Friday, May 13, 2022

How Ptsd Affects The Brain

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Overview Of Psychological Trauma Post

How Does PTSD Affect Brain Function?

Although the biological, psychological, and social ramifications of PTSD have been under scientific scrutiny for some time now, and treatment has improved dramatically, much remains unknown about this condition and controversy persists in both the neuroscientific as well as the clinical/treatment literature. In this text, we review the neurobiological impact of psychological trauma from the perspective that genetic, developmental, and experiential factors predispose certain individuals to the development of PTSD. More specifically, we review the current database as pertains to biological markers of PTSD and the possibility that some biological markers may not be acquired but, rather, may in fact predate trauma until functionally unmasked by stress. Where relevant, we also make note of similarities between PTSD and TBI, which extend beyond wellknown signs and symptoms to include abnormalities in the same neurobiological systems. Lastly, the article includes a short section on basic considerations for future direction. Ideas put forth in this communication are done so in the interest of developing a consistent model for conceptual purposes. It is recognized at the outset that numerous inconsistencies can be found in the literature that highlight the multifactorial and complex nature of this field.

How Can Sonic Reset Therapy Help With Ptsd

Research in the field of Neuroscience has found that when a state of trauma occurs, the brain essentially freezes. This frozen state is caused by the Amygdala, in the limbic system of the brain. In this frozen state, your thought patterns can become disrupted and the littlest things can set off your fear, anxieties or worries. Sonic Reset Therapy re-establishes the plasticity of the brain, meaning that you will no longer be caught up on the fear and trauma. Ava, a user of Sonic Reset Therapy® has kindly provided her experience. She had PTSD and below is her unfiltered experience of the therapy

If you would like to try Sonic Reset Therapy for free for three days,

I thought Id stick an insert at the end here a link to Beauty after Bruises. This is an incredible blog that I personally enjoyed reading, and gives a few tips to help alleviate PTSD

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Childhood Trauma And The Developing Brain

Many people experience trauma early on in life while their brain is still developing. Children with post-traumatic stress will have variations in the volume and surface area of the insula. The insula is a region of the brain buried deep in the cerebral cortex that is crucial for self-awareness and reactions to sensory information.

Children may be more impacted by trauma than adults but providing them treatment early on can minimize the effects of PTSD. Young children need to learn how to cope with stress and process the traumatic event in a way that can prevent long-term damage to their mental health. Fortunately, with treatment children can also bounce back from trauma and improve their brain functioning.

Although trauma can be devastating to a persons mental health and has a serious impact on crucial aspects of their functioning, recovery is possible. Treatment methods that focus on emotional regulation and building back volume in the brain can be most effective for patients dealing with PTSD or any type of past trauma.

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How Ptsd Changes Memory

PTSD can affect the brain’s capacity to remember in many ways, Samuelson tells Bustle. “First, there are often disturbances to the trauma memory itself,” she says. “While some people recall memories with remarkable clarity, others report complete amnesia for significant aspects of a traumatic event and uncertainty regarding the sequence of events.” For a lot of people, though, the recollection is fractured, with some parts very clear and others jumbled or missing. “Many trauma survivors dissociate at the time of trauma,” Samuelson says. “Core areas of the brain go into survival mode, making it impossible to encode what is happening.” Disassociation tends to shut down the area of the brain responsible for processing experiences from the past, according to a study published in Current Psychiatric Reports in 2017.

This doesn’t just affect a person’s ability to recall specific traumas, either. “An extensive body of research has documented mild memory deficits related to PTSD. Individuals with PTSD have more difficulty learning, retaining, and recalling new information,” Samuelson says.

How Ptsd Affects Brain Circuitry

How PTSD affects brain âcircuitryâ?

If youre experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder , its important to understand how the different parts of your brain function. Post-traumatic stress is a normal response to traumatic events. However, PTSD is a more serious condition that impacts brain function, and it often results from traumas experienced during combat, disasters, or violence.

Your brain is equipped with an alarm system that normally helps ensure your survival. With PTSD, this system becomes overly sensitive and triggers easily. In turn, the parts of your brain responsible for thinking and memory stop functioning properly. When this occurs, its hard to separate safe events happening now from dangerous events that happened in the past.

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Consequences Of Brain Dysfunctions In Ptsd

Hyperarousal

Because the amygdala is overactive, more norepinephrine is released in response to threat and its release is not well-regulated by the PFC.

Effects of excess norepinephrine include:

  • Hyperarousal.
  • Hypervigilance
  • Increased wakefulness and sleep disruption
  • As a result of hyperarousal, people with PTSD can get emotionally triggered by anything that resembles the original trauma . Symptoms of hypervigilance means they are frequently keyed up and on edge, while increased wakefulness means they may have difficulty sleeping or wake up in the middle of the night.

    The Hippocampus’ Role In Ptsd

    Many people with PTSD experience memory-related difficulties. They may have difficulty recalling certain parts of their traumatic event. Alternatively, some memories may be vivid and always present for these individuals.

