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George Sink, P.A. Injury Lawyers
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DISCLAIMER: Information on this website is not legal advice. Reviewing the information on this website does not create an attorney-client relationship with the law firm. Nothing presented on this website reflects an endorsement by the U.S. Government or any branch of the military. The attorney, investigator, or a representative of the firm may visit you anywhere in SC or GA for initial investigations in many circumstances. George Sink, Sr licensed in SC.
*No fee if no recovery. Fees computed before deducting expenses from recovery. “We dont get paid until you get paid or similar language refers only to fees charged by the attorney. Court costs and other additional expenses of legal action usually must be paid by the client. Contingent attorneys’ fees refers only to those fees charged by attorneys for their legal services. Contingent fees are not permitted in all types of cases.
Any result the lawyer or law firm may have achieved on behalf of clients in one matter does not necessarily indicate similar results can be obtained for other clients. Verdicts, awards, and total recoveries presented reflect gross numbers, before attorneys fees, costs and expenses are deducted.
Speech And Language Therapy
After a traumatic brain injury, some individuals can have cognitive and communication problems. Individuals may have difficulty organizing their thoughts, processing new information, or trouble finding the right words. This can be extremely frustrating for the individual and their family members. The person may even have difficulty swallowing, chewing, or forming basic word sounds.
Speech therapy is a service which focuses on improving an individuals speech and abilities to understand and express language. This can also include nonverbal language. Speech therapy most commonly includes two components coordinating the mouth to produce sounds to form words and sentences, and understanding and expressing language.
Coordinating to form words includes therapy to address articulation, fluency and volume regulation of speech. When speech therapists work to address expressing language, they are working to improve written language, body language, sign forms, and even aspects related to social media and computers.
Who Is Most At Risk For A Tbi
According to the Center for Disease Control, approximately 5.3 million Americans are living with a disability related to their TBI.
The people most at risk of TBI include:
- Children, especially newborns to 4-year-olds
- Young adults, especially those between ages 15 and 24
- Adults age 75 and older
After a life-changing traumatic event, the emotional aftermath can lead to shame, guilt, self-blame, aggression and even suicidal thoughts. Drinking or self medicating is also a common way of coping with mental health or loss of control after a life changing event. If you or someone you know may be feeling suicidal, call the Suicide Prevention Lifeline at .
The three groups most at risk for brain injury are children , teenagers and elderly adults Children are at risk because of their playing habits, teenagers because of sports and auto accidents, and elderly people tend to sustain brain injury from falling.
Prevention technology consists of seat belts and helmets, which should be used while whenever driving a car or motorcycle. Remember to wear a seatbelt every time and to buckle children in using the appropriate type of booster seat or child safety seat in accordance to their height weight and age. Use the right protective equipment and gear for hobbies and make sure that they are stored and maintained properly. Helmet safety guide.
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Ending Our Time Together
Traumatic events cause many chemical reactions and initiate the fight/flight/freeze response, but for some, these chemicals never return to baseline, causing damage to some regions of the brain.
60% of men and 50% of women will experience one or more traumatic events in their lifetime. These statistics mean that more research must happen to increase our knowledge and thus treatments for PTSD.
The brain areas affected by PTSD control memory, reasoning, and thought, causing the victim to experience difficulties remembering events, thinking, and learning new information.
Epigenetics, a new kid on the block of neuro-research about PTSD, has found that a persons genes are changed by trauma and that these changes can be passed to their progeny.
The next stage of research and learning about post-traumatic stress disorder will involve those who formed PTSD due to the COVID-19 pandemic as people emerge from isolation and face a new world.
Trauma is personal. It does not disappear if it is not validated. When it is ignored or invalidated, the silent screams continue internally heard only by the one held captive. When someone enters the pain and hears the screams, healing can begin. ~ Danielle Bernock
Bremner JD. Alterations in brain structure and function associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 1999 Oct 4:249-55. DOI: 10.153/SCNP00400249. PMID: 10553030.
Epigenetics. Wikipedia. Retrieved from:
Treatment: How To Find Help For Pcs And Ptsd
Our focus and expertise at Cognitive FX is treating post-concussion syndrome. Some of our patients also suffer from PTSD and may or may not have been diagnosed before visiting us. Many times, our post-concussion PTSD patients were injured in a motor vehicle accident. These patients are almost always surprised to find out that PTSD from an MVA is not only possible but that its actually one of the most common forms of PTSD.
So how do we move forward with treatment in these cases?
When youre suffering from post-concussion syndrome and PTSD, it is almost always best to begin by treating the PCS. Getting relief from the physical and mental symptoms of PCS makes it easier to move forward with treatment for PTSD.
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What To Know About Living With A Spinal Cord Injury
A spinal cord injury is that which results in damage to any portion of the spinal cord or the nerves at the base of the spine. The spinal cord itself is a series of nerve bundles that serve as part of your central nervous system it is the communication superhighway between your brain and the rest of your body.
Automobile accidents and falls are the leading causes of spinal cord injuries, followed by acts of violence and sporting incidents, according to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center .
