Friday, May 13, 2022

How Does The Brain Tell The Lungs To Slow Breathing

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Printable Worksheets Answer Key / Evaluations

Physio Guided Slow Breathing Exercises (Pranayama) to Relieve Stress


The answer key below is designed to be used with the four printable worksheets in the Drugs + Your Body: It Isnt Pretty poster/teaching guide, created to provide students with scientific facts and engage them in critical thinking about how drugs can affect the body, the brain, and society.

Answers may vary, but should include content along the following lines:

1) The brain directly or indirectly controls not just thoughts, feelings, and actions, but also the function of virtually all body organs and systems. It also monitors a persons current environment to help them survive. If respiration needs to be slowed, the brain sends messages through the peripheral nervous system to the lungs, causing the lungs to slow down.2) When Im scared, or when I run fast, my heart beats faster. Drugs that can cause the same reaction in a person include cocaine, methamphetamine, and prescription stimulants .

3) A physical activity such as working out includes both voluntary and involuntary responses. A person voluntarily moves his or her body, which creates involuntary responses from the lungs and the heart .

Evaluation: Do students understand the difference between voluntary responses like walking, and involuntary responses like breathing? Do they understand that normal organ functions are part of the involuntary system that can be disrupted and/or damaged by drugs of abuse?

2) Tobacco contains many chemicals that can lead to cancer.

3) alcohol and cocaine

Cocaine Use And The Respiratory Health

Cocaine is a very harmful central nervous system stimulant that increases the firing rates of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Its use results in a constriction of the veins, arteries, and capillaries in the vascular system, and it can lead to hardening of the cellular walls in organs like the lungs and death of cells in the respiratory system.

Smoking cocaine can lead to:

  • Pulmonary edema, swelling of the lungs, and even hemorrhages in the lungs
  • Ruptures of the air sacs in the lungs
  • Increased probability to develop asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema, or exacerbation of these conditions

While researchers suspect that smoking crack does increase the risk for lung cancer, the evidence remains inconclusive at the time of this writing.

Although smoking cocaine is far more detrimental to the health of the respiratory system, individuals who snort cocaine can also develop various issues, including:

  • Damage to the nasal passages and significant tissue death in these passages
  • Increased risk to develop nasal infections
  • Ischemic damage in the trachea and nasal passages

A Particular Frequency Of Breath Can Be Especially Restorative Triggering A Relaxation Response In The Brain And Body

The answer may be a lot. Recent scientific research has shown that while quick, shallow and unfocused breathing may contribute to a host of problems, including anxiety, depression and high blood pressure, cultivating greater control over our lungs can bring many benefits to our mental and physical health. Intriguingly, scientists are finding that a particular frequency of breath at around six exhalations a minute can be especially restorative, triggering a relaxation response in the brain and body.

Besides inspiring life coaches and fitness gurus, breathwork has also started to draw the attention of major corporations who hope that the practice could help staff to focus their minds and to cope with the daily stresses of their job.

Speed ramp to relaxation

Like the current fashion for mindfulness, breathwork has been inspired by the teachings of ancient texts most notably Hindu and Vedic scriptures, which have long extolled the importance of breath control through practices like pranayama yoga.

The science of yoga has often attracted research interest. Here, an Indian defence laboratory studies techniques to help soldiers in hostile environments

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Your Brain Sends A Signal To Your Heart To Speed Up Or Slow Down Blood Flow

As a response to the slower blood flow, your brain sends a signal to the heart to tell it to speed up blood flow.

This can, in part, explain why when youre doing moderate to heavy exercise, you feel more energized. The increase in in-breaths will speed up your heart.

So on the flip side, when you exhale and your heart shrinks, your blood flow speeds up. As a result, your brain sends a signal to the heart to tell it to slow down the blood flow.

Ding ding! This is the key to relaxation!

Breathing And The Autonomic Nervous System

5 Essential Oils for Breathing

You don’t have to think about breathing because your body’s autonomic nervous system controls it, as it does many other functions in your body. If you try to hold your breath, your body will override your action and force you to let out that breath and start breathing again. The respiratory centers that control your rate of breathing are in the brainstem or medulla. The nerve cells that live within these centers automatically send signals to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract and relax at regular intervals. However, the activity of the respiratory centers can be influenced by these factors:

Of these factors, the strongest influence is the carbon dioxide concentration in your blood and CSF followed by the oxygen concentration.

Sometimes the respiratory centers go temporarily awry and send extra impulses to the diaphragm. These impulses cause unwanted contractions . The same thing happens in unborn children many pregnant women often feel their babies hiccup. This happens because the respiratory centers of the developing child’s brain are working just like those of an adult even though they are not yet breathing air.

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Anxiety Attacks Hyperventilation And Afib

If you feel anxious about your AFib symptoms, youre not alone. For many people, the symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are frightening and worrisome enough to bring on a panic attack, and all of the discomforts that come with it. In some cases, the racing heartbeat, muscle tension, adrenaline rush, and lightheadedness can trigger an AFib episode.

