Thursday, June 16, 2022

How To Repair White Matter In The Brain

Don't Miss

How Could This Be Diagnosed

Why Can’t The Brain’s White Matter Repair Itself?

Your primary care physician can make an analysis of white matter disease by examining your manifestations and utilizing imaging tests. Numerous individuals with white matter disease go to their primary care physician grumbling of equilibrium issues. In the wake of posing you some particular inquiries about your side effects, your primary care physician will probably arrange an X-ray.

An X-ray is an output of your mind utilizing attractive reverberation. To see the white matter of your mind, your primary care physician may utilize a particular kind of X-ray called T2 Flair. This kind of X-ray helps your primary care physician see the subtleties of the white matter in your cerebrum, just as distinguish any anomalies inside the white matter.

These anomalies appear as spots that are more brilliant than their environmental factors. Both the measure of these unusual brilliant spots just as where the white matter irregularities are found will help your PCP make a conclusion.

The last analysis is made after your primary care physician thinks about the X-ray, your cardiovascular wellbeing, and any manifestations you have.

Also Read: Brain & Body: Mental Health Benefits Of Exercise

In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Tractography

Lesion size was analyzed after 1, 7 and 28 days by magnetic resonance imaging using a 7-Tesla horizontal bore magnet and T2 maps as previously described . The lesion area was expressed as a percentage of the contralateral hemisphere, after correcting for brain edema. For tractography, diffusion tensor imaging was performed after 1, 7 and 28 days using a spin-echo single-shot echo-planar imaging pulse sequence with the following parameters: TR/TE, 5000/35 ms signal average, 10 30 non-collinear diffusion gradients with diffusion weighting of b = 1,000 s/mm2 and b = 0 s/mm2 and field of view 3.5 × 3.5 cm. A total of 496 slices were evaluated from data acquired in 30 directions. The images were obtained using medInria , a multi-platform medical image processing and visualization software. Zoomed lesion site three-dimensional diffusion tensor images were represented using ParaView 4.1.0 software as previously described .

The Discovery Of White Matter

In 1543, in the seventh book of his monumental work, De Humani Corporis Fabrica, the Renaissance anatomist Andreas Vesalius was the rst to distinguish clearly between white matter and the gray matter that overlay regions of the cerebral cortex.1 Only with time, though, did the role of white matter in providing structural and functional connections between gray matter areas within the brain become apparent. In the 19th century, the Parisian physician Jean Martin Charcot greatly advanced understanding of white matters role with his detailed studies of multiple sclerosis , a disease of young adults characterized by primary damage to the white matter of the central nervous system.

At the turn of the 20th century, the ascendancy of Sigmund Freud turned biomedical thinking toward psychoanalytic explanations of behavior, and for more than 50 years all of the brainwhite and gray matter alikewas relatively neglected. In 1965, however, Norman Geschwind, M.D., proposed that one mechanism underlying dysfunctional brain-behavior relationships might be cerebral disconnection, a view that pointed directly at the need to study white matter lesions.2 Geschwinds seminal article advanced the view that the dense connectivity of the brain underlay its mental operations. Central to his concept was the idea that an intricate web of white matter pathways course within and between the brains hemispheres.

Don’t Miss: What Does Brain Bleeding Feel Like

Scientists Discover Roadblocks That Stop Brain White Matter Healing

NIH-funded study identifies molecule that may prevent repair.

A new study identifies a molecule that may be critical to the repair of white matter, the fatty tissue wrapped around parts of brain cells that helps speed up communication. Damage to white matter is associated with several conditions, including multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy, and can occur in the brains of preterm babies. New findings suggest that the molecule triggers a pathway that is normally used by the immune system to prevent excessive damage but may contribute to chronic white matter injury by completely blocking repair operations. The study, published in the May issue of Journal of Clinical Investigation, was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , part of the National Institutes of Health.

This study uncovers a new player in white matter disease and identifies a potential drug target, said Jim Koenig, Ph.D., program director at NINDS. It also describes a unique situation in which the brain tries to take over immune system functions, with devastating results.

