Physiological Aspects Of Long
Previously, it was believed that only the cortex of the brain stores long-term information. Now we know that they are stored in different regions throughout the brain and other parts of the nervous system depending upon their type. Memories are not somewhat localized but stored through circuitry. Some types of memories may be stored throughout the body because receptors for chemicals in the brain are found everywhere.
When neurotransmitters are activated in the brain, a process called chemotaxis communicates the message to every part of the body. This communication is done basically through blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In this way, some memory may also get stored in muscles. People with organ transplants have reported the emotional reactions and feeling to certain events that they never had before.
How And Where Memories Are Generated
When you learn there is a physical change in the brain. At that time, the distribution of connections between neurons changes. Therefore, to have a good memory, these conductors must be in good condition, the connections between the neurons must also be unharmed so that the memory can be stored in its corresponding place, according to its semantic content and to which another process it can be related.
For example, if it has to do with a procedure it will finally be stored near the temporoparietal occipital crossroads where the so-called praxis are. If it has emotional content it will be stored in the frontal or anterior area of the brain, etc.
To generate memories, we need first of all that the entrance door of the same ones is well conserved. That door is called the hippocampus. The hippocampus is in charge of carrying the information found in the short-term memory to the cerebral cortex, where the memories are finally stored. The hippocampus is one of the main structures of the brain and is the area that is altered in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease.
Too Much Info At The Same Time: Multitasking
Being able to have a phone conversation while reading an email while sending a twitter message is a common scenario today. And all this takes place in the midst of a growing and limitless ocean of information that reaches us in all directions and stimulates all the senses.
But the human brain is not made to function efficiently in that environment, most experts agree, and waiting for it to evolve to do so would likely take tens of thousands of years.
So what our command center is doing is redesigning its functions to fit the realities of the digital age. But you have to do it in balance, neurologists warn.
Technically, we cannot give equal attention to two demanding cognitive tasks, said Edward Hallowell, author and child and adult psychiatrist located in New York and Boston.
Hallowell says that when someone refers to multitasking, what the brain does is quickly shifting their focus from one task to another.
It recognizes that relatively simple activities like walking and talking can be done at the same time, but as they become more complex the power of concentration is diluted.
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How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh
The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.
Is It True That You Get New Brain Wrinkles When You Learn Something
Not all brains are wrinkled. In fact, most animals have fairly smooth brains. Some exceptions are primates, dolphins, elephants, and pigs, which also happen to be some of the more intelligent animals.
The human brain is exceptionally wrinkled. Thats probably why people conclude that we gain more wrinkles as we learn new things. But thats not how we acquire brain wrinkles.
Your brain starts developing wrinkles before youre even born. The wrinkling continues as your brain grows, until youre about 18 months old.
Think of the wrinkles as folds. The crevices are called sulci and the raised areas are called gyri. The folds allow room for more gray matter inside your skull. It also decreases wiring length and improves overall cognitive functioning.
Human brains vary quite a bit, but theres still a typical pattern to brain folds. Research shows that not having the major folds in the right places could cause some dysfunction.
- motivate you to do things you probably wanted to do anyway
Learning entirely new things is far more complicated.
Say youve been studying a foreign language. Theres only a small chance that listening to vocabulary words in your sleep can help you remember them a bit better. A 2015 study found that this is true only under the best of circumstances. The researchers noted that you cant learn new things during your sleep.
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Storeroom As An Analogy
We can understand how the human brain stores information by using a simple analogy. Our brain is like a storeroom when we consider memory storage. Like in a store you want to keep the important things on the shelf because in that way they will become easily accessible. Similarly, our brain keeps important things on the surface levels of memory storage. You pay attention to the things that you like, that is why subjects of your interest are easier for you to remember as compared to the things which you do not like.
That is why some people believe that it helps to organize your mind by yourself, by trying to remember only the things which are important and matter to you. In this way, the desired information will always be available on the shelf, just like the sugar you want for your tea.
Avoid Stress As Much As You Can
Going on a plant-based diet isnt the only means to balance protein in the body. How you take care of your physical, mental well-being, and emotional state also contributes to brain health.
Stress can also deplete neurotransmitters even when you are getting enough of the right amino acids, vitamins, and minerals to create them.