Whether anxiety feeds your AFib or its the other way around, the panic could interfere with your breathing. When you begin to breathe too fast, exhaling more than you inhale, your body doesnt receive an adequate amount of oxygen. This is known as hyperventilation, and there are some ways to help overcome it.

Breathe more slowly, not more deeply. Though it may seem helpful, deep breathing can make things worse. Instead, you want to balance out the length of your inhalations and exhalations by slowing down the breathing reflex. Some techniques to help you slow your breath include:

  • Holding your breath for 10 to 15 seconds
  • Breathing in and out of a paper bag
  • Breathing through pursed lips

Use the CART technique. Experts have designed some simple breathing exercises that can help overcome panic attacks and hyperventilation when used daily. Compared to other behavioural therapies, like cognitive therapy, CART is more effective at changing the breathing physiology in panic attacks.

Smoking Tobacco And The Respiratory System

The damage that occurs to the respiratory system from smoking tobacco products cannot be understated. The effects of smoking tobacco progress relatively slowly and increase in severity over time. The respiratory system attempts to clean itself by trapping dirt and other foreign bodies, such as microbes, and then removing them through the cilia via mucus or other methods. So-called smokers cough is often a result of the lungs attempting to rid themselves of impurities associated with tobacco products. Over time, these products take their toll, and many of the carcinogens cannot be removed completely.

People who continue to smoke tobacco products lose elasticity in the walls of the system, and many of the small structures within the system rupture or become thickened. Toxic chemicals in cigarettes and other tobacco products number literally in the hundreds, and eventually, these substances lead to an increase in the risk of getting certain respiratory conditions and the risk of developing numerous forms of cancer by changing the cellular structure of the tissues.

The major respiratory conditions associated with smoking tobacco products include the following:

These are typically chronic conditions that slowly develop but become progressive and worsen at an accelerated rate. Interestingly, many of these conditions can be alleviated significantly by simply quitting use of tobacco products.

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What I Learned In 6 Months Of Daily Breath Work

My breath and mindfulness teacher got my attention, and respect, days before our session began: Try to show up with an empty stomach . The pre-session email also asked students about pregnancy, blood pressure issues or heart irregularities. This breath work sounded intense, and it is . But these questions from Haley Niichel demonstrated she understood the power of breath, not only to heal and restore, but its potential for harm in people with particular conditions or risks. This practice is NOT for pregnant mamas, she emphasized.

This was in November of 2020, when my partner gifted me a 90-minute kriya and pranayama session online with her friend, a certified breath instructor. It seemed like a fun and healthy activity for the two of us who were becoming overly paranoid shut-ins in a new city mid-pandemic. Wed get through it, one breath at a time.

For 90 minutes, Niichel watched us practice and encouraged us to take notes and drill her with questions. Then she sent us on our way. She asked that we commit to the practice daily for at least a week or two, and notice how we felt. More than six months later, Ive only missed a handful of days and I have no plans to stop. Neither does my partner, who has reported relief in her neck after a decade of chronic pain and limited mobility.

While our observations are only anecdotal rather than data-driven, heres what Ive noticed:

Youre Probably Doing It Wrong

Neural Control of Breathing | Respiratory System

If you want to observe the correct way to breath, watch a newborn. They naturally practice deep breathing from the diaphragm. Youll see their belly expand and chest rise as they inhale air through their nose into the lungs, and when they exhale, their belly contracts. For many people, this kind of respiration is no longer instinctive. Life teaches us how to breathe incorrectly. Many of us have become shallow mouth breathers. Our breathing patterns may have shifted due to stress and anxiety. Also, the desire to have a flat stomach encourages us to hold our breath and suck in our stomachs which is the opposite of what we should be doing. We have to intentionally re-learn how to breathe optimally.

When you take shallow breaths, your body remains in a cyclical state of stress. Stress causes shallow breathing and shallow breathing causing stress. Breathing incorrectly can activate the sympathetic nervous system and the stress response. Shallow breathing can lock your body and mind in a habitual state of stress.

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Improving Health With Current Research

Learn about the following ways the NHLBI continues to translate current research to prevent and treat lung problems. Research on this topic is part of the NHLBIs broader commitment to advancing scientific discovery.

  • Increasing and Sustaining Research to Reduce the Burden of COPD. The NHLBI, with input from federal and nonfederal partners, developed a to guide stakeholders nationwide in their efforts to reduce the burden of COPD. In addition, the NHLBIs program seeks to increase awareness about lung diseases and conditions, including COPD, and understanding of how to manage and treat them.
  • Collaborating to Improve Asthma Awareness. The raises awareness about asthma as a major public health problem. Working with medical associations, voluntary health organizations, and community programs, NAEPP helps to educate patients, healthcare professionals, and the public about asthma. The program also aims to raise awareness about asthma as well as educate people about how to treat it.

Learn about some of the pioneering research contributions we have made over the years that have improved clinical care.

Why Does Your Breathing Rate Increase During Exercise

This happens because oxygen is needed to burn calories more efficiently. Since the blood picks up oxygen in the lungs, and the demand for oxygen increases during exercise, the lungs must work harder. With a faster breathing rate, more oxygen is picked up at the lungs for delivery to the working muscles.