    People with PTSD may also have problems overcoming their fear response to thoughts, memories or situations that are reminiscent of their traumatic event. Due to the hippocampus’ role in memory and emotional experience, it is thought that some of the problems people with PTSD experience may lie in the hippocampus.

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    Are There Effective Treatments

    Many people recover from TBI without any formal treatment. Problems that linger may clear up in a few weeks. You may notice some problems more as you return to your normal routine. For example, you may not realize that you get tired more quickly until you return to your regular chores, work, or school. Even so, people usually get better after a head injury, not worse. Professional treatment for the symptoms that follow TBI usually involves rehabilitation to improve functioning.

    The good news is that effective treatments for PTSD also work well for those who have suffered mTBI. This includes two forms of therapy: Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure . Learn more about Treatment Basics for PTSD.

    How Trauma Changes The Brain

    Trauma and Behavior Part 1: “How Trauma Affects the Brain”

    After experiencing trauma, both the brain and the body react and change. Dr. Arkadiy Stolyar, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Principal Investigator in Psychiatry at Boston Clinical Trials shares with us an article on how physical changes in the brain lead to symptoms of PTSD:

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    Sleep Tips For Partners Of People With Ptsd

    While most efforts are focused on how to help someone with PTSD sleep, the partners of people with PTSD may also find it difficult to sleep soundly. For those with a partner who wakes up multiple times during the night, it may help to invest in a mattress that muffles sound and movement.

    Nightmares and night terrors can be frightening and may cause your partner to lash out violently. Though you want to be there for your partner, you may find it necessary to sleep in a separate, nearby bedroom from time to time so you can get the restful sleep you need.

    It may also be constructive to do exercise together with your partner during the day. In addition to improving sleep, developing healthy routines together can help you bond and help re-establish a sense of security for your partner.

    Many caregivers struggle with feelings of guilt and a sense that they are responsible for saving their partner. However, pouring all your energy into helping another person can have a serious effect on your own mental health. Couples therapy, individual therapy, support groups, or a strong network of family and friends may help you manage your own thoughts and feelings to reduce the risk of burnout.

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    Why Ptsd Affects Memory

    “There are several theories surrounding why PTSD is associated with memory deficits,” Samuelson says. The first is that people with PTSD use so much of their energy in looking for threats and being hyper-attentive that they don’t have enough left over for thinking about the past. “Essentially, there is a cognitive burden of PTSD symptoms that taxes cognitive resources, pulling them away from memory and attention processes.”

    The second theory is that the issues come from PTSD’s damaging effects on the brain. When somebody with PTSD is triggered, Samuelson says, the amygdala becomes over-activated and releases neurotransmitters that disrupt other brain areas, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    The third theory is that these deficits might not be a consequence of PTSD at all, but a potential risk. “A number of research studies have found that poorer cognitive functioning assessed prior to trauma served as a risk factor for the development of PTSD,” Samuelson says. “The flip side of that means that having strong memory abilities can play a role in protecting a person against developing PTSD.”

    The reality, Samuelson says, is that all three are probably true. “There are preexisting deficits, there is a toxic effect of PTSD on memory, and finally, PTSD symptoms tax cognitive resources which in turn hinders a personââ¬â¢s ability to attend to, store, and recall information.”

    Experts:

    Kristin Samuelson Ph.D.

    Studies cited:

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    How Trauma Affects The Brain:

    PTSD is characterized by intrusive thoughts, hyperarousal, flashbacks, nightmares and sleep disturbances, changes in memory and concentration, and startle responses. It is believed, but not yet proven, that these symptoms exist because the brain structure and function have undergone stress-induced changes as a result of a traumatic event.

    The amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex are stimulated during a stress response, therefore traumatic stress directly affects these parts of the brain. Individuals with PTSD generally show smaller hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes, increased amygdala function, and decreased medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate function. Because the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex are altered, this can cause changes in memory function.

    The hippocampus is especially receptive to stress effects and its functioning can easily be changed during prolonged exposure to stressors. Changes or damages to the hippocampus as a result of stress can cause individuals to have trouble with verbally declaring memories, which is perhaps one reason why memories of the event exhibit themselves through other means. In fact, the hippocampus can actually decrease in size as a result of traumatic stress, and this is seen exclusively in patients with PTSD when compared to other anxiety-based disorders.

    Emotion Trauma And The Prefrontal Cortex

    Healing a Battle

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a part of the brain that regulates emotions. This emotion-regulating center is often affected after trauma and becomes vulnerable to other parts of the brain.

    Normally, the amygdala will sense a negative emotion, such as fear, and the prefrontal cortex will rationally react to this emotion. After trauma though, this rationality might be overridden and your prefrontal cortex will have a hard time regulating fear and other emotions.

    So, these three parts of the brain- the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex- are the most-affected areas of the brain from trauma.

    They can make a trauma survivor constantly fearful, especially when triggered by events and situations that remind them of their past trauma.

    Overcoming emotional trauma is a long process, but it is possible. If you are suffering from after-effects of emotional trauma or PTSD, know that recovering from your trauma is possible.