How Do You Identify Tbi
A common misunderstanding is that TBI screens are used to diagnose the TBI itself. However, even if the screen result is positive, it does not serve as a diagnosis for TBI, it actually indicates a need for further assessment. A neurological examination will determine the prognosis and next steps in rehabilitation. A physician will be able to formally diagnose a TBI by further examining patient reports, clinical presentation and brain imaging results . Afterwards an interdisciplinary team will address specific recovery needs from the TBI. Depending on the needs of the individual who sustained the injury, this team can consist of occupational therapists, speech language pathologists, physical therapists, audiologists, nurses, social workers and teachers.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Ptsd
Individuals of all ages can experience post-traumatic stress disorder. Some factors may make you more likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic event. Some of these factors are listed below:
- Experiencing intense or long-lasting trauma
- Having experienced trauma early in life childhood abuse
- Being employed where there is a higher risk of being exposed to traumatic events military and first responders
- Mental health problems anxiety or depression
- Substance abuse issues alcohol or drug use
- Lacking a good support system of family and friends
- Blood relatives with mental health issues similar to the above
How Tbi May Impact Ptsd
The Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience article reports findings that TBI appears to increase the risk for PTSD. The article cites a massive military study in which 16 percent of troops who sustained bodily injury indicated PTSD 44 percent of those with mild TBI screened positive for PTSD.
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Whats Unique About Ptsd
Symptoms of PTSD include:
- Unwanted and repeated memories of the life-threatening event
- Flashbacks where the event is relived and person temporarily loses touch with reality
- Avoidance of people, places, sights, or sounds that are reminders
- Feelings of detachment from people, even family, and emotional numbness
- Shame about what happened and was done
- Survivor guilt with loss of friends or comrades
- Hypervigilance or constant alertness for threats.
Individuals with PTSD are at increased risk for depression, physical injuries, substance abuse, and sleep problems, which in turn can affect thoughts and actions. These risk factors also occur with brain injury.
PTSD is a mental disorder, but the associated stress can cause physical damage. TBI is a neurological disorder caused by trauma to the brain. It can cause a wide range of impairments and changes in physical abilities, thinking and learning, vision, hearing, smell, taste, social skills, behaviors, and communication. The brain is so complex, the possible effects of a traumatic injury are extensive and different for each person.
When PTSD and TBI coexist, its often difficult to sort out whats going on. Changes in cognition such as memory and concentration, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue are common with both diagnoses. One basically feeds and reinforces the other, so its a complicated mix its the perfect storm. It may help to consider and compare changes commonly seen with TBI and PTSD.
Get Support For Healthy Living
If you or someone you know is suffering from combat stress, post-traumatic stress disorder or a traumatic brain injury, it is important to get professional help as soon as possible. The Department of Veterans Affairs has readjustment counseling for combat veterans and their families, including those still on active duty at community-based Vet Centers. The Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury is available 24/7 to provide information and local resources to service members. If you or someone you know is in crisis, contact the Military Crisis Line at 800-273-8255, then press 1, or access online chat by texting 838255.
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Ptsd And Tbi Share Many Symptoms
The two conditions actually share many of the same symptoms, albeit with significant differences related to the causes or manifestations of the symptoms. Both PTSD and TBI provoke the following symptoms in patients:
- Memory problems
- Difficulty talking about the trauma
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S Of The Brain Impacted By Ptsd
Certain structures of the brain are closely related to some of the symptoms of PTSD. These structures include the amygdala and hippocampus several parts of the prefrontal cortex the mid-anterior cingulate cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus.
PTSD causes the hyper-activation of some brain structures while other areas become hypoactive.
Both the amygdala and the mid-anterior cingulate cortex become over-stimulated when a person has PTSD. However, the hippocampus, right inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and orbitofrontal cortex all become hypoactive, some to the point of atrophy.
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Ptsd Is A Mental Injury Not A Mental Illness
Researchers argue that it is important to view PTSD symptoms as a mental injury, versus a mental illness or something pathological . This is because PTSD symptoms are a natural reaction to a distressing event where one may have felt overwhelmed, afraid, or helpless. Historically, mental illness is pathologized as something that is “wrong” with the person, versus simply a manifestation of how most people would respond.
For example. if a person falls and cuts their leg, that would be an injury. Bleeding could occur, which would be a symptom of the injury the amount of bleeding would be based on the severity of the wound, previous injuries, etc. Similarly, PTSD symptoms may manifest into problems with concentration, angry outbursts, sleep disturbance, sadness, anxiety, and even nightmares. These are natural responses to overwhelming circumstances, whether they are obviously traumatic to most or less obvious to most people.
Relationship Between Ptsd And Tbi
PTSD and TBI are often addressed together for two reasons. First, the symptoms may be similar, so it is difficult to distinguish between the two injuries. Second, many people with TBI also have PTSD.
