Anatomy Of The Human Brain
The largest part of the human brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into two hemispheres, according to the Mayfield Clinic. Each hemisphere consists of four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The rippled surface of the cerebrum is called the cortex. Underneath the cerebrum lies the brainstem, and behind that sits the cerebellum.
The frontal lobe is important for cognitive functions, such as thought and planning ahead, and for the control of voluntary movement. The temporal lobe generates memories and emotions. The parietal lobe integrates input from different senses and is important for spatial orientation and navigation. Visual processing takes place in the occipital lobe, near the back of the skull.
The brainstem connects to the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain. The primary functions of the brainstem include relaying information between the brain and the body supplying most of the cranial nerves to the face and head and performing critical functions in controlling the heart, breathing and levels of consciousness .
The cerebellum lies beneath the cerebrum and has important functions in motor control. It plays a role in coordination and balance and may also have some cognitive functions.
: : : : : : : : : : : Is A Chemical In The Brain That Is Associated With Pleasure
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain that is associated with pleasure. Dopamine also plays a role in body movement and functions such as motivation and attention. When dopamine activity decreases it can lead to movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, as well as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. A number of medications used to treat mood disorders work by adjusting dopamine levels in the brain.Another well-known neurotransmitter is serotonin, which helps us sleep, and also affects mood, behavior, appetite, pain perception, and body temperature regulation. Drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain are often used to treat depression, eating disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders . GABA is a neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity. Epileptic seizures and Huntington’s disease are often treated with drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain.
Amazing Facts You Should Know About The Brain
The brain forms the main organ not only in the body but also in the nervous system. There are several mysteries that surround the human brain.
One of them is that the brain of a man is larger than that of a woman. The brains of men and women are wired differently especially in the sections that control emotion and language. They also have varying predispositions regarding mental conditions such as autism and dyslexia that are common in men. Women, on the other hand, are more prevalent to conditions such as anxiety and depression. Men also have larger brain volumes in different brain sections like those associated with memory, learning and survival instincts. Women have large brain sections in areas that deal with emotion and language. Various scientific studies have confirmed that having a larger brain is better than a small one.
Although the human brain weighs less, it consumes up to 20% of the total body energy. This is because the organ maintains various brain cells and also fuels the nerves. The human heart pumps blood to various body parts but 20% of total blood goes to the brain. This shows how critical the organ is in the human body. This is because of the many functions it has to accomplish. It looks pink because of the high composition of blood that flows in it.
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The Brain Has Three Main Parts
The brain consists of three main parts, the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem, and each part has specific functions. – Cerebrum: This fills most of the skull and is responsible for memory, problem solving, thinking, and emotions. – Cerebellum: This part of the brain is located at the back of the head under the cerebrum and is responsible for balance and coordination. – Brain stem: The stem is located under the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum, and it connects the brain to the spinal cord. It controls functions such as breathing, digestion, heart rate, and blood pressure.
How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have
The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”
Human Skulla Magic Box:
Roughly corresponding to the size of a football, the human skull is a magic box with immense powers to accomplish some great tasks which are impossible to be performed by any other thing in the world. But, do you know it is not the skull itself that does miraculous things but something inside it, called the brain? The round hollow structure of skull is made up of eight cranial bones and serves as a protective covering for the soft mass of nervous tissues inside it. The fusion of the neurocranial bones takes place along the suture lines, thus giving it maximum strength and protective potential.
How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh
The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.
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Health Conditions Of The Brain
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Of course, when a machine as finely calibrated and complex as the brain gets injured or malfunctions, problems arise. One in five Americans suffers from some form of neurological damage, a wide-ranging list that includes stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy, as well as dementia.
Alzheimers disease, which is characterized in part by a gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimers or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimers symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to the diseases devasting effects.
Far more common than neurological disorders, however, are conditions that fall under a broad category . Unfortunately, negative attitudes toward people who suffer from mental illness are widespread. The stigma attached to mental illness can create feelings of shame, embarrassment, and rejection, causing many people to suffer in silence. In the United States, where anxiety disorders are the most common forms of mental illness, only about 40 percent of sufferers receive treatment. Anxiety disorders often stem from abnormalities in the brains hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
Height Weight Lean Body Mass & Bmi
Research shows that people who are taller, weigh more , and have more lean body mass may have heavier organs.
