Iv Review Of The Pertinent Literature: The Neurobiology Of Biological Stress Systems Limbic
The LHPA axis plays a central role in regulating the body’s response to stress and is the most studied biological stress system in animals and humans. Activation of the LHPA axis triggers the hypothalamus to secrete corticotrophin releasing hormone . This neuropeptide, also called corticotrophin releasing factor , is a key mediator of the stress response . The term CRH is used when describing its function in the neuroendocrine system and the term CRF is commonly used when describing its function as a neurotransmitter. However the term CRH is the older term and authors are not always consistent in using these rules. CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone by binding to CRH receptors in the anterior pituitary. ACTH in turn binds to G protein-coupled receptors in the adrenal cortex, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH also stimulates the secretion of cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone that plays an important role throughout the central nervous system . Cortisol activates glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, which are located and expressed throughout the brain. Glucocorticoid receptors act as transcription factors and regulate gene expression for metabolism and immune function, as well as for cognitive and brain development . Increased levels of cortisol suppress the immune system, gluconeogenesis, and inhibit its own secretion via negative feedback to glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus .
How Childhood Trauma Affects The Brain
It is not news that people abused as children are more exposed to clinical depression, anxiety, and a higher risk of death from suicide. But now, researchers have begun to reveal what happens in the brain following this kind of trauma.
According to data provided by the Childrens Bureau of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, there was a 3.8 percent increase in reported child abuse cases in the country between 2011 and 2015. This amounts to 683,000 cases of child abuse in 2015 alone in the U.S.
Research suggests that this type of trauma in childhood leaves deep marks, giving rise to issues including substance abuse .
Now, a team from the McGill Group for Suicide Studies at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute and McGill University in Montreal, Canada, aims to decipher how a history of abuse can impact key brain mechanisms, affecting mental health.
Dr. Pierre-Eric Lutz and colleagues noted that in adults who went through severe abuse as children, the neural connections in an area of the brain associated with the regulation of emotion, attention, and various other cognitive processes are critically impaired.
The researchers findings were published recently in The American Journal of Psychiatry.
white matter in various areas of the brain.
The volume and structure of white matter correlate with an individuals capacity for learning, and this component of the brain keeps on developing throughout early adulthood unlike gray matter.
Negative Childhood Experiences And The Adult Brain’s Spontaneous Activity
Posted October 1, 2015
Our brain is always there. From birth, and even prenatally, it is exposed to the environment. How does the brain react to that? The brain shows spontaneous or intrinsic activity that seems to remain independent of specific stimuli or tasks. At first glance one may assume that the spontaneous activity isolates and separates the brain from the world. Since it seems to be generated within the brain itself and is apparently uncoupled from the world or environment. Recent empirical studies suggest that this is not true, though, as it is supported by a recent study of ours.
Niall Duncan from my group investigated healthy college students, with a psychological questionnaire that assessed early childhood trauma, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire . This questionnaire was complemented with extensive imaging. He measured the spatiotemporal structure of their brains’ resting state activity using fMRI, and measured the variable of entropy. Roughly, entropy reflects the statistically-based degree of complexity of the signal across time within the brain and, more specifically, how much the signal at one point in time is different from the signal obtained at the subsequent and later points in time. Therefore, one can say that entropy can be regarded as a statistically-based measure of the temporal structure of the brains resting state activity.
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Changes In Social Information Processing
Children’s automatic reaction to social stimuli is likely to be biased towards fear or hostility. Caregivers can support children in re-appraising social situations by teaching and modelling the appropriate reactions to social situations, conveying trust in other adults, and modelling appropriate social interaction skills.
Children can sometimes display poor social discrimination, leading to poor choices regarding social interactions. Appropriate social boundaries can be reinforced using visual teaching aids such as circle diagrams that can be used to distinguish family from non-family, and friends from strangers.
There is also some evidence that computerised programs that target social anxiety may be helpful in addressing eye contact aversion in children and adults.
How Do Childhood Experiences Affect Brain Development
Our brains develop from before birth and into adulthood . But there are key sensitive periods during early childhood and adolescence where children and young peoples brains are more affected by positive or negative experiences .
What happens in a child or young persons life during these periods can have a significant effect on their brain development.
Positive experiences throughout childhood help to build healthy brains, while experiencing childhood trauma and abuse can harm a childs brain development .
But our brains always have the potential to change and grow. Its never too late to give a child or young person positive brain building experiences.
Having caring relationships and access to support services can reduce the harmful effects of negative experiences and help a childs brain develop in a healthy way .
