Monday, May 23, 2022

How To Make A Brain Model

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The Brain Produces Mind By Modeling

How to make Brain Cerebrum Model | 3d thermocol/Styrofoam Carving
  • aPsychological and Brain Sciences Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405
  • bDepartment of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
  • cZuckerman Mind Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027
  • dDepartment of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
  • See allHide authors and affiliations

      The connection of brain and mind has been a source of intense speculation at least since humanity became aware that the brain was the source of our behavior. Brain refers to the neurons, cells, and chemicals that govern activities of the organism. Mind is often considered consciously aware perceptions and thoughts. However, there is a gradient from unconscious to conscious, demonstrated by enormous amounts of research, such as the effects upon behavior of subliminal primes, so that mind is best considered to be the conscious and unconscious processes that act as an intermediate stage between the organisms biology and its behavior, or a translation from one to the other.

      The 13 articles in this special issue of PNAS that resulted from the Colloquium are next briefly described. Although these articles were inspired by the conference theme, most represent current state-of-the-art research by the authors, so although there is a connection to the theme, that connection may not always be immediately obvious.

      Install Virtualbox And Freesurfer

      These are instructions for Windows. If you have Linux of Mac you can install FreeSurfer directly using the instructions on the FreeSurfer website

    • Install VirtualBox for “Windows hosts x86/amd64” from this link
    • Download and extract the FreeSurfer Virtualbox image from here
    • Follow these instructions to install FreeSurfer for VirtualBox. I recommend using more Memory than they use .
    • ———–

      If you have your MRI files in DICOM you can convert them using the dcm2nii tool by MRIcron:

    • Exctract the files and open dcm2niigui.exe
    • Select folder with your DICOM files inside and click “open”
    • The programm should run for a few seconds
    • Inside your DICOM folder there should now be one or more .nii.gz files. If in doubt just use the largest one. I renamed it to “brainscan.nii.gz” to make it easier to find and handle.
    • You can also use DICOM files directly in FreeSurfer, but for simplicity I assume that you use NIFTI files.


      A Working Brain Model

      An ambitious project to create an accurate computer model of the brain has reached an impressive milestone. Scientists in Switzerland working with IBM researchers have shown that their computer simulation of the neocortical column, arguably the most complex part of a mammals brain, appears to behave like its biological counterpart. By demonstrating that their simulation is realistic, the researchers say, these results suggest that an entire mammal brain could be completely modeled within three years, and a human brain within the next decade.

      Brain power:

      What were doing is reverse-engineering the brain, says Henry Markram, codirector of the Brain Mind Institute at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, in Switzerland, who led the work, called the Blue Brain project, which began in 2005. By mimicking the behavior of the brain down to the individual neuron, the researchers aim to create a modeling tool that can be used by neuroscientists to run experiments, test hypotheses, and analyze the effects of drugs more efficiently than they could using real brain tissue.

      The model of part of the brain was completed last year, says Markram. But now, after extensive testing comparing its behavior with results from biological experiments, he is satisfied that the simulation is accurate enough that the researchers can proceed with the rest of the brain.

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      Computers To Treat Epilepsy

      Epilepsy is a disease that affects around 1% of the worlds population. Among people with epilepsy, 40% do not benefit sufficiently from medications and are threatened by seizures at any time.

      That is approximately 28 million people worldwide, more than the population of Australia, who need assistance in new ways. We are using our neural models to understand why seizures occur by simulating how changes to one part of a neuron might affect its behaviour.

      We are using the processing of vast amounts of EEG data to develop algorithms that can predict seizures before they happen. That way, we can give a warning to patients or their carers.

      So far, such long-term monitoring has proven very successful and useful for some people, allowing them to have more normal lives. But there are some whose seizures are much harder to predict, so we still have a lot of work to do.

      We are also developing computer models of thousands of neurons to investigate how to electrically stimulate the brain to stop seizures when they occur. So far, this has been successful for certain types of epilepsy, such as absence epilepsy in animals.

      For the more difficult, focal seizures in humans and animals, the stimulation only works some of the time. We need to develop improved models of the brain and to develop methods to prevent seizures from occurring at all.

      Computing is, therefore, integral to the development of new technologies for interacting with the brain.

      Some Great Information We Learned From Our Brain Cell Model

      How to Make a Model of a Brain for a School Project

      Our brain cell model helped us put together the information we learned. Especially because we read in our Anatomy book we make more brain connections by learning different ways. Thats why its important to try different methods to learn. For us to get the brain cell lesson we first heard it when I read the lesson. Then we made our play dough models, and finally, we drew and labeled a picture in our notebooking journal.

      We demonstrated this with a great activity from the book, we took 1 minute to make as many dots as we could. Then in the next minute we connected as many dots as possible before the timer went off.

      This is how our brain learns. It makes connections between the different neurons. The more connections we make, the more our brain learns. The kids got really excited when they finally put together this is why I present material in as many ways as I can, because that causes your brain to make more connections.

