Saturday, August 13, 2022

How To Increase White Matter In Brain

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Functions And Characteristic Of Gray Matters

Hobbies increase production of white matter

The gray matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, and sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech, decision making, and self-control. While 20% of all oxygen taken in by the body goes to the brain, 95% of that goes specifically into the grey matter. Scientists observed significant positive correlations between gray matter volume in elderly persons and measures of semantic and short-term memory.

The more gray matter you have in the decision-making, thought-processing part of your brain, the better your ability to evaluate rewards and consequences. Normally, gray matter represents information processing centers in the brain, and white matter represents the networking of or connections between these processing centers.

The larger the animal, the more convoluted this grey matter is. Small animals such as the marmoset tend to have smooth brains, while in larger mammals such as the whale or elephant the grey matter is highly convoluted.

The Role Of Nootropics In Improving Cognitive Function

Nootropics are a class of drugs that boost cognitive function. These drugs can be utilized for a variety of factors, but most often they are utilized to enhance concentration and focus.

Nootropics work by increasing the production of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. They also hinder the reuptake of these neurotransmitters which allows them to remain in blood circulation longer.

There has been a lot of research study on using nootropics as a method to enhance cognitive function. Some studies have revealed that they can increase memory and attention period, while others have found that they can lower anxiety and depression signs.

It can be hard to remain focused and mentally sharp at work. Nootropics are supplements that can help you enhance your memory and focus. Theyve been shown to increase brain activity, which can cause improvements in your state of mind, energy, and psychological clarity. And the very best part is that theyre entirely legal!

What Is White Matter Disease

White matter disease is an umbrella term for changes and damage to your brains white matter the nerve fibers in your brain that connect different areas of your brain to each other and to your spinal cord like highways.

You can also get white matter disease, also called cerebral small vessel or microvascular disease, from aging and blood vessel changes in your brains white matter. It can be mild, moderate or severe.

When your white matter becomes damaged, it causes white matter lesions, which healthcare providers can see as bright spots on magnetic resonance imaging of your brain. Some white matter lesions may not cause noticeable symptoms and can be considered almost normal with aging. However, some of these lesions can damage important pathways within your brain and can cause problems with memory, balance and walking.

In general, people with more white matter lesions experience more symptoms.

White matter disease is strongly linked to cardiovascular disease risk factors, and researchers believe that white matter disease is a biomarker of the lifelong risk of stroke, dementia and disability.

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Your Breakfast Can Increase Your Gray Matter Volume

The kids who had rice for breakfast showed higher grey-matter volumes than those who had bread. Studies suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

White Matter Across The Brains Life Span

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White matter develops and changes across our life span in a pattern strikingly different from gray matter. We do not complete the formation of brain myelin until many years after birth, perhaps past 20 years of age by contrast, we have our full complement of brain neurons at birth. In later life, however, a slow but steady loss of white matter occurs that may be greater than the loss of neurons . So it appears that there is less white than gray matter at both ends of the human life span.

Provocative clinical implications of this pattern are emerging. In children and adolescents, for example, the maturation of white matter, particularly in the frontal lobes, may correlate with the acquisition of mature aspects of personality such as motivation, demeanor or bearing, and executive function. These attributes, long associated with the frontal lobes, are among the last to develop, sometimes not fully maturing until our early twenties. This development may parallel the timing of full completion of the myelination of white matter tracts that connect the frontal lobes to other brain regions.3

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White Matter And Traumatic Brain Injury

Patients with traumatic brain injury, particularly those with moderate or severe injuries, can have lifelong disability. One of the most ominous outcomes of TBI is chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a brain disease believed to cause progressive and irreversible dementia. In TBI patients, the accumulation of tau protein in gray matter is evident.

Researchers have long recognized that white matter damage is common in people who have sustained a TBI. Observations from the brains of those with repetitive traumatic brain injuries football players and military veterans have been frequently studied have shown that white matter damage is prominent, and may precede the appearance of tangled proteins in the gray matter.

Among scientists, there is a burgeoning excitement over the new interest in white matter. Researchers are now beginning to acknowledge that the traditional focus on the study of gray matter has not produced the results they hoped. Learning more about the half of the brain known as white matter may help us in the years ahead to find the answers needed to alleviate the suffering of millions.

Microglia In The Aged Mouse Brain Are Characterized By Increased Phagocytosis And Altered Lipid Homeostasis

To examine age-associated changes in gene expression, microglia were isolated from aged mouse brain, and RNA expression was determined. Microarray analysis of pure microglia showed > 1.5-fold increased expression of 54 transcripts in aged mouse microglia compared to young microglia. To relate the changes in gene expression to a biological function, we applied DAVID software and identified that differentially expressed genes were involved in biological categories such as antigen processing and -presentation, interferon signaling, regulation of macrophage cytokine production, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and lipid homeostasis.

