Friday, May 13, 2022

How Does Your Brain Control Your Body

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High Pressure High Risk

Your Brain Controls How You Move

High blood pressure is the leading cause of strokes, both symptomatic and silent. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension contribute to risk the higher your pressure, the higher your risk. According to one Harvard study, hypertension increases a man’s risk of stroke by 220% according to another, each 10 mm Hg rise in systolic pressure boosts the risk of ischemic stroke by 28% and of hemorrhagic stroke by 38%.

That’s the bad news. The good news is that treating hypertension is extremely protective in round figures, if you reduce your systolic blood pressure by 10 mm Hg, you should cut your risk of stroke by a whopping 44%.

Poor Sleep Makes You Moody

Think cranky toddler in need of a nap. We all know that sleep affects mood and irritability. But brain-imaging studies have shown that a good nights sleep helps our brain regulate mood and cope with whatever the next day brings. Conversely, insufficient sleep boosts a part of the brain thats known to be affected by depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders.

Without sleep, the brain had reverted back to more primitive patterns of activity in that it was unable to put emotional experiences into context and produced controlled, appropriate responses, the studys senior author Matthew Walker, Director of University of California Berkeleys Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory, said in a statement in 2007 .

Chronic insomnia has also been linked to increased risk of developing a mood disorder, including anxiety or depression. Another study found that after a week of getting just four-and-a-half hours of sleep per night, individuals reported worse moods .

How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have

The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”

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How The Spinal Cord And Muscles Work Together

The spinal cord is divided into five sections: the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions. The level of injury determines the extent of paralysis and/or loss of sensation. No two injuries are alike.

This diagram illustrates the connections between the major skeletal muscle groups and each level of the spinal cord. A similar organization exists for the spinal control of the internal organs.

How Hungry Are Our Brains

The brain controls the body. What are you doing to train ...

Despite the fact that the human brain is not a very large organ, its functioning requires a whole lot of energy.

Although the brain weighs only 2 percent of the body , it alone uses 25 percent of all the energy that your body requires to run per day, Herculano-Houzel explained in a presentation.

And why does the brain need so much fuel? Based on studies of rat models, some scientists have hypothesized that, while most of this energy is expended on maintaining ongoing thought and bodily processes, some of it is probably invested in the upkeep of brain cells health.

But, according to some researchers, at first sight, the brain, seemingly inexplicably, uses up a lot of energy during what is known as the resting state, when it is not involved in any specific, targeted activities.

According to James Kozloski, Inactivity correlated networks appear even under anesthesia, and these areas have very high metabolic rates, tipping the brains energy budget toward a large investment in the organisms doing nothing, he writes.

But Kozloskis hypothesis is that no large amount of energy is spent for no reason so why does the brain seem to do it? In fact, he says, it doesnt.

Energy spent doing nothing, he says, is actually put toward assembling a map of accumulating information and experiences that we can fall back on when making decisions in our day-to-day lives.

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How The Spinal Cord And Internal Organs Work Together

In addition to the control of voluntary movement, the central nervous system contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways that control the “fight or flight” response to danger and regulation of bodily functions. These include hormone release, movement of food through the stomach and intestines, and the sensations from and muscular control to all internal organs.

This diagram illustrates these pathways and the level of the spinal cord projecting to each organ.

So Alabama Should Be More Violent Than Alaska

Right. All things being equal, the key to a good scientific study is that theres a good control. But comparing Alabama and Alaska may not be conclusive, as there are many differences. Throughout much of the year, people in Alaska probably see less light than people in Alabama, for instance. And the presence of colors and light levels in our environment can also have significant effects, both on the emotional aspects of personality and on cognitive functions.

Many of us are aware that not getting enough daylight can cause seasonal affective disorder, or SAD. Less familiar is the effect of colors. Even tiny color cues in your environment can affect your behavioral performance. It has been found, for instance, that blue-green-yellow type colors tend to be particularly arousing. Red, as its reputation suggests, tends to promote aggression and avoidance. In one study, researchers put little red or blue cues at the top of a fake exam, and found that the people who had the red cues on the exam did worse.