      Our brain cell model made a great start for our nervous system study, and the kids really enjoyed it.

      PS: Today is my anniversary, so I want to say Happy Anniversary Jeff!

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      Generate Your Own 3d Brain Model Outside The Virtual Brain

      This lecture on generating 3D brain model outside The Virtual Brain by Michael Schirner is part of the TVB Node 10 series, a 4 day workshop dedicated to learning about The Virtual Brain, brain imaging, brain simulation, personalised brain models, TVB use cases, etc… TVB is a full brain simulation platform.

      • 3D visualization with Python and mayavi
      • 3D visualizatiom with mrview
      • 3D visualization with MATLAB and Surfice

      The Basic Clay Brain Model

      You can choose the portions of the brain on which to focus, but one great starting point would be using a different color for each of the main portions, or lobes, of the brain: frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital. You can use other colors, perhaps ones you generate through blending other colors, to make a cerebellum and a brain stem. Once this is done, you have the six main parts of the brain seen on gross examination.

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      The Brain Cell Model Is Super Simple To Make:

    • Flatten out a round blob of the first color. Then roll out a snake. Pinch off several longish strands, and attach to the round blob. Now roll the snake a little thinner and pinch off pieces attaching them to the first bits.
    • Add a small flat bit to the middle of the flat disc using the second color.
    • Roll out a long snake in the third color. Break off half of that, and attach it to the center blog. Now roll the snake thinner, and break pieces off and attach them in a spider-web sort of manner.
    • Either make 2 more complete cells or make 2 more of each end to be able to explain the process.
    • Now you have a brain cell model to be able to discuss how information travels from the point of origin up to your brain.
    • The Brain In The Palm Of Your Hand: Dan Siegels Hand Model


      Over the past few weeks, we have been talking about how the different parts of the brain impact behavior, emotions, and learning.

      Weve talked about how powerful the upstairs and downstairs brain is in influencing learning and our fight, flight, freeze or fawn reactions. The downstairs brain keeps us safe, so we can think of it as the barking dog. Whenever a dog feels unsafe, it will either run, attack, or simply stand still barking. When it feels safe again, the barking stops.

      A barking dog always makes the wise owl fly away. The lid is flipped, and it is hard to calm down unless we engage in a calming strategy such as breathing exercises to calm the barking dog. Only when the barking stops can the upstairs brain kick in and think about solving the problem thanks to the vision of the wise owl.

      Today, well talk about how you can teach your kiddos about the emotional brain, and its functions. Well use Dan Siegels metaphor The Hand Model of the Brain. This hand model will help your kiddos better understand whats happening in their brain.

      The model is all about being present in the moment. You know that buzz word mindfulness… this is it!

      The more we commit to bringing mindfulness to ourselves, the more activity there will be in our prefrontal cortex or thinking brain and the less there will be in our amygdala or emotional brain .

      Want to learn more?

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      New Mathematical Model Shows How Our Brains Make Complex Decisions

      Getting to the bottom of understanding how our brains work is a fascinating challenge for scientists, and new research promises to shed more light on the inner workings of our minds – through a complex mathematics model. Scientists in the UK say they’ve constructed “the first biologically realistic mathematical model” that matches the way the brain makes complex decisions.

      Not only can this model predict behaviour, it’s also capable of predicting actual neural activity too. It simulates the way the human mind goes through the decision-making process, as well as the ways in which we learn from our mistakes and adapt for the future. The team’s findings could eventually help us in better understanding a multitude of conditions, from obsessive compulsive disorder to Parkinson’s disease.

      “Constructing these sorts of models is difficult because the model has to plan for all possible decisions at any given point in the process, and computations have to be performed in a biologically plausible manner,” said one of the team, Johannes Friedrich from Columbia University. “But it’s an important part of figuring out how the brain works, since the ability to make decisions is such a core competence for both humans and animals.”

      “What I also find exciting is that figuring out how the brain may be doing it has already suggested us new algorithms that could be used in computers to solve similar tasks,” said one of the researchers, Máté Lengyel.

      How To Make A Detailed Human Brain Model Out Of Clay

      The human brain is not only amazingly intricate and the most advanced “biological computer” discovered to date, but also, in a lot of people’s eyes, it is an aesthetically intriguing marvel of nature as well. With its telltale elegant folds on the surface of its cerebral hemispheres to complement the intricate structures on its underside, the human brain all but asks to be explored in a way that is both artistic and instructive.

      Clay is an excellent material for creating detailed brain model project. A clay brain model can be made quickly and inexpensively, and it lasts indefinitely as a display and teaching aid.

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      Make A Hemisphere Hat

      We have provided both labeled and unlabeled patterns so that you can do your own labeling, if you wish. With the labeled patterns, you may still want to color code the lobes, or trace over the words with markers or crayons. Do any coloring before you assemble the hats.

