.
No matter the type of epilepsy or the type of seizure experienced, it is a complicated disorder that impacts everything from physical condition to feelings of social acceptance. Its no wonder that people are seeking real, long-lasting alternatives.
Keep in mind, the information presented on this page is intended to serve only as an informational guide and should not be considered medical advicealways speak to your doctor before starting a new treatment.
Effectiveness Of Using Cbd Oil For Epilepsy
In three different studies involving people with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome , CBD oil significantly reduced the frequency of seizures. In the case of Dravet syndrome, convulsive tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, and atonic seizures were reduced while those with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome saw a reduction in drop seizures.
Whether or not these results were the result of the CBD itself, or a byproduct of CBD interacting with epilepsy medications to increase their effectiveness, is uncertain. More testing is required.
Not only can CBD help reduce the frequency of seizures, it can also help many of the conditions and experiences that surround epilepsy. Lack of sleep, for example, is one of the factors that may exacerbate epilepsy symptoms and seizures CBD oil can help bring a more restful, deeper sleep to those who use it. Similarly, pain and inflammation can be an issue for people with epilepsy, and CBD helps manage these symptoms as well.
Epilepsy sufferers may also experience a great deal of social anxiety. There is still a stigma that surrounds this illness and it can be difficult for individuals to explain or predict their condition. CBD oil can be used to reduce this anxiety, giving sufferers less daily stress.
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How Does Cbd Interact With The Ecs
The other major cannabinoid found in cannabis is cannabidiol . Unlike THC, CBD doesnt make you high and typically doesnt cause any negative effects.
Experts arent completely sure how CBD interacts with the ECS. But they do know that it doesnt bind to CB1 or CB2 receptors the way THC does.
Instead, many believe it works by preventing endocannabinoids from being broken down. This allows them to have more of an effect on your body. Others believe that CBD binds to a receptor that hasnt been discovered yet.
While the details of how it works are still under debate, research suggests that CBD can help with pain, nausea, and other symptoms associated with multiple conditions.
Some experts believe in a theory known as clinical endocannabinoid deficiency . This theory suggests that low endocannabinoid levels in your body or ECS dysfunction can contribute to the development of certain conditions.
None of these conditions have a clear underlying cause. Theyre also often resistant to treatment and sometimes occur alongside each other.
If CECD does play any kind of role in these conditions, targeting the ECS or endocannabinoid production could be the missing key to treatment, but more research is needed.
The Runners High May Result From Molecules Called Cannabinoids The Bodys Own Version Of Thc And Cbd
Many people have experienced reductions in stress, pain and anxiety and sometimes even euphoria after exercise. Whats behind this so-called runners high? New research on the neuroscience of exercise may surprise you.
The runners high has long been attributed to endorphins. These are chemicals produced naturally in the body of humans and other animals after exercise and in response to pain or stress.
However, new research from my lab summarizes nearly two decades of work on this topic. We found that exercise reliably increases levels of the bodys endocannabinoids which are molecules that work to maintain balance in the brain and body a process called homeostasis. This natural chemical boost may better explain some of the beneficial effects of exercise on brain and body.
I am a neuroscientist at the Wayne State University School of Medicine. My lab studies brain development and mental health, as well as the role of the endocannabinoid system in stress regulation and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.
This research has implications for everyone who exercises with the aim of reducing stress and should serve as a motivator for those who dont regularly exercise.
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Relieves Inflammation And Pain
Cannabis has been used to alleviate pain for thousands of years. While the pain-killing ability of THC has long been known, studies indicate that CBD can effectively relieve pain as well. CBD helps manage pain by acting on CB2 receptors, which are mainly located on immune cells. The CB2 receptors are responsible for managing some cellular functions.
One of the cellular functions CB2 receptors are responsible for managing is suppressing the inflammation response created by immune cells. CBD decreases the amount of inflammatory molecules, such as chemokines and cytokines, that are present at sites of inflammation. CBDs ability to decrease inflammation peripherally helps block pain signals from going to the brain.