Work on reducing stress and getting enough sleep. Although we still need the hormone cortisol to function properly, too much of it can affect the bodys well-being.
Try to avoid stress-inducing factors in your life. Then again, if you cant get rid of the things that cause you stress, find activities that help you release it.
Some people start a hobby or two to stay away from stress and create balance in their life. Others choose to exercise to keep themselves active.
Pick up yoga, tai chi, meditation, kickboxing, running, biking, or even breathing exercises to keep yourself happy, alert, and energetic when you need to be while tired and sleepy at the appropriate times, too.
Drink a Sunwarrior Classic Blend smoothie to keep you active and build muscle mass when you exercise.
Learn more about plant-based protein in this video from Sunwarrior:
The brain controls all of the bodys functions and its important to keep it healthy and alert. One of the best ways to do so requires people to keep the macronutrients balanced.
Lack of protein can cause damaging effects not just to the brain but to the rest of the body.
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Affects The Mood Appetite And Energy Levels
What you eat does affect the brain, alter mood, and change emotions. Protein deficiencies slow down development and lower cognitive function.
A lack of proteins depletes the chemicals in the brain that control mood, appetite, and energy levels. Protein deficiencies have also been linked to depression, anxiety, ADHD, epilepsy, and a certain type of autism.
Brain’s Memory Capacity Rivals World Wide Web
Illustration of the human brain
Neuroscientists say the human brain can store 10 times more information than previously thought.
The researchers calculated the amount of storage by measuring connections between brain cells, then translated that number into bytes, the units of computer memory. One byte consists of 8 bits and the human brain can hold more than one quadrillion bytes of information a petabyte.
As Terry Sejnowski of the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences in La Jolla, California, a lead author of the recent study, said in a press release: “Our new measurements of the brain’s memory capacity increase conservative estimates by a factor of 10 to at least a petabyte, in the same ballpark as the World Wide Web.”
After examining a small cube of rat brain tissue under an electron microscope, the scientists created a 3D reconstruction of the centre of learning and memory, the hippocampus, along with connections among its neurons . Each neuron resembles a tall tree, with numerous branches of ‘dendrites’ leading to a long trunk or ‘axon’. Information in the form of electrical signals is transmitted from one neurone’s dendrites to another cell’s axon across a chemical junction the ‘synapse’.
The scientists identified 26 different spine sizes, which raises the memory capacity to roughly 4.7 bits of information per synapse. Multiply that by trillions of synapses and the total storage is an order of magnitude greater than previous estimates.
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Promotes Brain Growth In Babies During Early Development
Protein is a vital part of brain growth during early development.
Neurons may be mostly fat and fueled by glucose, but they use proteins to communicate with one another and control what happens throughout the body.
The enzymes, neurotransmitters, and hormones that carry signals and help accomplish the tasks the brain dictates are made from protein.
According to a study, protein is an important nutrient for fetal and postnatal brain development of babies. Malnutrition of protein results in smaller brains with fewer neurons, lesser RNA and DNA content, and fewer neurotransmitter concentrations.
Unforgettable Statistics About Human Memory
Ever wonder how many “gigabytes” your brain could store if it were a computer? Scientists estimate that the answer would be equivalent to up to 2.5 million gigabytes of storage! That compares to the biggest hard drive to datethat is only 10,000 gigabytes. Not even a supercomputer comes slightly close to the capacity of the human brain. Read on below for some more mind blowing facts about the human memory.
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Forgetting Something Makes You More Likely To Remember It
It turns out that partially forgetting something, and then struggling to remember it is a necessary part of the memory formation process. When we try to remember things, were exercising our brain and telling it that this piece of information is important, store it somewhere safe and easily accessible!. This is a key concept behind the spaced repetition technique. Spaced repetition is a study technique whereby pieces of information are re-visited at set intervals in order to strengthen the memory of it. The idea is that you re-visit a piece of information when youve *almost* forgotten it, thereby bringing it back to the front of your mind. The process is used in a number of systems including Anki, SuperMemo and Synap.
The forgetting curve shows just how quickly we forget information after weve learnt it. Regularly reviewing the information through Spaced Repetition can dramatically improve the amount of information we remember
Using Hightech Tools To Assess Alcoholic Brain Damage
Researchers studying the effects of alcohol use on the brain are aided by advanced technology such as magnetic resonance imaging , diffusion tensor imaging , positron emission tomography , and electrophysiological brain mapping. These tools are providing valuable insight into how alcohol affects the brains structure and function.