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Breathing Techniques That Calm Your Brain And Body Instantly

Because your breath directly controls your nervous system, its the remote control to instantly calm your brain and body. Learning to control and calm your breathing has many physical, mental, and life benefits both instantly and in the long run. You take roughly 20,000 breaths a day, which means you have a lot of chances to help yourself. Here are six ways to do that.

What Are The Treatment Options

SAM 5 minute Wellbeing Workout

If your breathing rate seems slower than normal, see your physician for a thorough evaluation. This will probably include a physical examination and a check of your other vital signs pulse, body temperature, and blood pressure. Along with your other symptoms, a physical exam and medical history will help determine if further diagnostic tests are needed.

In emergency situations, supplemental oxygen and other life support measures may be needed. Treating any underlying condition may resolve the bradypnea. Some potential treatments are:

  • opioid addiction: addiction recovery programs, alternate pain management
  • opioid overdose: when taken in time, a drug called Naloxone can block opioid receptor sites, reversing the toxic effects of the overdose
  • hypothyroidism: daily thyroid medications
  • toxins: administration of oxygen, treatment of any poisoning, and monitoring of vital signs
  • head injury: careful monitoring, supportive care, and surgery

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Tiny Cluster Of Neurons

The tiny cluster of neurons linking respiration to relaxation, attention, excitement and anxiety is located deep in the brainstem. This cluster, located in an area Krasnow calls the pacemaker for breathing, was discovered in mice by study co-author Jack Feldman, PhD, a professor of neurobiology at UCLA, who published his findings in 1991. An equivalent structure has since been identified in humans.

The diagram depicts the pathway that directly connects the brain’s breathing center to the arousal center and the rest of the brain.Courtesy of the Krasnow lab

The respiratory pacemaker has, in some respects, a tougher job than its counterpart in the heart, said Krasnow, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. Unlike the hearts one-dimensional, slow-to-fast continuum, there are many distinct types of breaths: regular, excited, sighing, yawning, gasping, sleeping, laughing, sobbing. We wondered if different subtypes of neurons within the respiratory control center might be in charge of generating these different types of breath.

On that hunch, Yackle searched through public databases to assemble a list of genes that are preferentially activated in the part of the mouse brainstem where the breathing-control center resides. This centers technical term is the pre-Bötzinger complex, or preBötC.

Manage Shortness Of Breath With Lung Cancer

A distressing symptom of lung cancer you may be experiencing is shortness of breath, also called dyspnea, which causes you to have difficulty catching your breath or to feel tightness in your chest. Shortness of breath may come on with physical activity, or even while resting.

Having problems breathing can be scary, but the good news is there are practical tips to prevent, manage and treat this common complication of lung cancer.

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How Do Drugs Work In The Brain

Drugs change the way that neurons talk to each other. These changes cause neurons to make you act in ways that you normally wouldnt.

There are three main parts of the brain that are affected by drug use:

  • The basal ganglia is the part of the brain that motivates us to do healthy activities, like eating or hanging out with friends. Drugs flow into this area of the brain and cause people to feel really happy. But if you use a drug a lot, the basal ganglia can get used to having the drug around, and make it hard to feel pleasure from anything but the drug.
  • The extended amygdala is what makes you feel stressed out or cranky. When people use drugs, this part of the brain gets very sensitive. When your body is used to the drugs and you stop, the extended amygdala makes you feel really sick, so people will use drugs again just to get rid of that feeling.
  • The prefrontal cortex helps you think, make decisions, and control your actions. So when someone uses drugs, this part of the brain becomes less able to make good judgements or step in to say “no” to a harmful impulse.
  • Also, some drugs affect other parts of the brain, like the brain stem. The brain stem controls heart rate and breathing. When a person takes certain drugs like opioids, their breathing can become dangerously slow. When the breathing stops, its called an overdose, and can cause death.

    What Causes Shortness Of Breath With Lung Cancer

    How Your Lungs Work

    Sometimes, lung cancer tumors grow in a way that blocks airways, put pressure on lungs or cause inflammation in the respiratory system. All of these situations can prevent your respiratory system from working properly, leading to problems getting in enough air.

    Shortness of breath is a common symptom, but the good news is that it can be managed quite well, says Lonny Yarmus, a board-certified interventional pulmonologist in the Lung Cancer Program at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. Yarmus explains that the most common causes of shortness of breath, as related to lung cancer, include:

    • Blocked airways: Lung tumors can grow into or press against the airway, narrowing the passage and making it difficult to get enough air in and out of the body.

    • Fluid buildup: In some patients with lung cancer, lung cancer cells invade the space between the lungs and the chest wall, called the pleural space. This condition, called pleural effusion, causes fluid to build up around the lungs, making it harder for the lung to fully expand and take in enough air.

    • Low levels of oxygen in the blood: Lung cancer can decrease red blood cells, which are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs up to the heart and the rest of the body.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Dr. Richard Battafarano, Director of the Division of Thoracic Surgery at Johns Hopkins common answers questions about lung cancer prevention and treatment.

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