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What Happens In Your Brain When Youre Stressed

Stress is essentially a chain reaction happening inside your body and in particular, in your brain. When youre experiencing something that causes you stress, an area of the brain that contributes to emotional processing, will send a distress signal to the hypothalamus. If that doesnt ring a bell immediately, the hypothalamus is the area of your brain that functions like a command center. It communicates with the rest of your body through the nervous system. This will create a so-called fight-or-flight response which creates the physical reactions most people have to stress, such as an increased heart rate or heavy breathing.

How Do You Control Feelings Of Stress

How Your Brain Works

When you are coping with high stress levels, its important to take control on your thoughts, actions and body. Before starting on anything else, identify what gives you stress. Are you overloaded at work because you cant say no to your colleagues? Or are you stressed because youre dealing with personal problems? Once youve idenfitied the problem, you can take conscious actions to lower your stress and feel more at peace. Mindfulness is a topic that has become radically more popular over the past decade as mental health is getting spoken more openly about. Meditation is a great way to center your thoughts and keep your mind clear, especially during times of stress. Start the day off with a short meditation session or if you prefer, meditate for ten minutes before going to bed. Exercising in general and getting enough fresh air throughout the day can also help to control feelings of stress as they help to increase Serotonin levels.

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A New Area Of Neuroscience Known As Connectomics Seeks To Give A Kind Of Unifying Theory Of The Brain Explain What It Means And What The Human Connectome Project Is Doing

Connectomics means two different things in our community. The one I personally interact with is more about mapping the individuals structures, chiefly cells in the brain. The Human Connectome Project is a bit different because it looks, at roughly three orders of magnitude lower resolution, at the superhighways that connect different regions of the brain and tries to relate those to aspects of brain activity and genetics. What both these views have in common is that theyre trying to describe key aspects of brain function in terms of its intrinsic structure.

That is a wonderful thing to do in that this data is critical. But the mystical end of that research is that, if we knew where every cell connected, then we would be able to simulate how a brain works and, in its most extreme form, model our entire lives in a computer.

There are probably no faculty members at top universities who would subscribe to that view. But it is a theme thats been taken up, like the movement to freeze brains after death. The most famous example here in Boston is Ted Williams, our great Red Sox baseball player, who had his body frozen after death. This ideathat you could take frozen tissue and reconstruct the mind and, in some sense, the life of the personis motivated by a compartmentalized view of the brain: that everything important is in the brain.

Brain 101

Responses To How Your Brain Controls Your Weight

  • If weight is governed by brain and self-regulating, how did Seely manipulate things to get some rats fattened up.

  • Thanks for your question, Sue. The best short answer is the passage in the article above that says:

    Increasingly, its becoming apparent that our food is acting in some ways like a hormone that serves to reset the bodys target weight. Its not so much the calories in the food, but the composition of the food that can affect signals to the brain that regulate body weight.

  • Our food is patented as a pesticide and has glyphosate in it and on it, since 1994.

    Monsanto Chemical owns the patent rights to about 85% of our nations food supply and controls the chemical cocktails that are in the food. Its called GMOs and besides built-in pesticides that eliminate natural plant derived sulfurs that are vital for our digestion, weight and health.

    They also have a chemical cocktail in the food to make us crave it. Since 1994, obesity and cancers are off the charts. I started eating organic and went from morbidly obese to a BMI of 21.

    You are totally correct that its whats in the food that is causing most of America to be obese and unhealthy.

  • Thanks for sharing your thoughts, though I cant say I agree with your ideas about the chemical cocktail.

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    What Are The Parts Of The Brain

    The brain has three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

    The Forebrain

    The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain as well as other structures under it.

    The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes you who you are: your intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

    The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres. They’re connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers that lets them communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

    • The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.
    • The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

    So when you’re balancing your checkbook, you’re using the left side. When you’re listening to music, you’re using the right side. It’s believed that some people are more “right-brained” or “left-brained” while others are more “whole-brained,” meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

    In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, and :

    The Midbrain

    The Hindbrain

    Masturbation Effects On Nerves

    How does your brain control your body?

    Masturbation is said to calm your nervous system due to the release of oxytocin and dopamine. There is no scientific evidence that establishes any negative masturbation effect on nerves. Myths link masturbation with prostate cancer, vision loss, and hair loss are false, and there is no scientific evidence to support those claims.

