Saturday, May 14, 2022

How Does Lead Affect The Brain

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Did you know?

Beethoven

  • The “lead” in pencils is not really lead. Rather, the part ofthe pencil that writes is made of graphite.
  • The chemical symbol for lead is Pb. Pb comes from the Latin word forlead, plumbum.
  • Composer Ludwig van Beethoven may have been poisoned by lead. Researchers at Argonne Research Laboratory found that a lock ofBeethoven’s hair had lead levels 100 times greater than normal. Scientists speculate that lead may have caused some of the mentalproblems Beethoven experienced during his life.
  • The Great British Intelligence Test

    Before the pandemic began, cognitive neuroscientist Adam Hampshire and his colleagues at Imperial College London were planning a large, nationwide survey called the Great British Intelligence Test. Their goal: to understand how cognitive ability varies among the population and how factors like age, alcohol consumption, or occupation might affect cognition. The test, which is anonymous and takes about a half hour to complete, involves a questionnaire and exercises to measure planning and reasoning skills, working memory, and attention span.

    With the help of the BBC, the team launched the survey in January 2020. As the pandemic began to unfold in the U.K., Hampshire and his colleagues realized they had a unique opportunity to capture cognitive data on both coronavirus patients and healthy people. In May 2020, they updated the test to include questions about experiences with COVID-19.

    Out of more than 81,000 participants who took the questionnaire and test between January and December 2020, nearly 13,000 people reported COVID-19 infections varying from mild to severe. Among those, results revealed that they had cognitive issues compared with a group that not suffered from COVID-19.

    On the worst extreme of the spectrum, people who had gone to hospital and been put onto a ventilator showed the largest underperformance cognitively speaking, Hampshire says.

    Lower Your Chances Of Exposure To Lead

    Simple steps like keeping your home clean and well-maintained will go a long way in preventing lead exposure. You can lower the chances of exposure to lead in your home, both now and in the future, by taking these steps:

    • Inspect and maintain all painted surfaces to prevent paint deterioration.
    • Address water damage quickly and completely.
    • Keep your home clean and dust-free.
    • Clean around painted areas where friction can generate dust, such as doors, windows, and drawers. Wipe these areas with a wet sponge or rag to remove paint chips or dust.
    • Use only cold water to prepare food and drinks.
    • Flush water outlets used for drinking or food preparation.
    • Clean debris out of outlet screens or faucet aerators on a regular basis.
    • Wash children’s hands, bottles, pacifiers and toys often.
    • Teach children to wipe and remove their shoes and wash hands after playing outdoors.

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    Pain Relief Could Include The Discomfort Of Arthritis

    One of the ways scientists think;marijuana may help with pain is by reducing inflammation, a component of illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis.

    A preliminary 2005 study of 58 patients with RA, roughly half of whom were given a placebo and roughly half of whom were given a cannabis-based medicine called Sativex, found statistically significant improvements in pain on movement, pain at rest, quality of sleep for patients on Sativex.

    Other studies testing other cannabinoid products and inhaled marijuana have shown similar pain-relieving effects, according to the report.

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    Depression And Mood Disorders

    Brain Affects

    The link between marijuana and depression isnt entirely understood either.

    While proponents of medical marijuana claim that weed can help alleviate depression, some studies have shown an increased risk of depression with marijuana use.

    An Australian study out of the Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute found that teens who smoked pot weekly were twice as likely to develop depression later in life. Young women who used marijuana daily were more than five times as likely as nonusers to report a state of depression and anxiety.

    It is still unclear whether marijuana causes depression or whether individuals with depression may gravitate toward using marijuana.

    Bipolar disorder causes alternating episodes of depression and mania. During depressive episodes, people may feel sad, hopeless, tired and have suicidal thoughts. In the manic phase of the illness, they may experience increased energy levels, racing thoughts, insomnia and, in severe cases, psychosis.

    A 2017 study in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin found that teens who use weed several times a week are more likely to develop a mild form of mania. The researchers reported that early marijuana use may lead to bipolar disorder later in life.

    As with depression, the connections between marijuana use and bipolar disorder are not entirely clear.

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    Isolation Can Affect Our Brains

    Scientists have known for quite some time that isolation can have negative effects on the brain, particularly in people over 50. Studies in laboratory animals clearly show that isolation is associated with actual shrinkage of brain tissue, accompanied by the types of tissue changes typically seen in Alzheimers dementia. And studies in humans show an increase in the chance an isolated person will develop dementia.

    Over the past eighteen months or so, due to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic, social isolation has become an even bigger problem, both for many older adults as well as younger people. Its important to understand that social isolation is a complex concept, as its the perception of isolation that causes the difficulty, not whether someone is actually living alone or with others. People who report feeling lonely have faster rates of cognitive decline than those who dont suffer from disconnection.

    A January 2021 study examined the effects of perceived social isolation in 309 adult participants across a wide age span, from ages 18 to 84. The researchers concluded that the stress of perceived social isolation didnt affect just older adults but had a huge impact on the mental health of young adults as well. The authors theorize that stress and social isolation could impair immune functioning, and these effects are likely to continue, especially given the uncertainty of the virus.

