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How Many Parts Of Brain

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Frontal Lobe Higher And Human Function

What are the Parts of the Brain?

The frontal lobe is where higher human-like brain activity occurs.

Where higher mental processes such as thinking, decision making, and planning. Highly developed in humans, the frontal lobe is also where our personality is formed and where we can carry out higher mental processes such as planning.

In addition, the frontal lobe is necessary to be able to speak fluently and meaningfully.

A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

  • Breathing
  • Sensory relay
  • Hunger

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The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Curious Kids: how much does a brain weigh?

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

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Is Brain Size Linked To Intelligence

Overall brain size doesn’t correlate with level of intelligence for non-human animals. For instance, the brain of a sperm whale is more than five times heavier than the human brain, but humans are considered to be of higher intelligence than sperm whales. A more accurate measure of an animal’s likely intelligence is the ratio between the size of the brain and body size, although not even that measure puts humans in first place: The tree shrew has the highest brain-to-body ratio of any mammal, according to BrainFacts.org, a website produced by the Society for Neuroscience.

Among humans, brain size doesn’t indicate a person’s level of intelligence. Some geniuses in their field have smaller-than-average brains, while others have brains that are larger than average, according to Christof Koch, a neuroscientist and president of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle. For example, compare the brains of two highly acclaimed writers. The Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev’s brain was found to weigh 71 ounces , while the brain of French writer Anatole France weighed only 36 ounces .

“The more complicated a brain gets, the more gyri and sulci, or wiggly hills and valleys, it has,” Holland told Live Science. Other intelligent animals, such as monkeys and dolphins, also have these folds in their cortex, whereas mice have smooth brains, he said.

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Parts of the Brain-Human Brain Structure and Function

The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

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The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata

Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.

The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

  • The amygdala
  • Regions of the limbic cortex
  • The septal area

These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

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The Geography Of Thought

Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.

Other Cool Facts About The Brain

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  • The brain can’t multitask, according to the Dent Neurologic Institute. Instead, it switches between tasks, which increases errors and makes things take longer.
  • The human brain triples in size during the first year of life and reaches full maturity at about age 25.
  • Humans use all of the brain all of the time, not just 10% of it.
  • The brain is 60% fat, according to Northwestern Medicine.
  • The human brain can generate 23 watts of electrical power enough to fuel a small lightbulb.

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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

Be Good To Your Brain

So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

  • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
  • Get a lot of playtime .
  • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
  • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
  • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

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The Architecture Of The Brain

The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .

When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.

The Origin Of The Myth

Human Brain | Parts & Functions | Cerebrum & Cerebellum | Biology | LetsTute

The main allure of the 10 percent myth is the idea that you could do so much more if only you could unlock the rest of your brain. Even with ample evidence suggesting the contrary, why do many people still believe that humans only use 10 percent of their brains? Its unclear how the myth spread in the first place, but it has been popularized by self-help books, and may even also be grounded in older, flawed, neuroscience studies.

The myth could be aligned with messages espoused by self-improvement books, which show you ways to do better and live up to your “potential.” For example, the preface to the notorious “How to Win Friends and Influence People” says that the average person develops only 10 percent of his latent mental ability. This statement, which is traced back to psychologist William James, refers to a persons potential to achieve more rather than how much brain matter they used. Others have even said that Einstein explained his brilliance using the 10 percent myth, though these claims remain unfounded.

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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And What Do They Do

The brain has many different parts. The brain also has specific areas that do certain types of work. These areas are called lobes. One lobe works with your eyes when watching a movie. There is a lobe that is controlling your legs and arms when running and kicking a soccer ball. There are two lobes that are involved with reading and writing. Your memories of a favorite event are kept by the same lobe that helps you on a math test. The brain is controlling all of these things and a lot more. Use the map below to take a tour of the regions in the brain and learn what they control in your body.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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Food And Waste Transport

The cerebrospinal fluid is responsible for bringing in nutrients and removing waste in the brain and spinal cord. It is found in the meninges layers and is moved through the brain by ventricles.

The brain’s four main ventricles help the cerebrospinal fluid nourish and cleanse the brain. They also cushion the brain from injury.

How Is The Brain Supplied With Blood

In the anatomy of humans and of many other vertebrates ...

The brain needs a steady flow of enough oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients. For that reason, it has a particularly good blood supply. Each side of the brain receives blood through three arteries:

  • In the front, the anterior cerebral artery supplies the tissue behind the forehead and under the crown .
  • The middle cerebral artery is important for the sides and areas that are further inside the brain. The anterior and middle cerebral artery split off from the internal carotid artery, a major blood vessel in the neck.
  • The posterior cerebral artery supplies the back of the head, the lower part of the brain, and the cerebellum. It is supplied with blood from the vertebral arteries, which are also major arteries of the neck.

Before the three arteries reach their brain region, where they split into smaller branches, they are close together below the brain. In this area, they are connected to each other by smaller blood vessels forming a structure similar to a traffic circle. The arteries are connected to each other in other areas as well. The advantage of these connections is that blood supply problems in the brain can be compensated for to some extent: For example, if a branch of an artery gradually becomes narrower, blood can still flow to the part of the brain it supplies through these alternative routes .

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