Of these factors, some research suggests that height may best correlate with most organ weights taller people have organs that weigh more and are proportionately bigger.
Heart weight can be majorly affected by BMI, with obese people having heavier hearts.
Interestingly, female thyroid weight has little to do with height, weight, and lean body mass. Instead, female thyroid weight may be most influenced by iodine intake. In areas where the vast majority of women consume enough iodine in their diets, thyroid weights typically fall within a uniform range for all women.
Age and sex also affect organ weight. On average, women tend to have lighter organs than men do. Furthermore, as with lean body mass, organ weights tend to decrease with age.
Age-related decreases in organ weight are particularly noticeable in brain mass. In other words, a persons brain will become smaller as they age, which is a natural process. On a related note, brain mass has nothing to do with intelligence having a bigger brain doesnt make someone smarter.
Results from a 1994 study published in Der Pathologeand based on more than 8000 autopsiessuggest that the average brain weight in men without brain disease is 1336 grams and the average brain weight in women without brain disease is 1198 grams.
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Do You Know How Much Your Brain And Other Organs Weigh
Have you ever wondered which of your organs is the heaviest? If you guessed your brain or lungs, you are wrong.
The largest organ of the human body is the skin. Yes, the skin is an organ. And it not only consists of the outer layer we can see, but has a total of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue . The thickness of the skin differs throughout the body for example, its thin underneath the eyes and thick on the soles of your feet.
So, how much does our largest organ weigh? According to The Journal of Investigative Dermatology the skin of most adults weighs roughly 10kg, depending on factors such as gender, weight and age. If you were to spread the skin out on a flat surface, it would cover about 2m².
But what about your internal organs? Heres a breakdown of how much they weigh. Note that these figures will differ from person to person.
1. The liver
A healthy adult liver can weigh up to 1.6kg, which makes it the largest solid, non-porous organ in the body. Its about the size of a rugby ball. The liver holds 10% of the bodys blood and pumps nearly 1.5l per minute.
2. The brain
The adult human brain accounts for 2% of our total body weight and weighs roughly 1.5kg, once again depending on one’s size and age. There’s an ongoing debate about the link between brain size and intelligence. A number of studies have reported moderate correlations between brain size and intelligence.
3. The small and large intestines
4. The heart
5. The kidneys
Other Cool Facts About The Brain
- The brain can’t multitask, according to the Dent Neurologic Institute. Instead, it switches between tasks, which increases errors and makes things take longer.
- The human brain triples in size during the first year of life and reaches full maturity at about age 25.
- Humans use all of the brain all of the time, not just 10% of it.
- The brain is 60% fat, according to Northwestern Medicine.
- The human brain can generate 23 watts of electrical power enough to fuel a small lightbulb.
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Feel Like Your Head Weighs A Lot
Consider the head of a horse.
It weighs around 10 percent of its body weight. This means that a 1,000-pound horse will have a head and neck that weighs 100 pounds .
~ Fun Fact ~How much does a human brain weigh? On average, the human brain weighs right around 3 pounds . How does that compare to other animals? An elephantâs brain comes in at around 12 pounds , while the heaviest brain belongs to sperm whales. It weighs in at a whopping 17 pounds !
How Much Do Breasts Weigh
In the purest sense, boobs or breasts arent an organ per se, but rather a collection of mammary glands and mammary tissue fat. Nevertheless, the breasts are a distinct enough entity from the rest of the body that many surgeons who specialize in breast surgery consider anatomic organs.
In an oft-cited article titled Contribution of Breast Volume and Weight to Body Fat Distribution in Females, researchers suggest that a pair of female breasts weigh about 3.5 percent of the weight of total body fat. However, the sample size of this study is small and the results are somewhat dated.
According to the formula, a woman who carries 40 pounds of total body fat would have breasts that weight about 1.4 pounds for the pair.
Breast weight is very variable, says Dr. Bradford Hsu, a breast surgeon affiliated with Sharp Healthcare in Chula Vista, California. Depending on the age and development of the person involved, both breasts combined can weigh as little as 100 grams or up to four or five kilograms.