    Preprocessing Of Structural Data

    Preprocessing and analysis of functional activation data were performed using SPM8 implemented in MATLAB. Descriptions in this subsection were mostly reproduced from a previous study using similar methods. Before analysis, individual BOLD images were realigned and resliced to the mean BOLD image, and corrected for slice timing. The mean BOLD image was then realigned to the mean b=0 image together with the slice-timing-corrected images, as described previously. Because the mean b=0 image was aligned with the FA image and MD map, the BOLD image, b=0 image, FA image, and MD map were all aligned. Subsequently, using a previously validated two-step segmentation algorithm of diffusion images and diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated lie algebra -based registration process, all imagesincluding gray-matter segments , white-matter segments , and cerebrospinal fluid segments of the diffusion imageswere normalized.

    The voxel size of the normalized FA, MD, and segmented images was 1.5×1.5×1.5mm3. The voxel size of the normalized BOLD images was 3×3×3mm3.

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    It Can Increase Your Risk Of Psychosis

    Marijuana use can cause or exacerbate symptoms of psychosis, which may include paranoia or hallucinations, according to Dr. Chiligiris. Individuals with certain genetic vulnerabilities may be at greater risk to developing psychosis with cannabis use, says Dr. Chiligiris. With higher potency THC available, including edibles, individuals may be at risk for more significant or earlier onset of mental health concerns such as psychosis. While this may not be the case for everyone, it is something to consider.

    Details Of Recruitment And Exclusion Criteria Of Subjects

    What is dementia? Alzheimer’s Research UK

    A history of psychiatric and neurological diseases and/or recent drug use was assessed using our laboratorys routine questionnaire, in which each subject answered questions related to their current or previous experiences of any of the listed diseases and listed drugs that they had recently taken. Drug screening was performed to confirm that the subjects were not taking any illegal psychostimulants or antipsychotic drugs, which was one of the exclusion criteria used during the course of the recruitment. Subjects with exclusion criteria should have been excluded before they came to the lab, but if they came for some reason, they had to go back once it was found that they met an exclusion criterion. Consequently, none had a history of neurological or psychiatric illness. In the course of this experiment, the scans were checked for obvious brain lesions and tumors, but there were no subjects having such obvious lesions or tumors.

    These descriptions are mostly obtained from our previously published work.

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    What Happens When Dopamine Levels Rise Due To The Effects Of Thc

    Elevated dopamine levels trip the brains reward system, causing feelings of pleasure, satisfaction, and achievement. Dopamine can also make time seem to go slower as mental activity speeds up, with increases to libido, energy, and focus.

    But, if dopamine levels in your system stay too high for too long, the body will close off some dopamine receptors for a while, even after your high wears off.;

    This drops dopamine synthesis in your body, blunting the pleasure you would normally feel from other things in your life like food, physical contact, hobbies, and achievement.

    This lack of enjoyment from other activities is a common symptom experienced by heavy marijuana users and those who abuse other drugs like opioids or amphetamines.

    Consideration And Exclusion Of Movement Effects During Fmri Analyses

    Thorough instructions and thorough fixation by the pad were given as much as possible to prevent head motion during the fMRI scan. We did not exclude any subject from the fMRI analyses based on excessive motion during the scan. However, we excluded subjects if artifacts were visually apparent on their scans, regardless of the cause of these artifacts. The subjects were young adults and the scan did not last for long. Only six subjects maximum movement from the original point in one of the directions exceeded 3mm, and removing these subjects from analyses did not substantially alter the significant results of the present study. Furthermore, frame-wise displacement during fMRI scan did not significantly correlate with hair lead levels after all the other covariates of the whole-brain analyses of n-back tasks were controlled . These procedures are identical to those described in our previous study, and the descriptions in this subsection are mostly reproduced from that study.

    Image acquisition

    Forty-two transaxial gradient-echo images covering the entire brain were acquired using an echo planar sequence. A total of 174 functional volumes were obtained for the n-back sessions.

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    Q: How Is Johns Hopkins Studying Impacts On The Brain Associated With Covid

    A: Were investigating selected cases by conducting the appropriate studies and imaging, such as MRIs, electroencephalograms and samples of spinal fluid. However, it can be challenging to get these studies. Our patients with COVID-19 can be extremely weak and even confused, so we need to balance treating their immediate medical needs with information gathering to better understand how we can help fight the virus in others who may develop this condition in the future.

    Coronavirus

    Protective Effects Related To Long Term Marijuana Use

    How lead can get into the water supply, explained in 5 ...

    Science has shown that certain compounds in marijuana have strong protective effects on the brain. And according to some studies marijuana has the potential to be used as a treatment for various diseases that have their origins in the brain.

    Alzheimer

    In a study done in 2008, researchers found that the most well-known compound in marijuana: THC, is a considerably superior inhibitor of A aggregation than currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. A aggregation is the key process that leads to loss of neurons in Alzheimers disease.

    A more recent study in 2014, also confirmed that THC is effective at lowering A aggregation at extremely low concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.

