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Is Adhd A Brain Disorder

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Type : Inattentive Add

Is ADHD a Brain Disorder?

Inattentive ADD is the second most common type of ADD. Those suffering with this type are usually quiet, more introverted and appear to daydream a lot. They may be labeled as unmotivatedeven slow or lazy. Inattentive ADD is common but is often missed because children with this type tend to have fewer behavioral problems. They dont draw the negative attention to themselves as do those with Classic ADD.

Common Symptoms in Inattentive ADD Include:

  • Trouble focusing
  • Being tired, sluggish or slow moving
  • Appearing spacey or preoccupied

Inattentive ADD is the perfect example of why the general term ADHD does not fit all ADD types. If clinicians and parents are looking for hyperactivity to reach a diagnosis, those with this type, which is absent of hyperactivity, may be left untreated and go on living life below their true potential.

Inattentive ADD SPECT scan findings show normal activity at rest, but during concentration there tends to be decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia.

Patients With Adhd Are Often Highly Intelligent

problem childrenbad kid

A hallmark of ADHD is an individuals inability to stay on task, said Joshua Flatow, a psychiatrist treating ADHD at Pacific Mind Health in Los Angeles, Calif. The trouble is, these patients fully recognize their shortcoming and its effect on those around them yet they are unable to do anything about it. Theyre often highly intelligent with the attention span of a toddler, which heightens their internal frustration and sometimes spirals into other issues like anxiety and depression.

How Common Is Adhd

About 11% of children between the ages of four and 17 have ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD typically first appear between the ages of three and six years old. The average age of ADHD diagnosis is seven years old. In children, its three times more common in young boys than girls. Males are almost three times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than females.

ADHD isnt just a childhood disorder. About 4% of American adults over the age of 18 contend with ADHD behaviors on a daily basis. In adulthood, its diagnosed equally between males and females. During their lifetimes, 13% of men will be diagnosed with ADHD while just 4.2% of women will be diagnosed.

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Eight Things Parents Of Adhd Kids Need To Know

First and foremost, a diagnosis of ADHD is not a bad thing. With the proper support, tools, treatment, and most importantly, love, your child can succeed in anything she does, Rossillo says. Keep in mind:

  • A diagnosis does not mean your child cant improve their symptoms or change. It just means that they need a different way of learning or support. Many children with ADHD benefit from school accommodations such as IEP or 504 Plans.
  • The brain can change and adapt to its environment, so if a child is accepted and supported early on, the outcome is very positive, Rossillo says.
  • Understanding their strengths and weaknesses can change the trajectory of a childs life.
  • Connecting with your child in a positive way, even for just 30 minutes a daychatting, having dinner, playing a gamecan help reduce unwanted behaviors and increase positive ones.
  • Offer choices and always catch them being good. When we shift our focus to what a child is doing well versus what is not going well, we can increase their motivation to please, Rossillo says.
  • Brainstorm solutions together. Usually kids know the answers to their own problems, so if they arent included in figuring things out, you may miss the mark on how to help them. Not only does this create a greater connection, but it is also empowering to them, Rossillo says.
  • What Is Cannabis Use Disorder

    ADHD deserves to be taken seriously  The Sagamore

    Cannabis is addictive 9 percent of people who use cannabis regularly will become dependent on it 8. This figure rises to 17 percent in those who start using cannabis in adolescence.9

    CUD can develop after extended cannabis use. It is diagnosed when at least two of the following occur within a 12-month period:

    • Taking cannabis in larger amounts over longer periods of time
    • Difficulty quitting cannabis use
    • Withdrawal from cannabis

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    What Behavioral Treatments Are Used To Treat Childhood And Adult Adhd

    The best prevention for ADHD, supported by substantial research, is to use a combined approach of both behavioral intervention and pharmacotherapy. Medicines are not enough to treat you or your childs ADHD. The old adage pills dont teach skills is certainly appropriate here. Thus its best to combine medical treatments with behavioral treatments.

    Behavioral treatments for childhood ADHD include:

    Behavioral treatments in adults help you navigate the demand of jobs, relationships and educational opportunities. ADHD coaches are trained and certified to assist adults with ADHD to manage the various difficulties of their lives.

    Behavioral treatments for adults with ADHD include:

    • Individual cognitive behavioral treatment to enhance a persons sense of self-efficacy.
    • Relaxation training and stress management to reduce anxiety and stress.
    • Behavioral coaching to teach strategies for organizing home and work activities.
    • Job coaching or mentoring to support better working relationships and improve on-the-job performance.
    • Family education and therapy to ensure that everyone in the family understands ADHD and its symptoms.

    Inside The Adult Adhd Brain

    Anne Trafton | June 10, 2014January 28, 2019

      About 11 percent of school-age children in the United States have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder . While many of these children eventually outgrow the disorder, some carry their difficulties into adulthood: About 10 million American adults are currently diagnosed with ADHD.