A team led by Stephen Back, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pediatrics and neurology at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, took a detailed look at the HA fragments to see how they block myelin repair. Using state-of-the-art techniques, Dr. Back and his colleagues were able to create HA fragments of different sizes.

NIHTurning Discovery Into Health®

Immunohistochemical Immunofluorescence And Western Blot Analyses

Great Facts: Transplanted brain cells repair MS damage in mice

Frozen sections were stained using the CryoMyelin Kit , which allows sensitive localization and visualization of myelin fibers. The mean intensity of myelin staining in the region of interest was quantified using a Nikon Eclipse-Ti inverted microscope and NIS-elements software. The lesion area was studied in detail using immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. The white matter-associated antibodies used were neurofilament , neurite outgrowth inhibitor , myelin basic protein and oligodendrocyte followed by goat anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 488 and anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 594 . For Western blot analysis, the units were normalized based on -actine . To quantify the expression of white matter-associated markers, the mean fluorescence intensity was evaluated in a minimum of 10 different microscopic fields using a 40× objective lens. The experiments, images and quantification of the samples were performed on the same day using the same microscope configurations, by blinded observers, to eliminate bias due to background normalization .

Also Check: Slow Brain Bleed Symptoms

Increasing And Improving White Matter

Some research has found that physical exercise, in particular, cardiorespiratory activities and weight resistance training, was correlated with improved white matter integrity in the brains of those who participated in those studies.

Physical exercise has also been connected to a decreased risk of dementia as well as a slower cognitive decline in people who already have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s or another kind of dementia.

Other research found that when adults learned new skills, the amount of white matter in their brains increased. This was true for learning to read as an adult and learning to juggle.

Additionally, white matter increased relative to the number of hours that professional musicians practiced their instruments.

White matter functioning was also improved by the practice of meditation, and the difference was observed in as little as in two to four weeks.

Cell Culture Protocol Isolation And Evs Characterization

MSC obtained from allogeneic adipose tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured. The adipose tissue was digested with collagenase and incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2. On the third pass, the cell cultures were characterized using a FACScalibur cytometer and CellQuest Pro software . MSC for EVs isolation were cultured overnight with a free exosome-FBS culture medium. After 24hours, cell supernatants were collected and the EVs were extracted using an exosome extraction kit , following the manufacturers instructions. EVs were used for treatment, for biodistribution study and for proteomic analysis and have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight. They contain associated proteins, such as CD81 and Alix using western blot and immunofluorescence.

Don’t Miss: What Happened To Jfk’s Brain

Mapping Of Motor Cortex Connections

An intracortical injection of 0.5ul anterograde neuronal tracer biotinylated dextran amine was used to asses axonal sprouting after treatment using the following coordinates . BDA was injected into the motor cortex of the rats at 3 weeks post treatment. The rats were euthanized 1 week after BDA injection. All the brains were stained with Cy-5-conjugated streptavidin . A DMLB epifluorescent microscope was used to observe sections under the Cy3 filter. The BDA cortical cells were quantified using neuroanatomical quantification software . Ipsilateral and contralateral axons of the striatum and cortex were studied,.

A retrograde neuronal tracer cholera toxin Subunit B was also used to analyze changes in axonal sprouting after treatment. For mapping of CTB axons, 0.5uL of CTB was infused with endothelin-1. The animals were euthanized 7 days after treatment. Sections were mounted, cover slipped and visualized under the Cy3 filter on a DMLB epifluorescent microscope . Cortical cells labeled with CTB were quantified using neuroanatomical quantification software ,.

Health Behaviors And Socioeconomic Covariates

Repair White Matter In The Brain | Cognition Enhancer | Powerful Brain Nerves Healing Sound Therapy

We examined demographic, health, and behavioral variables that may be associated with alcohol intake, including age, race/ethnicity, indicators of socioeconomic status, adiposity, smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and inflammation.

Information on educational attainment, family income, cigarette smoking and medical history were obtained from structured interviews. During the research visit, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as the average of 2 morning and 2 afternoon seated readings. Participants were classified as having hypertension based on SBP140mmHg, DBP90mmHg, self-report of a physician diagnosis, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication for cardiovascular health.

