Pathogenesis Of Vascular Calcification
The calcification of blood vessels is also initiated by the loss of calcification inhibitors or an imbalance in Pi/PPi/purine metabolism leading to a favorable environment for calcium phosphate deposition . Analysis of mineral phases on calcified aortas of MGP-deficient mice using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques suggest that calcification of elastin in the absence of MGP is reminiscent of multistep bone mineralization via amorphous calcium phosphate precursors to crystalline structures . Analysis of Abcc6 and Nt5e knockout mice and mice lacking functional ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has led to the hypothesis that reduced plasma PPi, an inhibitor of calcium phosphate crystal growth, leads to a pro-mineralizing environment . ABCC6 facilitates cellular ATP efflux and the cascade of extracellular ATP degradation to adenosine involves hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and PPi by ENPP1. AMP is further hydrolyzed by CD73, a membrane-bound ecto-5-nucleotidase encoded by NT5E, to generate adenosine and Pi. PPi is further hydrolyzed by tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase to extracellular Pi. Adenosine is an indirect inhibitor of calcification by inhibiting TNAP .
Rock Head And The Medical Community
Now I have to wait while the doctors and the insurance companies talk nicely to each other so that I can get approved to undergo an MRI. In the meanwhile, Im starting my research on calcium deposits in the brain, what causes them and how to get rid of them .
While Im in the process of researching, I decided to have a glass of wine to toast to the new intracranial addition to the family. Now when I cook dinner, I use Dwayne Johnsons famous wrestling phrase Can you smellwhat The Rock is cooking?
Is Calcification On The Brain Serious
Calcification on the brain can be an extremely serious medical condition and can have grave consequences for individuals who have it. Yet there is much to be determined when it comes not only to how and when calcium deposits in various parts of the brain occur but also what effects the calcification actually has.
Primary Familial Brain Calcification is a rare neurological disorder in which calcium deposits build up in the brain, often in the basal ganglia, which controls movement in the body. Studies have shown that PFBC may materialize in less than 10 in 1000 people. Of that small percentage, symptoms may never actually occur.
While some patients can be asymptomatic, others can suffer from everything from vertigo to migraines to dementia. The major red flags associated with PFBC are psychiatric issues and movement disorders. Research suggests that abnormally high levels of calcium in brain cells may change the brain chemistry in such a way as to lead to Parkinson’s disease.
According to the Mayo Clinic, Parkinson’s disease is caused by irregular brain activity that affects the production of dopamine. However, the precise nature of the cause of that irregular activity is still rather hazy. A study conducted by a team from the University of Cambridge posits that when the relationship between calcium and alpha-synuclein in brain cells changes, the affected person could develop Parkinson’s disease.
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Genetic And Functional Analyses Of Csf1r
All genetic studies were conducted with approval by the institutional review board of Niigata University School of Medicine and Mayo Clinic Florida. We identified 3 novel heterozygous mutations in 4 cases : 2 missense mutations, p.Gly589Arg and p.Ala652Pro , and 1 splice-site mutation, c.2442+5G> A . The mutations in cases 5, 6, 7, and 8 have already been reported elsewhere, c.2442+5G> C , p.Met766Thr , and p.Gly589Glu . We could not analyze case 9 because the samples were not available.
Case series of ALSP with brain calcifications
We also showed that the novel missense mutant CSF1Rs were not autophosphorylated after treatment with CSF1R ligands and that abnormal splicing was induced by the novel splice-site mutation by using functional and splicing assays as previously described . A subcloning analysis revealed that these aberrant splice variants were identical to those of a previously reported case carrying a c.2442+1G> T.
Calcium Deposits In Brain Causes: Symptoms And Treatment Options
Calcium deposit in brain is a condition that we come to know only when it is noticed on X-ray or other imaging techniques. Some people also call it calcification in brain, calcinosis or Fahrs syndrome. With whatever name we call, the cause for calcium deposit in brain remains the same. It is a condition which is marked with abnormal accumulation and deposition of the mineral calcium in the brain tissue.
Calcium can get deposited in any part of the brain. The mineral gets deposited when there is too much of calcium or phosphorus circulating in the blood.
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How Do You Know If You Are Experiencing Calcification Can You Prevent It
Due to the various parts of the body that can be affected by calcification, it is impossible to make general statements about the symptoms that people may experience. However, most of the time there will be no obvious symptoms, and it is very likely that you will discover calcifications after undergoing an X-ray for entirely different reasons.
The best thing anyone can do to try to prevent calcification is to live a healthy life and talk to the orthopaedic doctor in Delhi about prevention if they are at higher risk. It is also advisable that you attend preventive medical exams with your doctor, especially once you reach middle age and beyond.
What Are The Symptoms Of Calcification
Calcification often produces no symptoms. Instead, calcification is most frequently discovered on X-rays, including mammograms, for example. Some calcification is normal, but even disease-related calcification may not cause symptoms that you will detect.