Increased expression of genes in aged microglia, indicative of a pro-inflammatory status, belonged to categories of antigen presentation, interferon signaling, and cytokine signaling. These groups were represented as a heatmap , and included several histocompatibility two genes and phagocytic receptor genes . Phagocytosis-associated genes were strongly upregulated in aged microglia as validated by quantitative PCR of Axl, CD36, Ctse, Clec7a, and Lamp2 . In addition, aged microglia showed changes in genes involved in cellular lipid homeostasis . The altered genes are depicted in a heat map .

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How Walking Can Build Up The Brain

Older men and women who walked for six months showed improvements in white matter and memory, while those who danced or did stretching exercises did not.

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Exercise can freshen and renovate the white matter in our brains, potentially improving our ability to think and remember as we age, according to a new study of walking, dancing and brain health. It shows that white matter, which connects and supports the cells in our brains, remodels itself when people become more physically active. In those who remain sedentary, on the other hand, white matter tends to fray and shrink.

The findings underscore the dynamism of our brains and how they constantly transform themselves for better and worse in response to how we live and move.

The idea that adult brains can be malleable is a fairly recent finding, in scientific terms. Until the late 1990s, most researchers believed human brains were physically fixed and inflexible after early childhood. We were born, it was thought, with most of the brain cells we would ever have and could not make more. In this scenario, the structure and function of our brains would only decline with age.

Immunohistochemistry For Animal Brain Tissues

Big brains and white matter: Two studies reveal clues about autism subtypes

Animals were anesthetized and were perfused transcardially for 20 min with 0.1M phosphate buffer . Brains were removed and cut into two sagittal parts. The right hemisphere was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The left hemisphere was immersed in 4% PFA overnight at 4°C, then transferred to 25% sucrose in PBS for 1 day, and finally frozen at -50°C.

Brain sections from snap-frozen samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis using the following primary antibodies: Axl, Dectin1, Trem2, CD36, CD16/32, and CD11c . Sections were fixed with acetone for 10 min and then air-dried. Endogenous peroxidase was inactivated by a 30-min incubation with peroxidase blocking reagent from the DAKO envision kit . Sections were incubated for 30 min in 5% serum blocking, and then for 2 h in the primary antibody at room temperature, followed by rinsing with PBS. For those primary antibodies which were not raised in rabbit, sections were incubated with the secondary antibody which was raised in rabbit for another hour. Afterward sections were incubated with labeled polymer-HRP anti-rabbit at room temperature for 30 min. The complex was visualized after 10 min incubation with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole substrate-chromogen solution , and counterstained with Mayers hematoxylin . Sections were finally covered with glycerol jelly.

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Ways To Increase The Size Of Your Brain

Strike apose. Yoga combines breathing, holding postures and meditation, a trifecta that not only protects the integrity of your brain, but thickens layers of your cerebral cortex, too. Brain scans now reveal that yoga changes your brain chemistry in positive ways. It helps build more robust levels of gray matter in brain areas involved with pain modulation.

Yogas neuroprotective properties not only spare the brain from gray matter loss, but they seem to build up gray matter volume in certain regions of the brain, too. This is important because losing gray matter can lead to memory impairment, emotional problems, poorer pain tolerance and decreased cognitive functioning.

In 2015, researchers from McGill University and the National Institutes of Health found that consistency in your practice matters, too. The more years of yoga practice under someones belt was associated with positive changes in the left hemisphere, including increasing gray matter volumes in clusters located in the left insula, left frontal operculum, right middle temporal gyrus and left orbitofrontal cortex. These areas of the brain are involved in:

  • Perception
  • Emotion and rewarding decision making

These areas of the brain include functions related to:

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White Matter And Grey Matter: Where And Why

White and grey matter extend all the way from the brain down into the spinal cord. Here, white matter takes up most of the outer layer, and the grey rests inside. Why?

Think of it as efficiency. If the spinal cord is responsible for bringing motor information from our brain to our body, the short connections of grey matter in the spine would have to reach further to send signals to the body to move.

However, since long axon tracts are on the outside layer, its much faster for signals to get to your motor neurons. These longer pathways on the outside layer help create fast signal transmission so you can react and move quickly. .

For all the attention on grey matter, it only makes up 40% of the brain. White matter actually dominates, at about 60%. Where grey matter gets the edge is in oxygen95 percent of the oxygen that goes to the brain goes right to the grey matter.

This may be because the grey matter handles things like higher processing and other cognitive functions, whereas white matter is greatly responsible for carrying electrical signalsa computer compared to a power supply.