Although PTSD is a biological/psychological injury and TBI is a neurological trauma, the symptoms of the two injuries have some parallel features. In both injuries, the symptoms may show up months after someone has returned from war, and in both injuries, the veteran may self medicate and present as someone with a substance abuse problem. Overlapping symptoms include sleep disturbances, irritability, physical restlessness, difficulty concentrating, and some memory disturbances. While there are similarities, there are also significant differences. For example, with PTSD individuals may have trouble remembering the traumatic event, but otherwise their memory and ability to learn is intact. With TBI the individual has preserved older memories, but may have difficulty retaining new memories and new learning.
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Complex Concussions: Diagnosing And Treating Post
3 Minute Read
Medically Reviewed by Sports Medicine
Each year in the U.S., there are as many as 2.9 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths from traumatic brain injuries . Most of these are mild TBIs, which we know as concussions. Some people with concussions also will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of the experience.
PTSD is caused by a reaction of the sympathetic nervous system, which directs the bodys rapid involuntary response to dangerous or stressful situations. The reaction causes a flashflood of hormones, which boosts the bodys alertness and heart rate, sending extra blood to the muscles. An estimated 7 to 8 percent of Americans will experience PTSD at some point in their lives. For military service members and veterans, the incidence of PTSD is even higher.
Since 2001, more than 262,000 military members and veterans have experienced concussions. But according to a report by the RAND Corporation, 57% of those in military service who have experienced a concussion without a loss of consciousness were never evaluated by a physician for a brain injury afterward.
False Positivity In Place Of Treatment That Doesnt Work
So when I hear those same kinds of deny-reality reactions today even the look-how-much-youve-improved cheering-up kind I hear past judgements echoing into the present. PTSD flashbacks work in the same way: the past becomes the present, and you must work to tell yourself where you are, when you are, how you are in a process called, grounding. However, grounding wont heal the past. Affect killed in the past alive again today demands to be felt. The denial and minimizing of my very real suffering need to be acknowledged as traumatizing. On anniversary days, like January 15 for me, or in anniversary weeks or months, all you want to do is emote traumas clangor and be heard.
I get that people have an innate desire to cheer up their friends, which often comes in the form of trying to get them to stop whining and to focus on gratitude moments, but sometimes, paradoxically, the best way to cheer a person up in the midst of trauma recovery and/or also in an anniversary week, is to listen and empathize and perhaps share similar experiences and show small gestures of kindness, for as long as it takes. Kindnesses go a long, long way. Then phone their therapist or doctor and tell them to up their game, for neurostimulation treatments that heal brain injury also show promise for PTSD.
Where To Get Help With Ptsd
If you have realized that you or someone you know needs help with PTSD, there are many mental health resources available. You can find trauma and PTSD therapists and peer support groups online, or you can get a referral from your primary healthcare provider.
If youre in crisis and feel like youre in immediate danger of hurting yourself or others, call 911, call the Suicide Prevention Hotline, or visit the nearest emergency room.
Traumatic Brain Injury And Post
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is an anxiety disorder that can occur as a result of experiencing a traumatic event. The symptoms of PTSD may include being constantly on-edge, frequently having a short temper, reliving the traumatic event through flashbacks or bad dreams, avoiding things related to the traumatic event, or losing interest in previously enjoyable activities. In people with PTSD, these symptoms last for more than a few weeks and become disruptive to the persons daily living.
One of the largest groups of people who are diagnosed with PTSD consists of recent members of the U.S. military forces. An estimated 17%, or almost 142,000, of the living U.S. military veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars currently have Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder , and experts estimate that 35% may develop PTSD over time.
A study in JAMA Psychiatry, a publication of the American Medical Association, found a connection between TBI and PTSD. The study evaluated 1648 Marine and Navy servicemen one month before, one week after, and three months after a deployment. Those who reported little to no PTSD symptoms before deployment and who experienced a mild TBI during deployment had nearly twice the probability of having PTSD after deployment than what was predicted. Those who had the highest risk for post-deployment PTSD were those that reported PTSD symptoms before deployment and experienced high combat intensity and a TBI during deployment.
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First Things First: Pcs Treatment
When a person sustains a mild traumatic brain injury, they often experience inflammation and sometimes swelling. As the brain tries to cope with that inflammation and other issues caused by the head injury, it may establish workaround communication pathways to bypass injured parts of the brain.
Unfortunately, these detours arent as efficient as the original pathways the brain tires quickly while using them, leading to post-concussion symptoms. When the brain continues to use these inefficient pathways even after the initial injury resolves, the symptoms persist indefinitely.
We have developed a highly effective treatment for post-concussion symptoms using the brains inherent ability to repair itself to encourage the brain to return to using its efficient, pre-injury pathways.
Epic Treatment takes place during an intense week at our facility. It begins with a functional Neurocognitive Imaging Scan that allows us to look at how a patients brain is responding to a series of cognitive demands. We measure the blood flow to specific regions, looking for areas of dysfunction. We then use the fNCI results and an inventory of the patients symptoms to create an individualized treatment plan that targets those dysfunctional brain regions.
Though many patients show remarkable improvement during treatment week, patients are given instructions on how to continue treatment at home. This is a vital part of the recovery process.