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Lack Of Proper Attachment And Brain Development
By: Neil Conway
Attachment theory states that for a child to grow up into an adult who can confidently form healthy relationships with others, they need a strong and reliable bond with a caregiver for the first few years of their life.
This means that when, as a child, you cried, or gestured, or otherwise tried to express your needs, an adult responded in an appropriate way.
Perhaps they picked you up and held you, or spoke to you, or otherwise let you know that your needs would be met and you were safe.
This kind of supportive back-and-forth between a child and an adult is called serve and return interaction and is not just important for your psychological development as an infant it is crucial for the healthy development of your brain. Each time a positive interaction takes place between a child and adult neural connections are built.
If these healthy interactions did not take place if the person taking care of you was unreliable, unable to love and care for you, or not well it means these neural pathways may not form as strongly, meaning your mental and emotional health may be impaired as adult.
What Are The Short
When you experience trauma, you are often in fear, confused, and feeling helpless and trapped, in the moment. Your stress response is triggered, and you become agitated or shut down. You may also feel sad, angry, distressed, or anxious. Many people with trauma experiences cope well and quickly become calm again. For some people, their nervous system continues to react after the threat has passed.
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How Can I Reduce The Effects Of My Child Sexual Abuse Trauma
The Younique Foundation empowers survivors of childhood sexual abuse by sharing tools and strategies to encourage the development of new neural pathways. If you are a survivor of child sexual abuse, you may find it beneficial to practice coping strategies to help manage your symptoms. As you practice Grounding Techniques, you interrupt the brains travels down familiar pathways. And the more you practice, the more new pathways will develop and become a part of your behaviors and habits.
So much of the work youll do in healing will be focused on intentional responses and thoughts, and it will be helpful for you to understand the benefits of practicing Acknowledgement,Mindfulness, and Aspiration as you work on building a new network of neural pathways.
While you cant reverse the clock and protect your younger self from having to endure sexual abuse, nor can you take back any unhealthy coping habits that you may have employed to deal with the pain of the past, you absolutely can embrace the hope that you will experience healing. The trauma of the past can have less and less influence on the present because your brain, body, and heart are capable of so much.
Overloaded: The Effects Of Parental Stress On Children
This Sharing the Brain Story metaphor compares the process of lorries carrying large loads to parents and carers being overloaded with challenges.
When a lorry carries too much weight, it can be overloaded to the point of breaking down. When parents are experiencing challenges like poverty or lack of support, the weight of these problems can overload their mental and emotional capacity to take care of their childrens needs.
Challenges are often out of a parent or carers control, such as:
- violence or feeling unsafe in the community
- financial insecurity
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The Brains Response To Trauma
Trauma can change your brain on many levels, from the way you make decisions down to your immediate, subconscious responses to the world around you. Part of the reason it can be so hard to overcome the effects of trauma is that it goes after several areas of your brain at once.
According to a 2006 study by NIH, trauma mainly affects three important parts of your brain: the amygdala, which is your emotional and instinctual center the hippocampus, which controls memory and the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for regulating your emotions and impulses. All three parts work together to manage stress.
When youre reminded of a traumatic experience, your amygdala goes into overdrive, acting just as it would if you were experiencing that trauma for the first time. Your prefrontal cortex also becomes suppressed, so youre less capable of controlling your fear–youre stuck in a purely reactive state.
Meanwhile, trauma also leads to reduced activity in the hippocampus, one of whose functions is to distinguish between past and present. In other words, your brain cant tell the difference between the actual traumatic event and the memory of it. It perceives things that trigger memories of traumatic events as threats themselves.
Trauma can cause your brain to remain in a state of hypervigilance, suppressing your memory and impulse control and trapping you in a constant state of strong emotional reactivity.
Here Is What Happens In The Brain When A Child Experiences A Traumatic Event:
But everything is not lost! As trauma is a sensory experience, using kinesthetic strategies, such as deep breathing, yoga, physical exercise, and other activities that engage the senses can help a child reach a calmer place where they can process their emotions and their experiences. Play therapy is also an excellent option!
For more information about trauma, check out The National Child Traumatic Stress Network at www.nctsn.org.
For more information about Dan Siegel and his brain model, check out his books: The Whole Brain Child, Mindsight: The New Science of Personal Transformation or his website:
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Traumas Impact On Brain Development
Exposure to chronic, prolonged traumatic experiences alters childrens brains:
Attachment & relationshipsTrouble controlling and expressing emotions trouble with relationships, boundaries , lack of empathy, and social isolation violent reactions to situations problems with authority figures, such as teachers or police officers.