    Brain cancer

    The 2 most well-known cannabinoids in marijuana:

    • THC, and,

    Have been shown to stop the growth of one of the most aggressive cancers in adult humans: glioma . THC and CBD have been shown to be especially effective in stopping the growth of glioma when combined with traditional radiotherapy.

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    What Are The Effects Of Meth Use And Abuse

    • Increased neuronal death: The use of methamphetamine is associated with decreases in the number of neurons in the CNS. The ability of the CNS to regenerate these neurons is limited, and in many cases, the loss of neurons cannot be recovered. The body of evidence indicates that chronic use of methamphetamine can result in diffuse brain damage that occurs via neuronal death. Neuronal death occurs in a number of areas of the brain as a result of meth abuse that include but are not limited to:
    • The hippocampus: a crucial structure for the ability to remember and learn new information
    • The striatum: a structure in the subcortical areas of the brain that is crucial in movement and certain aspects of directed attention
    • The parietal cortex: a structure that is involved in being able to visualize objects in space and in the memory of nonverbal material
    • The frontal and prefrontal cortex: areas of the brain that are crucial in human cognition, particularly in reasoning, complex attention, problem-solving, and the inhibition of behaviors that might be damaging
    • A number of subcortical structures: including the basal ganglia, the reward center, the limbic system, and others
    • The cerebellum: controls various aspects of movement and is involved in a number of cognitive functions

    How Does Alcohol Affect The Brain

    When it comes to our brain, even when we drink a moderate amount of alcohol, nearly every part of our brain matter is negatively affected, resulting in both short- and long-term implications.

    Any information mentioned is accurate at the time this article was originally published;.

    In Australia, it is recommended that adults consume no more than 10 standard drinks per week and no more than 4 standard drinks per day to reduce the health risks from alcohol. With this is mind, its important to understand how exactly alcohol affects our brain and what implications this may have on our overall health.;

    In this article you’ll learn:;

    • Short and long-term effects of alcohol products;
    • Alcohol and brain damage;
    • Tips on cutting back on alcohol consumption;;

    Be Healthy was created by VicHealth to provide helpful tips and advice on how you and your family can stay healthy. You can read more Be Healthy articles here.;;

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    Why Are Drugs More Addictive Than Natural Rewards

    For the brain, the difference between normal rewards and drug rewards can be likened to the difference between someone whispering into your ear and someone shouting into a microphone. Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain of someone who misuses drugs adjusts by producing fewer neurotransmitters in the reward circuit, or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive signals. As a result, the person’s ability to experience pleasure from naturally rewarding activities is also reduced.

    This is why a person who misuses drugs eventually feels flat, without motivation, lifeless, and/or depressed, and is unable to enjoy things that were previously pleasurable. Now, the person needs to keep taking drugs to experience even a normal level of rewardwhich only makes the problem worse, like a vicious cycle. Also, the person will often need to take larger amounts of the drug to produce the familiar highan effect known as tolerance.

    For more information on drugs and the brain, order NIDAs;Teaching Addiction Science;series or the;Mind Matters;series at;www.drugabuse.gov/parent-teacher.html.;These items and others are available to the public free of charge.

    What Causes Hydrocephalus

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    Hydrocephalus may be present at birth or may develop over time as a result of injury or disease . ;Except for hydrocephalus secondary to physical obstruction of CSF passages within the brain or skull by blood or tumor, the exact causes of hydrocephalus are still not well understood.

    Congenital hydrocephalusBabies may be born with hydrocephalus or develop the condition shortly after delivery. ;In these cases, hydrocephalus may be caused by:

    • inherited genetic abnormalities that block the flow of CSF
    • developmental disorders such as those associated with birth defects in the brain, spine, or spinal cord
    • complications of premature birth such as bleeding within the ventricles
    • infection during pregnancy such as rubella that can cause inflammation in the fetal brain tissue.

    AcquiredhydrocephalusCertain factors can increase the risk of developing hydrocephalus at any age, including:

    • brain or spinal cord tumors
    • infections of the central nervous system such as bacterial meningitis
    • injury or stroke that causes bleeding in the brain.

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    Who Is At Risk

    Children

    Lead is particularly dangerous to children because their growing bodies absorb more lead than adults do and their brains and nervous systems are more sensitive to the damaging effects of lead. Babies and young children can also be more highly exposed to lead because they often put their hands and other objects that can have lead from dust or soil on them into their mouths. Children may also be exposed to lead by eating and drinking food or water containing lead or from dishes or glasses that contain lead, inhaling lead dust from lead-based paint or lead-contaminated soil or from playing with toys with lead-based paint.

    Adults, Including Pregnant Women

    Adults may be exposed to lead by eating and drinking food or water containing lead or from dishes or glasses that contain lead. They may also breath lead dust by spending time in areas where lead-based paint is deteriorating, and during renovation or repair work that disturbs painted surfaces in older homes and buildings. Working in a job or engaging in hobbies where lead is used, such as making stained glass, can increase exposure as can certain folk remedies containing lead. A pregnant womans exposure to lead from these sources is of particular concern because it can result in exposure to her developing baby.

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