      Remember to watch to the very end to receive credit.

      Make The Bones Of The Spinal Column

      How to make Brain Cerebrum Model

      The human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column shown. There are 31 segments of the spinal cord and 33 bones that surround these segments. There are 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal vertebrae in the human body. To model these bones, get 33 empty spools of thread . Run a string or thread through the middle of one of the spools or buttons. Tie off one end of the string and put the remaining spools or buttons on the string. Each spool will represent one vertebra. When your model is finished, notice how it can bend. In a real spinal column, the vertebrae are held together by ligaments.


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      The Scientific Limitations And Ethical Concerns

      Over the last few years, scientists have used these different models to make discoveries about how different genes contribute to both brain development and diseasediscoveries they would have been unable to make without them. Researchers working with these approaches said they are not meant to replace animal models in full, but rather to offer new insights they would be unable to investigate otherwise. As organoid models appear to mimic the rich diversity of cell types found in the human cortex, Arlotta said, it gives scientists a rare opportunity to access some aspects of human development.

      Its exciting, even as primitive and reductionist as these models are, to look at what is happening in the brain during this time, she said. We can answer questions about how different genes are affecting brain development and with that, we have hope that we can one day understand what may start different brain disorders.

      Our genetic analysis is showing that the organoid cells lack specificity. Its almost as if their identity is a bit confused, said Kriegstein. Compared to normally developing cells, the organoids are relatively impoverished in terms of diversityand they dont mature according to the development programs that you see in normally developing brain tissue. Both cell identity and maturation are important in the study of human disease and these are not faithfully reproduced in current organoid models.

      Introduction: 3d Print Your Own Brain

      Always wanted to have your very own 3D printed brain?

      With modern technique this is possible and do-able for everyone!

      The only costs that you will have are the one of the 3D printing.

      What you need:

      The raw data of an MRI scan of your brain . Files should be in NIFTI or DICOM format . You can easily get a MRI scan by participating in an MRI study of your local university . Often they even pay you quite well for participation. It’s important that you request the raw data. Sometimes the hospital only gives you PNG files, which can not be processed.

      FreeSurfer: In my case I used the version for Virtualbox for Windows. If you use Mac/Linux you will be able to install FreeSurfer directly to your computer and I assume that you have enough computer knowledge to do so. I’m using version 5.3.0, but probably newer versions will work as well.

      MeshLab: To process and refine the mesh.

      – 3D printer

      I have found a couple of tutorials on the internet, but non of them really seemed to work for me. I found this instruction, but it was not very detailed and still took me quite long to figure out how to do the individual steps. My instruction here is basically the one that I linked but in a step-by-step manor, so that everyone can follow.

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      To Understand The Brain It Helps To Make A Computer Model Of One

      Thursday, Jun 2, 2016, 02:00 AM | Source: The Conversation

      David Grayden

      The latest in our Computing turns 60 series, to mark the 60th anniversary of the first computer in an Australian university, looks at how we can better understand how the brain works by making a computer model of a brain.

      One of the greatest challenges of engineering, science and medicine is to understand the brain, which is the most complex organ and system known to humans.

      A lot is already understood about how individual neurons and their components behave . A lot is also known about what parts of the brain participate and interact in sensory perception, action and cognition .

      We also know some of the detailed mechanisms of different diseases of the brain, such as Parkinsons disease and epilepsy. But very little is known about how the emergent behaviour of the brain , such as turning thought into movement commands to muscles, arises from individual neural activity .

      And while much is understood about the causes of Parkinsons disease, epilepsy and other neurological conditions, there is still much to learn to control and treat these diseases effectively.

      How To Make A Model Brain Out Of Play Dough



      Sculpting a diagram of the human brain out of play dough is a great hands on way to teach students about the shape and function of the human brain. It allows a student to talk out the function of each part of the brain as he makes it, as well as have a three dimensional model to help him while studying or just to reinforce what he already knows. When sculpting your own model of the human brain, it helps to have a diagram in front of you as you work.

      Roll a small sausage out of the play dough. Squeeze the dough toward the upper middle section of the base so that it creates a slight bulge. This is the brain stem, which helps you breathe, and controls your heartbeat and body temperature.

      Take a piece of dough and roll a perfect ball, slightly smaller than a tennis ball to make the cerebellum. Roll two small twiglike pieces of play dough, making one half the size of the other and stick them on top of the ball. The cerebellum controls movement of the human body and some of the things we do via rote memorization.

      Twist the two twiglike pieces horizontally, so they don’t stick straight up. Turn the ball on its side, attaching it to the right side of the brain stem . Thus the two twiglike pieces will be touching the brain stem directly

      Make a backward letter “C” that has a slightly thicker lower part. This is the hippocampus, the house of your short-term memory. Place it on top of the brain stem.


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