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Exercise Increases White Matter In The Brain

by Dr. Keith Nemec

A new study of 9- and 10-year-olds finds that those who are more aerobically fit have more fibrous and compact white-matter tracts in the brain than their peers who are less fit. White matter describes the bundles of axons that carry nerve signals from one brain region to another. More compact white matter is associated with faster and more efficient nerve activity.

Previous studies suggest that children with higher levels of aerobic fitness show greater brain volumes in gray-matter brain regions important for memory and learning. Now for the first time the researchers explored how aerobic fitness relates to white matter in childrens brains.

The team used diffusion tensor imaging to look at five white-matter tracts in the brains of the 24 participants.

The researchers controlled for several variables such as social and economic status, the timing of puberty, IQ, or a diagnosis of ADHD or other learning disabilities that might have contributed to the reported fitness differences in the brain.

The analysis revealed significant fitness-related differences in the integrity of several white-matter tracts in the brain: the corpus callosum, which connects the brains left and right hemispheres the superior longitudinal fasciculus, a pair of structures that connect the frontal and parietal lobes and the superior corona radiata, which connect the cerebral cortex to the brain stem. All of these tracts have been found to play a role in attention and memory.

What Is Its Function

What is white matter on the brain

For a long time it was believed that the white matter had secondary functions to the gray matter, but recent studies have demonstrated that it is not like that at all. The main job of the white matter is to convey information, under the form of electrical impulses, from one part of the brain to the other. It therefore connects different parts of the brain and cerebellum and it is at the foundation of the relevant notion of connectivity. This occurs both in close areas that carry out the same function, and in areas far apart that must constantly communicate in order to carry out more complex tasks, such as, for example, recognizing the scent of a rose and calling it by the proper name. Right hemisphere and left hemisphere, basal ganglia and cerebellum, cerebral cortex and spinal marrow are all interconnected thanks to the white matter.

Immunohistochemical images of the white matter at 30 and 40 weeks of gestational age. The asterisk indicates the lateral ventricle. Modified by Back et al. J Neuroscience 2001.

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White Matter Of The Brain

    White matter is found in the deeper tissues of the brain . It contains nerve fibers , which are extensions of nerve cells . Many of these nerve fibers are surrounded by a type of sheath or covering called myelin. Myelin gives the white matter its color. It also protects the nerve fibers from injury. Also, it improves the speed and transmission of electrical nerve signals along extensions of the nerve cells called axons.

    The major areas of the brain have one or more specific functions.

    The tissue called gray matter in the brain and spinal cord is also known as substantia grisea, and is made up of cell bodies. White matter, or substantia alba, is composed of nerve fibers.

    What Causes White Matter Disease

    Researchers are still learning about white matter disease and its cause. So far, they think its caused by chronically reduced blood flow to nerve fibers in white matter, which can cause damage to the fibers.

    With aging, your arteries become hard and have more difficulty stretching . This can lead to less blood flow to nerves in your brain, causing damage to your white matter.

    White matter disease can also be caused by atherosclerosis, which is the thickening and hardening of the walls of your arteries that happens due to the buildup of plaque in your arteries over time. It can affect any arteries in your body, including ones in your brain.

    Having cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar , high dietary fat intake and smoking can all increase the number of white matter spots or lesions in your brain.

    Other causes of white matter lesions

    Any process leading to a change in the chemical composition of, damage to or decreased blood flow of myelinated fibers can present as white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging .

    While white matter disease involves several white matter lesions caused by blood vessel issues, you could have small white matter lesions for other reasons. Lesions are common features of non-vascular conditions, including demyelinating inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, and genetic causes like leukodystrophy.

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    White Matter In Psychiatric Disease

    Certain conditions have long been associated with damage to the myelin sheath. For instance, the immune systems of individuals with Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis attack myelin, causing a gradually worsening weakness that can end in paralysis.

    But more recently, changes in myelin have been linked to a number of psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, major depression, autism, post-traumatic stress disorder, Alzheimers disease, dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourettes. White matter has even been implicated in stuttering and tone deafness.

    One of the most studied psychiatric conditions in relation to white matter is schizophrenia. One

    of oligodendrocytes in some regions of the brain.

    In fact, more recently, it has been shown that white matter tracts across the majority of the brain are disrupted in schizophrenia.

    Schizophrenia tends to develop during adolescence, a time when the forebrain is finally being given its myelin coating. Some scientists believe that this might be more than a coincidence.

    Whether these changes are the cause of the condition or a consequence of the abnormal brain function is yet to be understood, but it is probably an intertwined two-way path. Evidence of this came in a paper published in 2007 by Dr. Gabriel Corfas. He showed that disrupting the genetic control of oligodendrocytes could produce striking behavioral changes similar to those seen in schizophrenia.

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