You may, however, feel the effects of the underlying disorder or process that results in calcification. These symptoms will depend on the organ system affected and the particular disorder. A few of the most common symptoms associated with calcification include bone spurs, calluses, and tartar on the teeth. Left untreated, a mineral metabolism disorder can lead to calcification in the tissues.
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Genetic Testing And Counseling
If one of your parents has it, you have a 50% chance of having it as well. If the condition runs in your family, you can get your genes tested whether you have symptoms or not.
Consider genetic counseling from a professional before you have any genetic test. Counselors can also help you decide whether to have testing during your pregnancy, or prenatal testing, if you want to start a family. Prenatal testing for this disorder is available if you already know that it is present in your family.
What Causes Calcium Deposits In The Brain
Really calcification can happen in any part of the body. People who practice martial arts such as karate prefer to have calcium deposits in knuckles.
They make their knuckles strong by punching them on hard surface area. Inflammation and micro damage to the finger bones and knuckles with constant punching add additional calcium to the bones makings their fist hard and strong.
Rest people however would not like such calcification, particularly when the subject connects to brain. As said before, brain calcification can happen as a result of either metastatic calcification or after the brain tissue is damaged or swollen.
In metastatic calcification, there is excess of calcium and phosphorus flowing in the blood which eventually gets deposited in various organs of the body, brain being the one.
Tuberculosis is common disease in establishing countries. Some people may suffer from tuberculoma , a benign growth in the brain caused due to tuberculosis bacteria. Fever, headache, seizures, vomiting and malaise, neck rigidity and disorientation are common in brain tuberculosis.
Neurocysticercosis is another inflammatory lesion which can lead to deposition of calcium in the brain. It is a parasitic infection caused due to pork tape worm . The disease is spread out due to eating polluted food.
Metabolic problems in the body can also cause deposition of calcium in the brain.
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Bone In The Brainan Overview Of Cerebrovascular Calcifications
Calcification of large arteries such as the internal carotid artery, intracranial vertebrobasilar artery, middle cerebral artery, circle of Willis, as well as calcifications in the hippocampus and basal ganglia, are easily observed on CT images . It is estimated that 30% of aged individuals have brain calcifications . However, due to relatively low resolution of CT imaging, additional histopathological analyses are required to identify calcification of microvasculature. Few case studies in aged human subjects have shown that both the calcification of the hippocampus and basal ganglia are vascular . In the aged hippocampus, arteries, pre-capillaries and capillaries were calcified . Similar calcification of hippocampal vessels has been reported in AD patients . A recent study showed that the tunica media of arterioles in the globus pallidus is calcified in aged individuals, confirmed both histologically and on CT. Calcification of the vascular tree showed a distribution pattern, starting in the ventral striatopallidum spreading posterolaterally into the external half of the globus pallidus . There is differential involvement of the vascular tree , which might be dependent on the anatomical region and underlying disease. For example, previous histopathological studies detected arterial calcification in aged subjects and AD patients compared to capillary bed calcification in the globus pallidus in Down syndrome patients .
What Is Brain Calcification
Nearly all of the calcium that enters the body typically is used to strengthen teeth and bones or is absorbed by the blood. When the balance between calcium and other chemicals in the body is off, calcium may be deposited elsewhere in the body. In the medical condition known as brain calcification, calcium is not absorbed as it usually is, but rather is deposited in the brain. Diagnosis of this condition may be made with a variety of procedures including x-rays, computed axial tomography , or magnetic resonance imaging .
Brain calcification may be triggered by a variety of medical problems. It may be associated with stroke or brain injury, or it may occur in tumors in the brain. Hypoparathyroidism, in which levels of parathyroid hormone in the body are abnormally low, may also be associated with calcification.
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Fahr Disease: Use Of Susceptibility
Neslin Sahin1, Aynur Solak1, Berhan Genc1, Ugur Kulu2
1 Department of Neurology, Sifa University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey
Abstract: Fahr disease is a well-defined rare neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by idiopathic bilateral symmetric extensive striopallidodentate calcifications. The patients may present with diverse manifestations, most commonly movement disorder, cognitive impairment, and ataxia. Computed tomography is considered to be critical for accurate diagnosis because it is difficult to reliably identify calcifications by routine magnetic resonance imaging . Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a relatively new 3D gradient-echo MR sequence with special phase and magnitude processing. SWI phase images can recognize calcifications definitively with higher sensitivity compared to other MRI sequences. In this article, we present two cases of FD with different manifestations and neuroimaging in different age groups and genders, which were diagnosed by SWI and confirmed with CT, and we discuss the contribution of SWI in the diagnosis of FD. In conclusion, we suggest integrating SWI with MRI protocol to identify calcifications in suspicion of neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords: Basal ganglia bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis computed tomography Fahr disease susceptibility-weighted imaging
Submitted Feb 16, 2015. Accepted for publication Mar 24, 2015.