Cannabinoids And The Neocortex
Like other intoxicant drugs cannabis causes profound changes in a variety of higher brain functions. The literature on the acute effects of the drug in human subjects is large, and can only be summarized here . The distribution of CB1 receptors in the neocortex has been described in detail . As in the hippocampus, the majority of cortical interneurons expressing high levels of CB1 receptor are GABAergic cells, which also express cholecystokinin . CB1positive terminals are concentrated in layers IIIII and layers VVI, with few in layers I or IV. Despite the obvious importance of the abundant CB1 receptors in the neocortex there have so far been few electrophysiological studies of their effects on neural activity.
have suggested that anandamide may play a role in the control of the sleepwaking cycle.
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Protects Brain Cells From Harm
Although many believe that marijuana damages the brain, studies indicate that some components of cannabis, such as CBD, can actually protect brain cells from harm. In fact, in 1999, the United States Department of Health and Human Services actually obtained a patent for the neuroprotective effects of cannibinoids. The patent states that cannabis and its chemical properties can protect brain cells in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and other types of dementia.
CBDs neuroprotective effects are related to its effect on CB2 receptors in the brain. CBD acts on CB2 receptors to create anti-inflammatory responses in immune cells located in the brain. This reduces the extent to which damage to the brain is caused by inflammation.
Oxidation contributes to brain tissue damage and is partly responsible for the brain damage seen in individuals with conditions like Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Research indicates that CBD acts on CB2 receptors to decrease oxidative damage.
How Does Cbd Work In The Brain And Body
Each of our bodies has a set of receptors that interacts with cannabis compounds called cannabinoids, like CBD. These receptors, found throughout the body, comprise the endocannabinoid system , a complex signaling system that ensures our bodies maintain homeostasis.
Put another way, the endocannabinoid system keeps us in balance by directing the communication traffic in our bodies. Cannabinoids such as CBD interact with this system, mimicking natural compounds produced by the body.
In the human body, CBD influences cannabinoid receptor activity and encourages the production of the bodys natural endocannabinoids. Interestingly, CBD also affects activity beyond the endocannabinoid system and can also interact with opioid, dopamine, and serotonin receptors. The ability of CBD to interact with so many different systems throughout the body suggests it has the potential to open new frontiers in psychiatry and medicine.
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Inhibition Of Neurotransmitter Release
The presynaptic localization of CB1 receptors suggests a role for cannabinoids in modulating the release of neurotransmitters from axon terminals, and this has been confirmed by a substantial body of experimental data. Early reports showed that THC inhibited acetylcholine release from electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum. Similar inhibitory effects of THC and other cannabinoids on the release of a variety of neurotransmitters from CNS neurons have been observed in many subsequent studies . The neurotransmitters involved include lglutamate, GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine, 5HT and acetylcholine. The brain regions most often studied in vitro, usually in tissue slice preparations, have been cerebellum, hippocampus or neocortex. Neurotransmitter release has been studied directly in superfused preparations, and indirectly by measuring postsynaptic currents. Although most of these studies involved rat or mouse brain, a few studies have shown similar results using human brain tissue . Because THC is only poorly water soluble, the more soluble synthetic CB1 receptor agonists WIN552123, HU210 or CP552940 were used in these in vitro studies. The specificity of the cannabinoid effects were confirmed by demonstrating that the inhibitory effects of the agonists were completely blocked by the CB1selective antagonist rimonabant.
How Does Cbd Affect The Brain
Cannabidiol acts through various molecular pathways, which explains the neurological effects of CBD oil. Although CBD doesnt tap into two of the cannabinoid receptors, it stimulates the activity of the endocannabinoid system through several different receptor-independent routes. CBD also strengthens and inhibits the binding action of certain protein-coupled receptors.
Heres a quick breakdown of the receptor systems that are affected by CBD.
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Resting State Bold Functional Connectivity Analysis
All network analysis was computed with Gephi, an open-source network analysis and visualization software . Absolute values of the CBD and vehicle symmetric connectivity matrices were imported, and edges were loaded as undirected networks. A complete description of the graph theory analysis is provided in Additional file : Graph Theory Analysis.