Physical HealthThe immune system and bodys stress response systems may not have developed normally, resulting in anxiety and high-stress response to situations not requiring these responses risky behaviors , impaired sensorimotor development, hypersensitivity of senses or lack of sensitivity anesthesia and analgesia, coordination problems, increased medical problems , and somatic symptoms such as headaches or stomachaches.
Emotional Regulation & ResponseDifficulty identifying, expressing, and managing emotions difficulty identifying or labeling feelings and communicating needs. Internalize and/or externalize stress reactions and as a result may experience significant depression, anxiety, or anger emotional responses may be unpredictable or explosive with the child in hyper-vigilance or extreme opposite of tuning out emotional numbing easily upset and unable to control the upset overwhelmed easily.
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Limits Of The Research
Very little research has explored the link between trauma and cognitive development, or the interventions that might be effective in helping affected children. Some of the reasons for this include:
- methodological and conceptual issues in defining and monitoring the impact of trauma
- the absence of a suitable measure for assessing outcomes of interventions for children in care and
- the need to better integrate neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies into a program of research that tracks cognitive development over time.
Research in this area is conceptually under-developed. Attempts to tease out the effects of different subtypes of abuse and trauma on brain development have been inconclusive . This is unsurprising, as many children will have experienced multiple forms of abuse and neglect. Despite this, the research has typically used abuse subtypes as selection criteria.
There is also a lack of rigorous evaluation of interventions for affected children. One reason for this is that there is no single measure or screening tool that can capture the full range of cognitive and behavioural difficulties found among children in care . This makes it difficult for services to capture the cognitive difficulties that children experience and evaluate whether cognitive interventions4 lead to an improvement in children’s functioning.
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Fight Or Flight + Anxiety States
According to the Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation, children who experience trauma can live in a near-constant state of fight or flight, with stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline flowing, even with no real threat present. That means, a student may be triggered by something non-threatening and feel the intense emotions and fear associated with a truly frightening event. Therefore, a student may not be able to control their emotions or reactions when theyre overwhelmed by stress chemicals. Early traumatic experiences and development insults often involve fear and anxiety. Neurobiological findings show that trauma affects both the structure and chemistry of a childs developing brain. Fear and anxiety over time can alter a childs brain development. Children of trauma are at times offline and unavailable for learning due to symptoms they may experience such as intrusive thoughts, dissociation, flashbacks, or an under/over-active limbic system, says Patricia Olney Murphy, LICSW, MPA, a sexual abuse and trauma specialist in Rhode Island.
Treating Addiction And Childhood Trauma
Trauma-informed care is necessary for people struggling with addiction and PTSD. Both trauma and substance abuse must be addressed simultaneously to prevent a relapse in symptoms. While treating this co-occurrence can be difficult, recovery is possible and likely with the proper resources.
When attending treatment for addiction stemming from childhood trauma, patients should remember the following:
- They are not alone. Many survivors feel guilt and shame and are afraid to talk about their trauma. Individuals who do not talk about their trauma will not be able to fully recover. However, other patients in treatment have also experienced trauma, and individuals are in a safe space.
- Childhood trauma is not the victims fault. Utilizing professional help and talking to others who have gone through similar events will help patients succeed.
- Everyone deserves a life free from pain and substance dependency. Treatment will help to ease the damage of childhood trauma and alleviate any feelings of pain with the help of experienced professionals.
- Rehab is a safe space. Treatment is a place of no judgment, understanding, and support. Professionals have evidence-based methods of treatment to help their patients let go of their feelings of fear, guilt, or shame.
If you or a loved one suffer from addiction that stems from childhood trauma, contact Carolina Recovery Center today. Our trauma & PTSD program can help.
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Our Services To Survivors Of Child Sexual Abuse
At The Younique Foundation, we believe that survivors of child sexual abuse are empowered through education. As you understand better the connections between the trauma of your childhood and the experiences you have in the present, you become better prepared to address your challenges and identify what you need to do in order to find healing. Visit our other sections of the website, including common Symptoms associated with sexual abuse, as well as our library of healing resources.
If you are interested in attending an educational retreat where you will learn about the connection between trauma and the brain and body, as well as engage in a series of experiential and community-building classes and activities, visit The Haven Retreat for more information.
The Younique Foundation believes in the power of survivors helping survivors. Finding Hope Support Groups are survivor-led support groups in your community and can be a great way to feel connected to others. to Find a Group in your area .