Longterm heavy drinking may lead to shrinking of the brain and deficiencies in the fibers that carry information between brain cells . MRI and DTI are being used together to assess the brains of patients when they first stop chronic heavy drinking and again after long periods of sobriety, to monitor for possible relapse to drinking .
Memory formation and retrieval are highly influenced by factors such as attention and motivation . Studies using MRI are helping scientists to determine how memory and attention improve with long-time abstinence from alcohol, as well as what changes take place when a patient begins drinking again. The goal of these studies is to determine which alcoholinduced effects on the brain are permanent and which ones can be reversed with abstinence.
Another hightech tool, electroencephalography , records the brains electrical signals . Small electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect this electrical activity, which then is magnified and graphed as brain waves . These brain waves show realtime activity as it happens in the brain.
The P3 component is reduced in alcoholics compared with control subjects.
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Produces A Neurotransmitter That Makes The Body Feel Tired
A dense meal of carbohydrates can leave you feeling sluggish and tired as it increases the levels of tryptophan in the brain.
The amino acid tryptophan encourages the production of serotonin, a calming neurotransmitter associated with appetite, blood pressure, learning, and sleep patterns.
On the other hand, a protein-rich meal can leave you feeling alert and energetic as levels of the amino acid tyrosine rise. Tyrosine promotes the creation of norepinephrine and dopamine, two neurotransmitters that boost activity, alertness, and energy.
Eating too much protein, though, can lead to an imbalance which causes other problems in the body. Your brain may stay alert with protein, but it also needs carbohydrates for energy.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture , the RDA for adult men and women is 0.8 grams of protein for every 2 pounds of body weight.
Also, consuming too much alcohol, processed sugar, and caffeine may affect the activities of neurotransmitters.
Memory Encoding And Its Types
Memory encoding refers to the changing of sensory stimuli or information so that it can be stored and retrieved. The information undergoes this process so that it can become a part of long-term storage. The properly encoded information is very easy to be recalled. There are three main types of memory encoding: visual, acoustic, and semantic.
Visual encoding is converting a visual stimulus to store the information in the brain. This information is first stored in the visuospatial sketchpad. Then, it is temporarily stored in working or iconic memory before its storage in long-term memory.
Acoustic encoding refers to the encoding of acoustic information to understand the acoustic aspects of an event. It is the processing of sounds, words, and other auditory information to store that information in long-term memory. An important part of acoustic information is the phonological loop.
Information that has a particular meaning or context is processed in a way that is called semantic encoding. Concepts, Ideas, and terms are some examples of semantic information. The semantically encoded information is relatively easy to be retrieved. There are also some other types of memory encoding which may include tactile encoding, etc.
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Growing New Brain Cells
For decades scientists believed that the number of nerve cells in the adult brain was fixed early in life. If brain damage occurred, then, the best way to treat it was by strengthening the existing neurons, as new ones could not be added. In the 1960s, however, researchers found that new neurons are indeed generated in adulthooda process called neurogenesis . These new cells originate from stem cells, which are cells that can divide indefinitely, renew themselves, and give rise to a variety of cell types. The discovery of brain stem cells and adult neurogenesis provides a new way of approaching the problem of alcoholrelated changes in the brain and may lead to a clearer understanding of how best to treat and cure alcoholism .
For example, studies with animals show that high doses of alcohol lead to a disruption in the growth of new brain cells scientists believe it may be this lack of new growth that results in the longterm deficits found in key areas of the brain . Understanding how alcohol interacts with brain stem cells and what happens to these cells in alcoholics is the first step in establishing whether the use of stem cell therapies is an option for treatment .
How Fentanyl Affects The Brain
When you take a drug like fentanyl and it binds to these receptors, they flood your brains reward centers with dopamine. Dopamine occurs naturally, but not at levels like it does when someone takes fentanyl. This flood of dopamine is what creates euphoria and a sense of extreme relaxation.
What fentanyl does to your brain and how fentanyl affects the brain are similar to heroin, but even more powerful. In addition to euphoria and relaxation, other signs of the effects of the drug can include nausea, drowsiness, sedation, confusion, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest, coma and death.
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