Furthermore, histological changes in the composition of the breasts can sometimes affect breast weight. If someone has a lot of fibrocystic diseases, says Dr. Patricia Allenby, a pathologist at The Ohio State University, the breast is going to be heavier than if its fattier. It has to do with the density of the tissue and fat is very low density.
However, the effect of fibrocystic, adenomatous, or tumorigenic changes on breast weight is relative.
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Average Weight Of Human Skeleton
The average human skeleton weighs 14% of its total body weight. Data says that the average weight of men in the USA over 20 is 90 kg. So the male skeleton weight will be about 12.5 kg , and a female skeleton weighs about 10.5 kg .
Skeleton is one of the internal frameworks that are important for the human body. The weight of the human skeleton can increase along with age. So, how much does the average weight of a human skeleton? Before going further about that, lets see the explanation of what skeleton is below.
What Is Human Skeleton
As explained before, the human skeleton is part of the human body composed of 270 up to 300 bones when a baby was born. The total skeleton then decreases to 206 bones when people get older. It is because several bones get fused simultaneously.
There are two types of the human skeleton: the appendicular skeleton and the axial skeleton. The appendicular skeleton is formed by the pelvic girdle, shoulder girdle, lower and upper libs. Furthermore, the appendicular skeleton is attached to the axial skeleton.
Meanwhile, the axial skeleton comprises the skull, the rib cage, the vertebral column, and other bones. The skeleton also has bone mass which can reach the biggest density between age 21.
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What Is The Main Function Of The Brain
It has three main parts:
- The cerebrum fills up most of your skull. It is involved in remembering, problem solving, thinking, and feeling.
- The cerebellum sits at the back of your head, under the cerebrum. It controls coordination and balance.
- The brain stem sits beneath your cerebrum in front of your cerebellum.
The Cell Structure Of The Brain
The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.
When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.
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Comparison Of Human Brain Vs That Of Animals
It is not the size of the brain that is important but the ratio to the body weight. The ratio of the brains weight to body weight is quite different in both animals and human beings. Human beings have a larger brain-body ratio of 1:50. Mammals have a smaller ratio of 1:180. It shows that the brain in human beings takes the biggest weight than in other animals.
If it was the size that mattered, then animals could have been very intelligent compared to human beings. Mammals such as chimpanzees have big brains but with less white matter. It shows that they have few nerve cell connections, unlike humans. The brains of human beings have a lot of white matter on the temporal cortex and this is why we can process information quickly compared to other mammals.
As The Brain Ages Creativity And Wisdom Automatically Decline Over Time
Creativity and wisdom do not automatically decline over time and wisdom often increases with age. It’s true that the brain does shrink in volume and blood flow decreases as we age, but declines in thinking and memory are not inevitable. Each person is unique and some people will have cognitive declines, but many will have their abilities stay intact or even improve with age. The brain is capable of new learning throughout our lifetimes. Those who exercise regularly and who get a lot of intellectual stimulation are more likely to learn and retain new information and skills.
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How Hungry Are Our Brains
Despite the fact that the human brain is not a very large organ, its functioning requires a whole lot of energy.
Although the brain weighs only 2 percent of the body , it alone uses 25 percent of all the energy that your body requires to run per day, Herculano-Houzel explained in a presentation.
And why does the brain need so much fuel? Based on studies of rat models, some scientists have hypothesized that, while most of this energy is expended on maintaining ongoing thought and bodily processes, some of it is probably invested in the upkeep of brain cells health.
But, according to some researchers, at first sight, the brain, seemingly inexplicably, uses up a lot of energy during what is known as the resting state, when it is not involved in any specific, targeted activities.
According to James Kozloski, Inactivity correlated networks appear even under anesthesia, and these areas have very high metabolic rates, tipping the brains energy budget toward a large investment in the organisms doing nothing, he writes.
But Kozloskis hypothesis is that no large amount of energy is spent for no reason so why does the brain seem to do it? In fact, he says, it doesnt.
Energy spent doing nothing, he says, is actually put toward assembling a map of accumulating information and experiences that we can fall back on when making decisions in our day-to-day lives.