Diabetes status was ascertained from self-report of a doctor’s diagnosis or reported use of a diabetes-related medication. Fasting morning blood samples were obtained. Low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed as part of a lipid panel via spectrophotometry. C-reactive protein levels were assessed with nephelometry. Due to non-normal distributions, triglyceride, cholesterol, and CRP values were log-transformed prior to analyses. Assays were conducted by Quest Diagnostics Inc./Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, CA.

Don’t Miss: Zoboomafoo Brain Power

Why The White Brain Matters

If you set out to understand a buildings lighting system but examined only the xtures, switches, and outlets, never the wiring in the walls and basement, you might be pretty puzzled. Something like that has happened in the study of the brain, suggests behavioral neurologist Christopher Filley. Scientists now beginning to probe the long-neglected half of the brain called the white matter arediscovering how it specializes in connectivity, with bundles of insulated wiring that link neurons within and between gray matter areas into ensembles that may produce the light of conscious mental functioning. A pioneer of research on white matter, Filley proposes a new eld of study that would bring the other half of the brain into the mainstream of neuroscience.

Phases Of White Matter Disease

Various sorts of white matter disease may have various stages. For instance, there are a couple of kinds of MS, and each contrasts by the way it advances.

As of now, there is no widespread arranging framework for the different types of white matter infection.

All things considered, a few scientists have proposed an organizing system for white matter sores, which they recommend would help medical services experts characterize individuals into phases of white matter disease.

Also Check: Brain Bleed From Fall Survival Rate

Brain Cells Can Fix White Matter

By Vivek Sinanan | October 12, 2011

Researchers at the Hopkins School of Medicine have discovered a link between electrical stimulation and the ability to repair damaged brain matter. Focusing on an important type of brain cell called oligodendrocytes, they were able to build on previous research involving electrical stimulation and recovery of damaged brain tissue.

Oligodendrocytes are a type of auxiliary cell found in the brain. They produce the myelin sheaths that wrap around the parts of brain cells responsible for transmitting messages to other parts of the nervous system and the body. Myelin is a fatty substance that acts as an electrical insulator to improve the speed and accuracy of message transmission in the brain. It coats the axon, an elongated part of the brain cell, along which messages in the form of electrical impulses travel. Myelin is also important to brain physiology its color is the basis of the term “white matter.”

Low myelin is characteristic of many neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Patients have scarred myelin sheaths, which cause electrical signals to be transmitted erratically or not at all.

The next step, according to the researchers, is to investigate how electrical stimulation can be used to improve the function of basic neurons and if it can also be used to promote repair of damages brain tissue in human patients.

Breakthrough In Understanding White Matter Development

White matter diseases
Date:
Children’s National Medical Center
Summary:
Through the identification of a gene’s impact on a signaling pathway, scientists continue to make progress in understanding the mechanics of a key brain developmental process: growth and repair of white matter, known as myelination.

Through the identification of a gene’s impact on a signaling pathway, scientists at Children’s National Medical Center continue to make progress in understanding the mechanics of a key brain developmental process: growth and repair of white matter, known as myelination. The study, published online in the September 2011online edition of The Journal of Neuroscience, identified Sox17 as the gene that helps regulate the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway during the transition of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, or immature brain cells, to a more mature, differentiated state where they generate myelin.

“This is the first time the Sox17 gene has been identified as a regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway during myelination,” said Li-Jin Chew, PhD, lead author of the study. “Our findings indicate that loss of Sox17 over-stimulates the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and keeps oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from maturing and producing myelin, potentially causing developmental disabilities in developing babies and children.”

Story Source:

Recommended Reading: What Happens If A Brain Bleed Goes Untreated

Fasting Improves Grey Matter

Weve all been told that a balanced, healthy diet is important for our nutrition and health, but have you considered fasting before?

Proven to increase the production of the brain neurotrophic growth factor, a protein that promotes neuron growth and makes us more resilient to neurological stress fasting reduces neurodegenerative disease and is proven to increasegrey matter in the brain.