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    How Does The Brain Control Movement

    Creative Commons

    Answer by Fabian van den Berg, Neuroscientist and Psychologist, on Quora:

    How does brain control the precision of movement of our body parts? This might get a bit more complicated than you expected, so hold on. Your brain is rather complicated with many different parts and even simplifying it gets confusing. This is going to be a long one since you asked for the brain to movement mechanism .

    Ill try to find common ground making it both understandable and accurate. This is about the voluntary control the brain has on muscles, movements like reflexes are excluded.

    Initiating a Movement

    The first thing we need is to know how movement is initiated. This isnt as easy as sending a message from the brain to the muscle to make it move. Messages originate from the cortex, the outer layer of the brain. These need to go to the muscles, but they make a little stop first. If every message was sent to your muscles you wouldnt be able to function. This stop happens at the Basal Ganglia. This is a complicated system that selects which instructions will be executed and which are inhibited. The reason for a movement can be many things, the specific goal is not important right now.

    Important areas in the basal ganglia are the ones below, Ill hold off on too much detail and just give general descriptions. There are more structures that may or may not be part of the basal ganglia, but lets stick to these.

    Direct Pathway

    Indirect Pathway

    Modulation Of The Pathways

    The Cerebellum’s Balancing Act

    Next up is the cerebellum. The cerebellum is at the back of the brain, below the cerebrum. It’s a lot smaller than the cerebrum. But it’s a very important part of the brain. It controls balance, movement, and coordination .

    Because of your cerebellum, you can stand upright, keep your balance, and move around. Think about a surfer riding the waves on his board. What does he need most to stay balanced? The best surfboard? The coolest wetsuit? Nope he needs his cerebellum!

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    The Motor System And Primary Motor Cortex

    The brains motor system is contained mostly in the frontal lobes. It starts with premotor areas, for planning and coordinating complex movements, and ends with the primary motor cortex, where the final output is sent down the spinal cord to cause contraction and movement of specific muscles.

    The primary motor cortex on the left side of the brain controls movement of the right side of the body, and vice-versa, the right motor cortex controls movement of the left side of the body.

    Different areas of the primary motor cortex connect to, and control, movement of different parts of the body, forming a kind of body map known as the homunculus.

    The size of the area on the homunculus determines the level of fine movement control we have with that part of the body. So, for instance, a large proportion of the motor cortex is devoted to our thumb, fingers, mouth and lips, as they are vital for manipulating objects and speech articulation.

    The connection from the primary motor cortex to muscles of the body is so important that any damage leads to an impaired ability to move. If someone suffers a stroke, for instance, that causes damage to the primary motor cortex on one side of their brain, they will develop an impaired ability to move on the opposite side of their body.

    Negative Effects On The Brain

    Control your mind Heal your body

    Masturbation is usually associated with positive effects on health. However, some men might feel guilty masturbating due to religious or social constructs.

    Masturbating twice a week is considered healthy. However, like any good thing, excessive masturbation can cause adverse effects on health. It can lead to physical problems like irritated or broken skin and cramps.

    Compulsive masturbation leads to exhaustion. This affects health and might cause disorientation. Physical fatigue can also cause absent-mindedness and a negative shift in focus. Excessive masturbation can start interfering with day-to-day life and your overall physiological well-being.

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    How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh

    The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.

    Structure Of The Brain

    The cerebrum has a right half and a left half, known as the right and left hemispheres. The two hemispheres are connected via a thick bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere is made up of six areas that have different functions. The cerebrum controls movement and processes sensory information. Conscious and unconscious actions and feelings are produced here. It is also responsible for speech, hearing, intelligence and memory.

    The functions of the two hemispheres are to a great extent different: whereas the left hemisphere is responsible for speech and abstract thinking in most people, the right hemisphere is usually responsible for spatial thinking or imagery. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. This means that damage to the left hemisphere due to a stroke, for example, can lead to paralysis on the right side of the body.

    The left cerebral cortex is responsible for speech and language. The right cerebral cortex supplies spatial information, such as where your foot is at the moment. The thalamus provides the cerebrum with sensory information from the skin, eyes and ears, as well as other information. The hypothalamus regulates things like hunger, thirst and sleep. Together with the pituitary gland, it also regulates the hormones in your body.

    The cerebellum coordinates movements and is responsible for balance.

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