The Effects Of Antipsychotic Drugs On Brain Metabolism In Healthy Individuals
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.|
|First Posted : September 1, 2015Results First Posted : August 12, 2021Last Update Posted : August 12, 2021|
|Study Type :|
|The Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs on Brain Metabolism in Healthy Individuals|
|Actual Study Start Date :|
|Experimental: Second Generation Antipsychotic DrugOlanzapine a single 2.5 mg dose PO daily followed by 5 mg dose PO daily for 14 days||Drug: OlanzapineAll subjects will take a single 2.5 mg dose of olanzapine followed by a 5 mg dose for 14 days. .Other Name: Zyprexa Zydis 5 mg tb|
Re: How Much Will I Likely Recover From Antipsychotics
by SBBro» Fri Oct 10, 2014 10:01 pm
by username141» Sat Oct 11, 2014 12:19 pm
SBBro wrote:I’ve been to a psych ward. I have a schizotypal cousin who’s been to a ward, we are both pretty good right now. On meds, doing cbt and managing our PDs.Can you describe what in the dsm is wrong with you? I’m guessing you may need an snri. You should also be doing the appropriate cbt. I can’t comment on the weed. If you are cluster A I can ask my cousin.You should at least be doing breath focus and be on an anti depressant.You should also do act so you stop acting on your thoughts sending provoking emails to people who can lower your dopamine.Sounds like you might be legally insane and they want you vegged out. — Sat Oct 11, 2014 8:10 am — Don’t listen to loud music, listen softly so you need some level of concerntration. The music should evoke a positive emotion, classical is good.
SBBro wrote:Do you have trouble sitting still without blinking too much?
Brain Networks As A Means To Assess Medication
This quite unique data set allowed for an investigation into the effects of antipsychotic drugs on both the large-scale functional brain networks and the cognitive performance of people diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Despite its limitations, clear drug effects were observed on the network topology and performance at the N-back working memory task. We find a reduction in the difference between specific healthy and patient network metrics and that aripiprazole impairs cognitive ability and radically rewires the brain networks of healthy volunteers. It would be highly beneficial for future studies to use state-of-the-art functional MRI data to further investigate the links between disrupted networks in people with brain disorders, how medication influences these, and an ideal network topology for the brain . Such advanced studies have the potential for not just diagnosis of the original brain disorder, but also for the quantification of the effectiveness of a drug in treating the illness. This would then allow for a systematic comparison between alternative treatments.
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Restoring A Healthy Balance To The Brain
Individual programming can determine the best route of restoring a healthy balance. Some drugs can be successfully stopped abruptly, and some require careful tapering or cross-tapering to lessen the shock on the CNS.
Supportive cessation therapies include:
- Diet We know that a proper diet can positively impact your physical health. A healthy diet also supports the overall health and balance of your brain and CNS functions. A proper diet and supplementation can provide the necessary and specific nutrient support needed to resume natural neurochemical production. Supplementation with IV treatments, amino acids, and other aids greatly support the process of safe and comfortable cessation and neurochemical rehabilitation.27
- Exercise Staying active is beneficial in recovery and can improve cognitive deficits that often accompany addiction, drug dependence, and in the various phases of recovery. Exercise invites rebalancing neurochemistry in a natural way.15,28
- Meditation As research continues, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can lessen the risk of relapse. The ability to focus on your thoughts, and taking your rightful place again as the source for your own happiness cues can be highly therapeutic after the impacts and mind-numbing effects of drug use.29
The Research : Antipsychotics Impact Brain Volume
Below are studies suggesting that antipsychotics have an impact on brain volume. While some research suggests that the illness itself and symptomatic relapse may contribute to volumetric brain shrinkage, most evidence points to antipsychotics as the primary causative factor particularly the duration of treatment and dosage.
2005: Initially, researchers analyzed the effects of antipsychotics on non-human primate models. This study involved three different groups of 6 macaque monkeys that were given Haldol, Zyprexa, or a placebo for a period of 17 to 27 months. It was determined that they had the same plasma drug levels as humans taking antipsychotics for schizophrenia.
It was noted that the monkeys taking Haldol and Zyprexa experienced an 8% to 11% reduction in brain weight and volume compared to those receiving the placebo. The brain volume loss was considered global in that it affected all regions including: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and the cerebellum. The loss was most pronounced in the prefrontal and parietal lobes.
It was later noted that both grey and white matter had decreased in the treatment group. A general shrinkage in the brains of those treated with antipsychotics was an estimated 20%. This study suggested that humans may endure similar volume reductions as these monkeys.
