Myelencephalon/medulla Oblongataposterior Part Of Hindbrain
Forming an important subdivision, it is the lower most part of your brain that serves to mutually connect the two major structures of CNS, namely, brain and the spinal cord. Medulla oblongata is comprised of the lower part of brainstem and contains different control centers, viz. vomiting, cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory to conduct various autonomic and involuntary activities in the body, like, breathing, blood pressure, heart-beat rate, and so on. Any of the diseases of human brain affecting this part will make it unable to perform the given functions appropriately.
General Functions Of Midbrain
The midbrain plays an essential role in sensory and motor control pathways. It contains structures that are involved in movements regulation. It serves as a passage for the impulses between the spinal cord and higher centers in the brain. It is also concerned with consciousness and sleep.
Anatomy Of The Human Brain
The largest part of the human brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into two hemispheres, according to the Mayfield Clinic. Each hemisphere consists of four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The rippled surface of the cerebrum is called the cortex. Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem, and behind that sits the cerebellum.
The frontal lobe is important for cognitive functions, such as thought and planning ahead, and for the control of voluntary movement. The temporal lobe generates memories and emotions. The parietal lobe integrates input from different senses and is important for spatial orientation and navigation. Visual processing takes place in the occipital lobe, near the back of the skull.
The brainstem connects to the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. The primary functions of the brainstem include relaying information between the brain and the body supplying most of the cranial nerves to the face and head and performing critical functions in controlling the heart, breathing and levels of consciousness .
The cerebellum lies beneath the cerebrum and has important functions in motor control. It plays a role in coordination and balance and may also have some cognitive functions.
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The human brain is hugely interconnected but three major components can be identified: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
The brainstem which includes the medulla, the pons and the midbrain, controls breathing, digestion, heart rate and other autonomic processes, as well as connecting the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body.
The cerebellum plays an important role in balance, motor control, but is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention, language, emotional functions and in the processing of procedural memories.
The cerebrum , which makes up 75% of the brain by volume and 85% by weight, is divided by a large groove, known as the longitudinal fissure, into two distinct hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres are linked by a large bundle of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum, and also by other smaller connections called commissures.
Lobes of the cerebral cortexPicture from Wikipedia The Limbic System and Basal GangliaPicture from How Stuff Works
Does The Brain Stay Alive After A Person Dies
April 2019 marked a milestone for both the initiative and neuroscience research at large: BRAIN Initiative researcher Nenad Sestan, of the Yale School of Medicine, published a report in the journal Nature, revealing that his research team had restored circulation and some cellular functions to pig brains four hours after the animals’ deaths, Live Science previously reported. The results challenged the prevailing view that brain cells are suddenly and irreversibly damaged shortly after the heart stops beating. The researchers did not observe any signs of consciousness in the brains, nor were they trying to on the contrary, the researchers injected pig brains with chemicals that mimicked blood flow and also blocked neurons from firing. The researchers emphasized that they did not bring the pig brains back to life. They did, however, restore some of their cellular activity.
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How To Make Learning Of Brain Parts Easier:
After going through the description of different parts of the human brain, you would have realized that it is fairly difficult to learn and memorize them, and you are right. Still there is a way that can help you a great deal.
Firstly, you should dissect the long and difficult words into their constituent parts. For example, mesencephalon can be divided into mes meaning middle and encephalon meaning brain. By doing so, you can easily understand that mesencephalon is another name for the midbrain. Secondly, while learning the parts of the human brain, you should focus on its functions one by one and try to experience it physically. For instance, you can consider the case that if someone sleeps for long hours, they feel a sort of burden in the anterior part or telencephalon and are unable to memorize things quickly. This difficulty in learning and memorizing is primarily due to some problem in the forebrain.
Do you agree with this point of view or not? Just comment on it and give arguments which will be very useful for the readers.
What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.
The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.
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Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain
In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.
What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain
Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons
The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.
Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons
The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.
The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.
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The Biggest Part: The Cerebrum
The biggest part of the brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the thinking part of the brain and it controls your voluntary muscles the ones that move when you want them to. So you need your cerebrum to dance or kick a soccer ball.