      In the first study to compare patterns of brain activity in adults who recovered from childhood ADHD and those who did not, MIT neuroscientists have discovered key differences in a brain communication network that is active when the brain is at wakeful rest and not focused on a particular task. The findings offer evidence of a biological basis for adult ADHD and should help to validate the criteria used to diagnose the disorder, according to the researchers.

      Diagnoses of adult ADHD have risen dramatically in the past several years, with symptoms similar to those of childhood ADHD: a general inability to focus, reflected in difficulty completing tasks, listening to instructions, or remembering details.

      Shifting brain patterns

      The researchers used a technique called resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to study what the brain is doing when a person is not engaged in any particular activity. These patterns reveal which parts of the brain communicate with each other during this type of wakeful rest.

      Lingering problems

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      Untreated Adhd Puts Patients And The Public At Risk

      Going through life with untreated ADHD could be dangerous,Studies show people with untreated ADHD are more likely to have serious car accidents, and the impulsivity of the disease can lead to substance abuse or risky behavior that may lead to incarceration or, in extreme cases, death. Life expectancy for adults with ADHD is 13 years less than the general population, but patients with ADHD shouldnt despair. There are treatments available, and many people with ADHD are highly successful and lead full lives.

      Add / Adhd Brain Scan

      The Brain on ADHD | WebMD

      SPECT is a nuclear medicine study that evaluates blood flow and activity in the brain. Basically, it shows three things: healthy activity, too little activity, or too much activity. The healthy surface brain SPECT scan on the left shows full, even symmetrical activity. The ADD scan on the right, taken during concentration, reveals decreased blood flow and activity in the brains prefrontal cortex. Note that this is only 1 of 7 brain patterns associated with ADD. Learn about the 7 types in the section below.

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      • Talking excessively
      • Interrupting others

      Classic ADD SPECT scan findings show normal activity at rest, but during concentration there tends to be decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are structures deep within the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine critical to motivation, attention and setting the bodys idle speed.

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      Pharmacological Treatments And Neurobiology Of Adhd

      Pharmacological treatments of ADHD all optimize catecholamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex. Mechanisms of action of stimulants include blockade of the DA SLC6A3/DAT and NE transporters SLC6A2/NET, inhibition of monoamine oxidase and enhanced release of catecholamines . Stimulants mainly act on DA D1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex and on D2 receptors in the striatum. Atomoxetine, a nonstimulant drug used in ADHD, blocks the NE transporter and increases levels of both NA and DA in the prefrontal cortex. Guanfacine, another nonstimulant drug acts at postsynaptic alpha-2A receptors to enhance NE transmission. Therapeutic effects of DA stimulation is thought to involve a weakening of inappropriate network connections whereas enhanced NE transmission may function by strengthening appropriate connections . Current knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms of pharmacological treatments of ADHD suggest that despite some overlap, medications show differential effects with stimulants having broad effects on attention deficits and motor symptoms and nonstimulants likely to have a more specific action in the prefrontal cortex. Recent developments in therapeutic research have extended the range of medications for the treatment of ADHD. Further research is likely to improve targeting treatments to individual symptom patterns, developmental level, and possibly to brain maturation status.

      Proposed Human Exposome Project

      The idea of a Human Exposome Project, analogous to the , has been proposed and discussed in numerous scientific meetings, but as of 2017, no such project exists. Given the lack of clarity on how science would go about pursuing such a project, support has been lacking. Reports on the issue include:

      • a 2011 review on the exposome and by and Stephen Rappaport, “Exposure science and the exposome: an opportunity for coherence in the environmental health sciences” in the journal .
      • a 2012 report from the “Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy”, outlining the challenges in systematic evaluations of the exposome.

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      Type : Overfocused Add

      In order to focus, it is necessary to continually be able to shift your attention. People suffering with Overfocused ADD have most of the ADD features, but rather than not being able to pay attention, they have difficulty shifting their attention they become hyper-focused on certain things while tuning everything else out. These folks tend to get stuck or locked into negative thought patterns and behaviors. This type of ADD is often found in substance abusers as well as the children and grandchildren of alcoholics.

      Common symptoms in Overfocused ADD

      • Core symptoms of ADD
      • Difficulty shifting attention from subject to subject
      • Tendency to hold onto own opinion and not listen to others
      • Needing to have things done a certain way or they get upset
      • May or may not be hyperactive

      Overfocused ADD SPECT scan findings show increased activity at rest and during concentration in the anterior cingulate gyrus, as well as decreased activity in the underside of the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia.

      Psychotherapy And Psychosocial Interventions

      ADHD And Brain Structure: The Disorder Affects Teens ...

      Several specific psychosocial interventions have been shown to help patients and their families manage symptoms and improve everyday functioning. In addition, children and adults with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents, families, and teachers to reach their full potential and to succeed.

      For school-age children, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. Parents and children may need specialized help to overcome negative feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it affects a family. They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.

      Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to:

      • monitor his or her own behavior
      • give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting

      Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors, to encourage behavior changes, and improve interactions with the patient.