To validate that there was a dose-dependent change in CBD levels, serum levels of cannabinoids were analyzed . In brief, methanolic extracts of 90 µl of serum were partially purified on C18 solid phase extraction columns and eluants were analyzed using HPLC/MS/MS . Deuterium-labeled anandamide elutes in the same fraction as CBD and was used as an internal standard to monitor recovery. Levels of CBD and THC were analyzed using standard curves with Analyst Software as previously described . During analysis it was discovered that each of the samples contained a small fraction THC in addition to CBD. This can occur during synthesis and is often unknown if the levels are not analyzed. The plasma ratio in each dose was ca 25:1 CBD:THC .
Benefits Of Topical Cbd
While taking CBD orally is best for most people, topical CBD products also have medicinal benefits and are not gimmick products. You can treat many health problems within the human body with CBD lotions and balms.
CBD lotions often combine CBD with other ingredients. Now that CBD is legal everywhere in the United States, many skin lotions include it.
Since CBD reduces inflammation, CBD lotions work for arthritis. It is already very common to use CBD for this disease. Most people with the disease have already tried it or considered trying it.
Some people are allergic to NSAIDs that are commonly used to treat arthritis. CBD is a great alternative treatment, and it can be the first-choice treatment.
CBD also treats skin conditions such as eczema. Some anti-aging products also contain CBD. CBD lotions can treat pain or inflammation at a specific part of your body.
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Autonomic Arousal And Stress
The negative BOLD in brain areas that comprise the ARAS would suggest a decrease in brain activity and a reduction in autonomic arousal. Acute and chronic dosing of CBD in humans and animals has no appreciable effect on blood pressure, heart rate or blood flow . However, CBD mediates the emotional and cardiovascular response to stress. CBD blunts the increased heart rate and blood pressure associated with the stress of forced immobilization and increase in blood pressure, heart rate and immobility behavior in response to fear associated with the memory of an aversive condition . CBD reduces immobility and escape behavior in mice exposed to a wild snake , altering the innate fear and aversion to predation. Rats exposed to cats present with long-lasting anxiogenic behavior that can be reduced with CBD . Thus, CBD can reduce the anxiety, fear and immobilization associated with stressful or life-threatening events.
Cbd Has Antidiarrheal Effects
- Anandamide, when it activates the CB1 receptors, not only helps reduce gastrointestinal pain and inflammation but also reduces motility as well.
- THC can also stimulate the CB1 receptors, but with the help of CBD, THCs psychoactive effects are reduced while improving diarrhea control.
- Acetylcholine is released by the neurons in the gut and facilitates the contractions of the intestinal tract. When gastrointestinal problems cause diarrhea and abdominal cramping, drugs are used to block the effects of acetylcholine. But sometimes, these drugs cause side effects like constipation, dry mouth, and problems with urination.
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Gastroenteritis and other gastrointestinal disorders with symptoms of pain, inflammation, and diarrhea
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Is Cbd Right For You
Because CBD is still so new and the rules governing it are confusing, manufacturing and marketing CBD products are currently a Wild West environment. Thus, its important to source products from companies you trust to ensure you are purchasing a product contains nothing more or less than the ingredients you think it does. Aim for products created from organically-grown plants which are non-GMO and pesticide-free.
CBD oil for anxiety is one of the most common uses. It may be used for anxiety disorders, or for short-term anxiety associated with specific events, such as public speaking. Discuss the options, including the appropriate dose of CBD, with your doctor if you suspect it could help you on your journey to your best health. Be aware of possible side effects including:
- Irritability. This has been most often seen with the Rx version for epilepsy, which is a high dose.
- Interactions. CBD can increase effects of the blood thinner coumadin as well as certain other medications.
Remember there is still much research underway regarding CBD, so if you do choose to try it, I advise starting with a smaller dose and working your way up if necessary. Stop using CBD products altogether if you have negative side effects.
CBD research has shown tremendous promise in helping those with serious conditions such as MS and epilepsy. It can also be a support in chronic pain management for those suffering from arthritis and many other painful conditions.