You need your cerebrum to solve math problems, figure out a video game, and draw a picture. Your memory lives in the cerebrum both short-term memory and long-term memory . The cerebrum also helps you reason, like when you figure out that you’d better do your homework now because your mom is taking you to a movie later.
The cerebrum has two halves, with one on either side of the head. Scientists think that the right half helps you think about abstract things like music, colors, and shapes. The left half is said to be more analytical, helping you with math, logic, and speech. Scientists do know for sure that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of your body, and the left half controls the right side.
How Many Parts Is The Human Brain Divided Into Is One Of The Parts The Hind Brain
The human brain is divided into three parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The hindbrain is comprised of the brainstem and the cerebellum.
The human brain is divided into three parts:
The hindbrain refers to the oldest part of the brain in terms of evolution and is made up of the brainstem and the cerebellum. This section of the brain controls the autonomic body functions.
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The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.
What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain
There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.
Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.
What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?
The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:
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A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain
The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.
Brain Areas And Their Functions
The brain is divided into areas which are each responsible for different areas of functioning.
The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain.
These areas are: Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Frontal lobe.Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus,Thalamus,Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Amygdala, Hippocampas and the Mid- brain.
The image below indicates where the areas are.
Occipital lobe: This is found in the back of the brain. The area is involved with the brain’s ability to recognise objects. It is responsible for our vision.
Temporal lobe: The temporal lobes are found on either side of the brain and just above the ears. The temporal lobes are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.
Parietal lobe: The parietal lobes are found behind the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain. They are connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. They also have language functions.
Frontal lobe:It is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, and problem solving, and planning
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What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter
The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.
Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.
Cerebellum And Brain Stem
The cerebellum is located at the base of the skull under the cerebrum and is responsible for:
Coordinating voluntary movements, e.g., moving a limb with dexterity.
Balance and equilibrium, so that you do not fall over and lose your balance.
Memory and reflex motor arcs.²
The brain stem leads to the spinal cord and is responsible for:
Sweating, blood pressure, and all types of automatic responses, not controlled voluntarily.
Ability to sleep.
Overall, any damage to the different parts of the brain can cause many problems. For example, water in the brain can cause a rise in pressure that affects brain function.
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What Is The Corpus Callosum
The cerebrum’s inner core houses the brain’s “white matter.” The major part of the inner core is known as the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is a thick tract of fibrous nerves that serve as a kind of switchboard enabling the brain’s hemispheres to communicate with one another. Whereas the cerebral cortex is the cerebrum’s outer layer made up of gray matter, and is responsible for thinking, motor function and information processing the corpus callosum is the cerebrum’s inner core, made up of white matter, with four parts of nerve tracts connecting to different parts of the hemispheres.
Home of the white matter: corpus callosum./Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons
The corpus callosum’s nerve fibers are coated with myelin. This fatty substance helps increase the transmission of information between the next part of the cerebrum: the two hemispheres.
Tissues Covering The Brain
Within the skull, the brain is covered by three layers of tissue called the meninges.
No computer has yet come close to matching the capabilities of the human brain. However, this sophistication comes with a price. The brain needs constant nourishment. It demands an extremely large amount and continuous flow of blood and oxygenabout 25% of the blood flow from the heart. The overall energy consumption of the brain does not change much over time, but certain areas of the brain, use more energy during periods of increased activity . A loss of blood flow to the brain for more than about 10 seconds can cause a loss of consciousness.
Lack of oxygen or abnormally low sugar levels in the blood can result in less energy for the brain and can seriously injure the brain within 4 minutes. However, the brain is defended by several mechanisms that can work to prevent these problems. For example, if blood flow to the brain decreases, the brain immediately signals the heart to beat faster and more forcefully, and thus to pump more blood. If the sugar level in the blood becomes too low, the brain signals the adrenal glands Overview of the Adrenal Glands The body has two adrenal glands, one near the top of each kidney. They are endocrine glands, which secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Each adrenal gland has two parts. Medulla: The inner… read more to release epinephrine , which stimulates the liver to release stored sugar.
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How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .