Friday, September 30, 2022

How Many Regions Make Up The Brain Stem

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The Nervous System Neurons And Brain

2-Minute Neuroscience: The Brainstem

The nervous system is a major system spanning the entire body that plays a key role in survival and regulation. It is responsible for relaying sensory information from the body to the brain, where the brain then sends appropriate responses back to the body. These responses can vary- from motor to physiological to storage.

The nervous system is made up of individual nerve cells , which recognize signals from the body and its environment. The neurons pass along these signals to their respective destinations in the brain almost instantly via electrical signaling. When one nerve passes the signal to the next nerve, a synapse occurs. This is where electrical signals become chemical in the spaces between two neurons, before becoming electrical again at the next neuron.

Neurons make up the entirety of the nervous system, which is broken into two physical sub-systems: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes all other neurons throughout the body. The brain itself is made up of four regions: the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brain stem. While each region has distinct differences and roles in relation to the rest of the body, there are many interconnected pathways and neural connections that can pass through multiple structures.

How Many Regions Make Up The Brain Stem

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Genetic variation within a population occurs via mutation and sexual reproduction, and can be measured using average heterozygosity. Genetic variation between populations is called geographic variation.

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The Autonomic Nervous System

There are two major functional nervous systems in the body: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system is responsible for regulating and carrying out voluntary responses throughout the body. Specifically, these are the responses that the conscious is aware of . As a result, the somatic nervous system typically targets skeletal muscles.

However, voluntary movement is not the only action occurring in the body. The body also undergoes many involuntary movements, which are motions that are not conscious. Movements such as this include heartbeat- as controlled by cardiac muscle– and digestion- as controlled by smooth muscle. This category also includes glandular functions. All of these actions fall under the control of the autonomic nervous system.

The autonomic nervous system is further broken down into two sub-categories: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. As part of the autonomic nervous system, these two sub-systems also control parts of the body for involuntary movement. The sympathetic system allows the body to prepare itself for stressful situations. This can include increased heart rate, increased glucose release into the blood, and inhibited digestion. On the contrary, the parasympathetic system allows the body to increase and store energy. This can be accomplished by slowing down heart rate and increasing digestion.

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Medulla Oblongata Regions And Functions

Just as with the midbrain and pons, medulla contains part of the reticular formation as well. The cardiovascular and respiratory system connect as a single system within this structure of the midbrain. Afferent cardiorespiratory signals synapse at the medulla and work to regulate respiration. The ventral respiratory columnist, which controls respiratory rhythm and its oscillating pattern, is also present at the medulla. Furthermore, the medulla acts as the vasomotor center. This is because neurons present can stimulate blood vessel diameter adjustments while monitoring baseline arterial pressure.

The nucleus of the solitary tract is found in the medulla and is organized by information type being transmitted, as well as by activated pathways in response to the information. It largely coordinates afferent information. The most important functions of the medulla occur at this nucleus, including information from baroreceptors and chemoreceptors. Blood vessel baroreceptors send information to the nucleus of the solitary tract to adjust heart rate and blood flow. Blood vessel chemoreceptors sense oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, allowing the nucleus of the solitary tract to maintain proper respiration. Additionally, taste synapses at this nucleus first, before being sent to the thalamus and cortex for sensory processing.

What Brain Regions Make Up The Brain Stem

Brain stem and neural development
  • Slides: 26

What brain regions make up the brain stem? 1. The hypothalamus, the thalamus, and the pons 2. The diencephalon and the mesencephalon 3. The mesencephalon, the pons, and the medulla oblongata 4. The pons, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata

Which primary brain vesicle is destined to form the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata? 1. 2. 3. 4. Prosencephalon Rhombencephalon Myelencephalon Metencephalon

In what way is the cranial dura mater structurally distinct from the spinal dura mater? 1. It is formed of two layers. 2. Some portions extend into the cranial cavity as dural folds. 3. It contains dural sinuses. 4. All of these are differences from spinal dura mater.

What are potential consequences of blockage of an interventricular foramen? 1. 2. 3. 4. Hugely expanded skulls in infants Brainstem stroke Damage to and distortion of brain in adults 1 and 3 are correct

How would decreased diffusion across the arachnoid granulations affect the volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles? 1. 2. 3. 4. Volume would increase. Volume would decrease. Volume would remain the same. Volume would fluctuate erratically.

Many water-soluble molecules that are relatively abundant in the blood occur in small amounts or not at all in the extracellular fluid in the brain. Why? 1. Blood pressure increases in brain capillaries. 2. Bloodbrain barrier restricts ion movement. 3. Neurons take up most ions. 4. Neuroglia remove ions from CSF.

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What Is The Function Of The Brain Stem

To get a well-rounded picture of all the brain stem functions, well need to learn what parts does the brain stem connect to.

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The brain stem acts as a primary connection to several parts of the brain. In a way, it can be considered as a control bridge between brain parts.

It links the cerebrum and spinal cord together, as well as the cerebrum with the cerebellum. The cerebellum is positioned right above the brainstem and beneath the occipital lobes at the back.

Within the brainstem are nerve tracts that relay signals from the cerebellum to areas of the cerebral cortex. This allows you to have fine coordination and control of your motor movements.

Other important brain stem functions also include:

  • Alertness
  • Digestion
  • Heart rate
  • Information bridge between the peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the upper areas of the brain

The brain stem is not just a connection between different areas of the brain. It also acts as your bodys management control, regulating many of its autonomic functions.

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What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

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Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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How Do I Control My Fear And Anxiety

Ten ways to fight your fears

  • Take time out. Its impossible to think clearly when youre flooded with fear or anxiety.
  • Breathe through panic. If you start to get a faster heartbeat or sweating palms, the best thing is not to fight it.
  • Face your fears.
  • Quit Looking for Stuff to Fix.
  • Dont Sweat the Small Stuff.
  • Remind Yourself That You Are Worthy.
  • No Matter What Is Bugging You, You Can Always Do Something About It.
  • Information Transport And Boundary Assistants

    The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.

    Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

    The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons

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    Can You Recover From A Brain Stem Injury

    Damage to some parts of the brain can be managed, however, brain stem injuries can be very difficult to and fatal to your overall health. It can even potentially cause permanent damage.

    Thats because the brain stem connects your brain to all other parts of your body. Without a brain stem, that connection would be lost and your body cant function.

    Injuries to the brain stem can affect your personality and even paralyze you. Since this is a very sensitive part of the brain, today treatment is limited and very expensive.

    Its not about mental intelligence, its about mental fitness.

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    Brain stem treatment

    Its not all bad news when it comes to treating brain stem injuries. As long as the injury is diagnosed early enough, it can be in many cases highly treatable.

    Depending on the nature of the injury of course, and what areas of the body are affected, specific exercises and therapy can help strengthen the brain stems function.

    Like any other muscle in your body, your brain including the brain stem grows and develops with regular exercise. This includes both actual physical exercise and brain workouts. Together, they stimulate the generation of new neurons and help keep your brain young and active.

    How do you keep your brain healthy and sharp?

    Pons Overview And Functions

    What Is The Brain Stem And What Does It Do?

    The pons is the center structure of the brain stem, located between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata. It contains longitudinal fibers that connect with higher centers throughout the brain and spinal cord, as well as transversal and dorsal fibers that send information between the motor functioning regions of the cortex and cerebellum. Additionally, the pons is where cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII originate.

    The pons most noteworthy roles include functions related to the respective cranial nerves originating at this structure. This includes recognizing sensations to the head and facial areas as well as movement of the face, eyes, ears, and mouth. Furthermore, the pons is important for autonomic functions such as salvia production, in addition to maintaining equilibrium. Similar to the midbrain, the pons contains part of the reticular formation and thus accompanies functions in cardiovascular control and breathing rhythm.

    Gliomas can occur anywhere in the brain stem and are therefore known as brain stem gliomas. However, gliomas occurring in the midbrain and medulla oblongata tend to be low grade. For unknown reasons, gliomas occurring in the pons experience rapid growth and are high grade tumors.

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    Blood Supply To The Brain

    Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

    The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

    The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

    The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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    The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum

    The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.

    The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

    How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

    The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

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    The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

    The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

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