Classification Of Brain Stones
As with many other intracranial pathologies, brain stones can be localised and classified as either extra- or intra-axial. Various imaging findings have been found to suggest an extra-axial localisation of brain lesions such as buckling of adjacent white matter, expansion of the ipsilateral subarachnoid space, presence of bony reactions and the dural tail sign .
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Microgliopathies And Brain Calcification
Dysregulation of the type I interferon pathway, an essential component of the brains innate immune defense, also triggers brain calcification, which is considered a useful radiological imaging marker for these diseases . Mutations in ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 , a ubiquitin-specific protease, which negatively regulates type I interferon-signaling, lead to brain calcifications in humans . Microglia specific deletion of Usp18 in mice leads to the formation of calcifications . On the other hand, a baseline type I interferon signaling in microglia is necessary to prevent calcification. Immunodeficiency caused by interferon-stimulated gene 15 mutations leads to intracranial calcifications in humans .
Microglia and Vascular Calcifications in Primary Familial Brain Calcification
Microglia turnover rate in the normal brain is relatively low, but under pathological conditions, the microglial turnover rate is increased . Accordingly, conspicuous microglial proliferation can be detected in brain regions that develop vascular calcifications in a mouse model of PFBC . There might be a higher microglial turnover rate in these regions since phagocytosis/degradation of calcifications by microglia could lead to exhaustion and death, similar to the microglial dynamics detected in the mouse model of AD . It needs to be investigated whether there is a clonal expansion of CAM and/or replacement of parenchymal microglia in the vicinity of calcified vessels which give rise to CAM .
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Citation Doi & Article Data
- Normal intracranial calcification
Normal intracranial calcifications can be defined as all age-related physiologic and neurodegenerative calcifications that are unaccompanied by any evidence of disease and have no demonstrable pathological cause.
The most common sites include:
- seen in 2/3 of the adult population and increases with age 1
- calcification over 1 cm in diameter or under nine years old may be suggestive of a neoplasm
Your Brain Is Normalexcept
The CAT scan results came back and everything seems normal. The CAT scan didnt reveal why Im having the odd sensations. Then the doctors office said, Everything is normal, except Woah Except???
What do you mean its normalexcept The CAT scan showed a small calcium deposit in your brain. Wha??? Calcium deposit in my brain? What the?!
The doctors office assured me there was nothing to be concerned about. Its a normal sign of aging. However, if I wanted to check it out just to be sure, I can undergo an MRI. Hmmm, let me think about this for 1 millisecond. Do I want an MRI? Your darned Skippy I want an MRI.
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Pathogenesis Of Vascular Calcification In The Brain
Table 1. Alterations accompanying brain vascular calcifications.
In order to describe the pathophysiology of brain vessel calcification in detail, we will refer to studies investigating vascular calcification in PFBC.
Primary Familial Brain Calcification
As mentioned above, the list of diseases with brain calcification as a secondary manifestation is extensive and it has not been intensively investigated whether these calcifications are vascular and/or parenchymal. In the case of hereditary neuropsychiatric disease, primary familial brain calcification , the presence of bilateral basal ganglia vascular calcifications is a diagnostic criterion . PFBC patients may present clinically with motor and/or non-motor phenotypes or may even remain unaffected . In PFBC, the capillary bed is encrusted with the calcium phosphate deposits like pearls on the string in addition to the calcification of the medial layer of arteries and arterioles . These small, mineralized deposits are located on the capillary wall adjacent to the parenchyma .
Does Imbalance in Brain Phosphate Metabolism Cause Vascular Calcification?
Blood-Brain Barrier DysfunctionA Cause for Vascular Calcification in Primary Familial Brain Calcification?
Phenotypic Change of Vascular Cells to Osteoblast-Like Cells in Primary Familial Brain Calcification?
What Is the Role of Astrocytes in Brain Vascular Calcification?
Can Brain Calcification Go Away
Though it can create neurological maladies that can be treated, there is no proven treatment for brain calcification. Once the calcification exists, it does not go away. Instead, it disrupts things and changes the way the brain functions. When this happens, doctors treat the symptoms to the best of their abilities, sometimes without a precise understanding of their origins.
The best chance that exists for the potential to diminish brain calcification is through collaboration among medical professionals. Take the case of an American woman who went to her primary care physician, complaining of trouble with lower extremity movement and word-finding difficulties. Her doctor ordered an MRI, which showed deep white matter calcifications. When the neurologists had trouble interpreting the data because they didn’t quite understand what they were seeing, they consulted with a radiologist, who had seen such images before. Only then did the diagnosis and means of treatment reflect Fahr’s disease, which is distinguished by irregular deposits of calcium in the brain.
This case shows how obscured calcification in the brain actually is. It is not yet fully understood, and until it is, the means by which to reduce it will remain elusive. Doctors do not yet know how to make it go away, so instead, they try to manage the symptoms, hoping to improve their patient’s quality of life.
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