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    How Does Ptsd Affect The Brain

    PTSD is a disordered relationship to stress originally triggered by an overwhelmingly stressful event in the past. And stress is a physical and chemical response that happens automatically in the face of certain triggers. In an original biological sense, our heightened state under stress is a positive coping mechanism when we are in danger and need to protect ourselves. When personal protection is on the line, surges in the hormones cortisol and norepinephrine can give us a survival edge. But were not meant to have the stress-related regions of our brain firing overtime on a regular, daily basis. This can lead to serious neurochemical and biological dysregulation.

    On top of the general levels of pain and suffering that happen under so much stress, a person with post-traumatic stress disorder may also experience other psychological disturbances, including:

    • Depression

    The Science Behind Ptsd Symptoms: How Trauma Changes The Brain

    By Michele Rosenthal

    After any type of trauma , the brain and body change. Every cell records memories and every embedded, trauma-related neuropathway has the opportunity to repeatedly reactivate.

    Sometimes the alterations these imprints create are transitory, the small glitch of disruptive dreams and moods that subside in a few weeks. In other situations the changes evolve into readily apparent symptoms that impair function and present in ways that interfere with jobs, friendships and relationships.

    One of the most difficult aspects for survivors in the aftermath of trauma is understanding the changes that occur, plus integrating what they mean, how they affect a life and what can be done to ameliorate them. Launching the recovery process begins with normalizing post-trauma symptoms by investigating how trauma affects that brain and what symptoms these effects create.

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    Effects Of Ptsd On The Brain

    Trauma can affect the brain in multiple ways. Both short-term and long-term trauma can change neurochemical systems, which include the regulation and release of stress hormones, such as cortisol and norepinephrine.

    Other areas that can be impacted include the brain circuits that make up the stress response. People who experience PTSD may experience changes in the:

    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
    • Medial prefrontal cortex

    When neurochemical systems and brain circuits are altered by PTSD, the result is usually behavioral manifestations that can include anger, insomnia, and memory problems.

    The Nature Of Trauma And Its Effect On The Ptsd Brain

    Trauma and the Brain

      Trauma is a tricky subject. The word trauma gets thrown around quite a bit and there seems to be a subjective nature to its definition. With the mentioning of trauma often comes the phrase Post Traumatic Stress Disorder , which is a legitimate mental disorder listed within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . What makes PTSD unique from other mental disorders is that it requires a traumatic or stressful event as a diagnostic criterion.

      However, what makes trauma tricky is defining what a traumatic or stressful event actually is. This is where trauma can get a bit subjective. What may be considered stressful to one person may simply be routine to another. Thats why most definitions dealing with trauma generally focus on traumatic events that are widely accepted to be traumatic, such as natural disasters, rape, domestic violence, severe illness or injury, death of a loved one, and witnessing or experiencing an act of violence.

      So, what exactly, defines trauma and constitutes a traumatic event? And, how does this event lead to the possible development of PTSD? What, exactly, is PTSD and how does it affect the brain? Finally, how do individuals with suspected cases of PTSD come to terms with the traumatic event that has changed them? This article aims to provide answers to all these questions and clarify some of the confusion surrounding trauma and PTSD.

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      Find The Right Treatment For Your Trauma

      Finally, if you are dealing with general relationship issues, there are many treatment options and countless therapists available. But if you have a history of trauma, it makes a world of difference to meet with a specialist in trauma treatment. A big reason for this is the tendency to re-live the ugly experiences. The simple act of talking about trauma can lead someone to re-experience the events.

      This can and does happen during therapy. In such instances, you want to be talking with someone who gets it, and help you navigate through it. Moreover, you want support, guidance, and experience as you commit to healing. The process is hard work but youll never regret learning these new skills and perspectives.

      Please read more about trauma therapy. Then, lets connect for a confidential phone consultation. Its the first step on the road to processing the trauma and moving forward in your life.

      What Can I Do To Cope

      The best way to deal with symptoms following TBI is to go back slowly to your normal routine, a little at a time. How much time you spend at work, with family, with others, or exercising depends on what feels comfortable. Pace yourself, and be sure to get all the rest you need. Avoiding alcohol and not taking any unnecessary medications is a good idea, to help allow the brain to heal.

      If your symptoms get worse, or if you notice new PCS symptoms, this is a sign that you are pushing yourself too hard. Ignoring your symptoms and trying to “tough it out” often make the symptoms worse. Symptoms are your body’s way of giving you information. A broken bone or a torn muscle hurts so that you won’t use it and it has time to heal. PCS symptoms are your brain’s way of telling you that you need to rest it.

      Research suggests that one week of relaxing at home and then a week of slowly doing more after leaving the hospital is best for most patients. Most patients who took this advice were back to normal at work or school in 3 to 4 weeks. Most patients who weren’t told what to do took 5 to 12 weeks to get back to their normal routine. They also had more PCS symptoms than patients who returned slowly to their routines.

      Accept and deal with the stress of the injury

      Involve Family

      Return to school or work slowly

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