Additionally, fasting also helps existing neurons to survive while encouraging the growth of new neurons and the development of synapses. This helps to prevent conditions which are linked to Alzheimers and cognitive impairment.

Are There Treatment Options

White matter disease doesnt have a cure, but there are treatments that can help manage your symptoms. The primary treatment is physical therapy. Physical therapy can help with any balance and walking difficulties you may develop. Your overall physical and mental health can be improved when youre able to walk and get around better with little or no assistance.

Based on current research, managing your vascular health may also be an effective way to manage the symptoms of white matter disease. Not smoking and taking needed blood pressure medications as directed may help slow the progression of the disease and your symptoms.

Read Also: Bleed In Brain Stem

White Matter Disease May Be The Next Target In The Fight Against Dementia

Brain scientists have found that white matter disease chips away at memory by shrinking the brain, and contributing to dementia more than initially thought.

These findings highlight that the role of white matter disease in dementia has been under-appreciated, says Dr. Walter Swardfager, lead investigator of a new study and a scientist at Sunnybrook Research Institute. This may help to direct the next generation of treatment strategies.

White matter hyperintensities are bright spots on MRI scans tissue in the brain that is wearing away due to effects of aging and vascular risk factors on the brains small vessels.

The research, published in the February 2018 issue of the journal Neurology, showed that individuals with extensive small vessel disease had profound shrinking of the temporal lobe, an important brain region that is instrumental to learning and memory function.

The study included over 700 participants of the Sunnybrook Dementia Study led by Dr. Sandra E. Black. The researchers analyses showed that shrinkage of the temporal lobe explained how WMH were associated with memory problems.

WMH was associated with poorer verbal recall, specifically due to temporal lobe shrinkage and poorer verbal learning. WMH also contributed to deficits in recognition memory the most sensitive and specific cognitive sign of Alzheimers disease – in people with Alzheimers disease, and across other late-life dementia syndromes including post-stroke dementia.

How Walking Can Build Up The Brain

The Basics: White Matter Disease | WebMD

Older men and women who walked for six months showed improvements in white matter and memory, while those who danced or did stretching exercises did not.

  • Send any friend a story

    As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. Anyone can read what you share.

    Give this article

Exercise can freshen and renovate the white matter in our brains, potentially improving our ability to think and remember as we age, according to a new study of walking, dancing and brain health. It shows that white matter, which connects and supports the cells in our brains, remodels itself when people become more physically active. In those who remain sedentary, on the other hand, white matter tends to fray and shrink.

The findings underscore the dynamism of our brains and how they constantly transform themselves for better and worse in response to how we live and move.

The idea that adult brains can be malleable is a fairly recent finding, in scientific terms. Until the late 1990s, most researchers believed human brains were physically fixed and inflexible after early childhood. We were born, it was thought, with most of the brain cells we would ever have and could not make more. In this scenario, the structure and function of our brains would only decline with age.

Recommended Reading: How Do You Know If Your Brain Is Bleeding

How Is White Matter Disease Diagnosed

Brain magnetic resonance imaging is the main way healthcare providers diagnose white matter disease. An MRI scan is a painless test that produces very clear images of different parts of your body. MRI uses a large magnet, radio waves and a computer to produce these detailed images without any radiation .

Brain MRI scans allow healthcare providers to see the extent of white matter damage in your brain and to diagnose white matter disease.

White matter changes are visible on magnetic resonance imaging as lesions. An MRI report can call white matter changes a few different things, including:

  • Cerebral or subcortical white matter disease or lesions.
  • Microvascular disease.
  • Non-specific white matter changes.
  • T2 hyperintensities .

In some cases, your provider might see signs of white matter disease in your MRI results that you underwent for a different medical reason. In other cases, your provider may order an MRI if nothing else explains your symptoms, such as balance and memory issues.

While there are other types of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI has the best imaging quality and sensitivity for diagnosing white matter disease.

Your provider may also perform a neurological exam to assess your symptoms when diagnosing white matter disease.

Since white matter disease is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, your provider may also order the following blood tests to assess your risk:

More articles

Popular Articles