      For more information on psychotherapy, see the Psychotherapies webpage on the NIMH website.

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      Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Often Have Sleep Apnea Migraine Or Autism Spectrum Disorder As Welland Its Important To Treat All Coexisting Conditions

      For 15 years, Marshall Lichty, 43, saw therapists on and off for depression and anxiety. He also has obstructive , a condition marked by brief, repeated interruptions in breathing during sleep, loud snoring, and daytime drowsiness. And although studies show that OSA may contribute to symptoms of , no one ever suggested that Lichty might also have ADHD. At least, not until he and his wife took their 8-year-old son, Everett, to a child psychologist in 2018 to be evaluated for the disorder. “During the assessment, the doctor told us that ADHD has a strong genetic component, then asked if Everett’s attention issues resonated with anyone else in our family,” recalls Lichty, an attorney, law firm consultant, and executive coach from Minneapolis. “Suddenly everyone in the room was looking at me.”

      He wasn’t entirely surprised. Before meeting with the child psychologist, Lichty had researched the condition and found that it can also affect adults. “I felt it was the only possible explanation for why it had always been so hard for me to pay attention,” he says. He consulted his therapist, who referred him to a psychologist for evaluation. “She took my history, then said, ‘You did great in college, got into a top 20 law school, passed the bar, and practiced law, so you don’t have ADHD.’ I left her office filled with shame and self-doubt. If I didn’t have attention issues, then I must not be trying or working hard enough.”

      Rising Rates in Adults

      Coexisting Neurologic Conditions

      Why Is Adhd Considered A Neurological Condition

      Brain images of children with ADHD may show differences compared to children without ADHD. For example, in some children with ADHD certain parts of the brain are smaller or less active than the brains of children without ADHD. These changes may be linked to specific brain chemicals that are needed for tasks such as sustaining attention and regulating activity levels.

      • Why is ADHD considered a neurological condition?

        Brain images of children with ADHD may show differences compared to children without ADHD. For example, in some children with ADHD certain parts of the brain are smaller or less active than the brains of children without ADHD. These changes may be linked to specific brain chemicals that are needed for tasks such as sustaining attention and regulating activity levels.

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      What Are The Most Common Symptoms Of Adhd

      There is a slew of symptoms associated with ADHD and they can vary from person to person, but the most common ones include impulsiveness, disorganization, poor time management, problems focusing on tasks, difficulty multitasking, hyperactivity or restlessness, low frustration tolerance, mood swings, poor planning, problems following through and completing tasks, and difficulty coping with stress.

      Candidate Gene Association Studies

      ADHD I Behavioral Disorder or Brain Disorder?

      Candidate gene association studies select genes on the basis of their possible implication in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Case-control association studies compare frequencies of genetic variants in controls and affected probands, whereas familial association studies search of an excess of transmission from parents to offspring.

      Table 1 Main findings of genetic association studies

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      Do Children Diagnosed With Adhd Have A Brain Disorder

      • Post published:May 1, 2018
      • Post category:Psychiatry
      • Reading time:16 mins read

      This article was originally published in the March 2018 issue of the Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy: Sedarati, J. . Do children diagnosed with ADHD have a brain disorder? The Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 18, 19-29.

      SUMMARY: Contemporary literature is reviewed to determine whether there exists evidence supporting the notion that children diagnosed with ADHD have a brain disorder.

      KEYWORDS: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, brain disorder

      Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is portrayed as a neurodevelopmental disorder , even though no biological marker is diagnostic for ADHD . The subjective and unreliable criteria used to diagnose ADHD has led critics to conclude that it is not a valid medical syndrome but rather, a grouping of socially disapproved behaviors falsely passed off as a disease . Despite these criticisms, stimulants are being prescribed to millions of diagnosed children , inpart, based on the belief that they have a brain disorder .

      What Are The Negative Effects Of Cannabis

      Tetrahydrocannabinol , one of cannabis active compounds, inhibits neuronal connections and effectively slows the brains signaling process. THC also affects the brains dendrite architecture, which controls processing, learning, and the overall health of the brain. Science has not yet fully determined whether THCs effects are reversible some parts of the brain show healthy neuronal growth after cannabis use stops, but other parts do not.

      Short-term and long-term cannabis use also impairs:

      • Motivation
      • Memory, especially in people under 25, by altering the function of the hippocampus and orbitolfrontal cortex, where much of memory is processed
      • Performance on complicated task performance with many executive steps. Studies have shown, for example, that driving ability, even while not under the influence, can be impaired in regular marijuana users

      Cannabis use may also lead to the following health-related impairments:

      • Chronic bronchitis
      • Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome
      • Elevated resting heart rate

      Cannabis use may exacerbate disorders like paranoia, panic, and mood disorder. Studies have also found that increased cannabis consumption can uniquely contribute to elevating suicide risk, even when controlling for underlying mental health disorders, like mood disorder or anxiety45. Individuals who begin regular cannabis use also exhibit more suicidal ideation, even when controlling for pre-existing mood disorders, studies show.67

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