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Healing The Brain/body/mind From Trauma And Psych Drug Injury
When youre healing weird neurological problems and you finally figure out how to move past six months of daily migraines. past the migraines suddenly youre accessing parts of your brain youve never accessed that were drugged into submission for decades. Its disorienting and scarythe animal body leads and all you can do is surrender in awe.
I am exhausted. This process is relentless. Its like the brain/body has some chronological sense and is making up for time.
This is what is happening to all our *psych diagnosed* youththeir brains are being short circuited and stopped on psych meds. Its like a genocide of the animal body/spirit and yet hardly anyone is aware of it. They find us hyperbolic when we speak of it.
I am only more and more devastated by what has happened the more I healthe more I see what my body/mind wouldve beenthe more it becomes clear how much harm we are causing countless innocent beingsand the more I realize how little support there is for those of us who want to take these transformative healing journeys into LIFE.
Also listen below to: History in the system and my vision for mental health on Nonduality Talk:
For a multitude of ideas about how to create a life filled with safe alternatives to psychiatric drugs visit the drop-down menus at the top of this page.
Support Beyond Meds. and do the shopping youd be doing anyway. No need to purchase the book the link takes you to or make a donation with PayPal. Thank you
Risperidone May Cause Side Effects Tell Your Doctor If Any Of These Symptoms Are Severe Or Do Not Go Away:
- difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
- breast enlargement or discharge
- late or missed menstrual periods
- difficulty breathing or swallowing
- painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours
Risperidone may cause children to gain more weight than expected and for boys and male teenagers to have an increase in the size of their breasts. Talk to your doctor about the risks of giving this medication to your child.
Risperidone may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online or by phone .
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Brain Changes In People Never Medicated For Mental Illness And Those Who Have Been Medicated
Some people have suggested that there is no difference in structure of the brain in people with mental illness and those that do exist are caused by the medications. Some claim medications cause mental illness. Two papers are presented to address these beliefs.
The first summarizes research on people with mental illness who have never been medicated and shows that many exhibit brain abnormalities. This research on medication-naïve patients shows these illnesses are real illnesses and are not caused by medications.
The second paper summarizes the research on people who have been medicated and shows they too have changes in brain structure. Some may be associated with the illness, others with the efficacy of the medications.
Both papers are by Dr. E. Fuller Torrey
How Should This Medicine Be Used
Risperidone comes as a tablet, a solution , and an orally disintegrating tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day with or without food. Take risperidone at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take risperidone exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Use the dropper provided to measure your dose of risperidone oral solution. You can take the oral solution with water, orange juice, coffee, or low-fat milk. Do not take the solution with tea or cola.
Do not try to push the orally disintegrating tablet through the foil. Instead, use dry hands to peel back the foil packaging. Immediately take out the tablet and place it on your tongue. The tablet will quickly dissolve and can be swallowed with or without liquid. Do not chew or crush the tablet.
Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of risperidone and gradually increase your dose to allow your body to adjust to the medication.
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Independent Effects Of Antipsychotic Class On Brain Volumes
To explore whether typical antipsychotics, nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics, and clozapine may have differential effects on brain volumes in schizophrenia, we repeated the mixed-models analyses in by replacing mean daily antipsychotic dose with lifetime mean daily doses of typical antipsychotics, nonclozapine atypical antipsychotics, and clozapine up until the time of each MRI scan .
Adverse Effects Of Antipsychotic Medications
JOHN MUENCH, MD, MPH, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
ANN M. HAMER, PharmD, BCPP, Oregon State University College of Pharmacy, Corvallis, Oregon
Am Fam Physician. 2010 Mar 1 81:617-622.
SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
FGAs with lower potency dopamine D2 neuroreceptor blockade are no more likely than most SGAs to cause extrapyramidal symptoms.
|Clinical recommendation||Evidence rating||References|
FGAs and the SGA risperidone commonly cause hyperprolactinemia. Physicians should be vigilant for signs and symptoms of hyperprolactinemia in patients taking these medications.
Patients taking SGAs, especially clozapine and olanzapine , should be monitored closely for weight gain and other metabolic syndromerelated adverse effects .
Antipsychotic medications should be used with caution in older adults because of the risk of increased mortality from sudden cardiac death and cerebrovascular accidents.
FGAs = first-generation antipsychotics SGAs = second-generation antipsychotics.
A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence rating system, go to .
SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE
FGAs = first-generation antipsychotics SGAs = second-generation antipsychotics.
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Flipping The Future Of Mental Illness
There arent as many studies connecting mental health to nutrition as there are connecting physical health to nutrition, but the body of research is growing quickly.
In fact, research even shows that certain nutrients could treat people with serious mental illnesses better than the prescription meds we use now.
At the forefront of this crazy idea is Julia Rucklidge, a clinical psychology professor and researcher from the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, whos trying to change the way people think about nutrition and mental illness.
In her talk, Julia mentioned some jaw-dropping statistics about mental illness and treatment methods. For example, did you know that
- The number of children who have ADHD internationally tripled in five years?
- Or that autism rates in children have increased 20 fold?
- Or that the number of children with bipolar disorder is 40 times higher?
These are just a few of the doozies Julia shared, but theres more
How Is Akathisia Diagnosed
Itâs important to see your doctor if you have symptoms of akathisia. If left untreated, it can lead to distress, disruptive behaviors, or sometimes even suicidal thoughts. Donât stop taking medications unless your doctor says itâs OK.
- Physical exam: Your doctor will check your body. Youâll also sit and stand for a few minutes. Theyâll watch for symptoms like rocking or shuffling. They may fill out a rating scale like the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale to judge how severe your symptoms are and track your progress as youâre treated.
- Medical history: The doctor will ask about your medical history, what medications youâre taking, and other conditions you have. This will help rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms:
- Restless legs syndrome also causes an uncontrollable urge to move your legs, but mostly at night. You could also have leg pain.
- Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs. It causes movements you do over and over, like blinking and grimacing. But you donât have control over them. With akathisia, you make the choice to move to relieve an urge.
- Anxiety or insomnia. Because akathisia makes you feel restless and uneasy, itâs easy to mistake it for these conditions.
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Mri Acquisition And Analysis
High-resolution brain anatomic MRI data were collected by means of 1 of 2 imaging protocols on two 1.5-T MR scanners . The type of imaging protocol was dependent on when the patient first enrolled in the ILS. For patients who entered the study before calendar year 2000, their initial and follow-up MRI scans were collected with the first imaging protocol . In patients who were enrolled in 2000 or later, all MRI scans were obtained with the second imaging protocol . Of the 674 MRI brain scans, 570 were MR5 scans derived from 168 patients. Patients in the MR5 group had been followed up longer . Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the MR5 and MR6 groups on socio-demographics or illness characteristics .
In this study, we examined the following regions of interest: total cerebral tissue volume, total GM and white matter , and GM:WM subdivided by Talairach atlasbased cerebral lobes , lateral ventricles, sulcal cerebrospinal fluid , caudate, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum .
Antipsychotics And Brain Shrinkage:
Evidence that antipsychotics cause brain shrinkage has been accumulating over the last few years, but the psychiatric research establishment is finding its own results difficult to swallow. A new paper by a group of American researchers once again tries to blame the disease, a time-honoured tactic for diverting attention from the nasty and dangerous effects of some psychiatric treatments.
In 2011, these researchers, led by the former editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry, Nancy Andreasen, reported follow-up data for their study of 211 patients diagnosed for the first time with an episode of schizophrenia. They found a strong correlation between the level of antipsychotic treatment someone had taken over the course of the follow-up period, and the amount of shrinkage of brain matter as measured by repeated MRI scans. The group concluded that antipsychotics have a subtle but measurable influence on brain tissue loss .
In 2005, another American group, led by Jeffrey Lieberman who headed up the CATIE study, published the largest scanning study up to that point of people with a first episode of psychosis or schizophrenia. The study was funded by Eli Lilly, and consisted of a randomised comparison of Lillys drug olanzapine and the older drug haloperidol. Patients were scanned at the start of the study, 12 weeks and one year later and patients scans were compared with those of a control group of healthy volunteers.
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How Do Antipsychotic Medications Work
It is thought that dopamine is a contributing factor to the development of psychosis. Dopamine is one of the many chemicals present in the brain that carry messages from one part of the brain to another.
Dopamine, among other things, is involved in how a person:
- knows that something is significant, important or interesting
- experiences pleasure and reward
- feels motivated.
It is also involved in the control of our muscles and movement.
It is thought that high levels of dopamine may cause the brain to function differently and may cause the symptoms of psychosis.
Antipsychotic medications reduce the amount of dopamine in the brain or restore the balance of dopamine with other chemicals in the brain.