Friday, May 13, 2022

Is The Brain An Organ Or An Organ System

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When Does Your Heart Work And Beat Faster

Early methods of studying the brain | Organ Systems | MCAT | Khan Academy

A rapid or fast heartbeat is when your heart is beating faster than normal. A normal heart rate is 60 to 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia is considered a heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute. If you are exercising, or performing any kind of activity, your heart will normally beat faster.

Not To Be Underestimated

Regardless of whether the medical community deems it an organ or simply an integral ancillary part of the body, the spinal cord serves an incredibly fundamental role in how the body works. Since this one element of the body controls so much, the future will undoubtedly bring a greater understanding of the spinal cords function and design, as research into its inner workings sets the stage for medical research breakthroughs that will shape the future of the industry.

In fact, such research could conceivably even revolutionize the conversation regarding the spinal cords classification. In the meantime, however, we can only marvel at its power and hope that new data allows us to more effectively provide assistance to those suffering from spinal cord injuries.

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Organization Of The Body

The cell is the basic living unit of the human bodyindeed, of all organisms. The human body consists of trillions of cells, each capable of growth, metabolism, response to stimuli, and, with some exceptions, reproduction. Although there are some 200 different types of cells in the body, these can be grouped into four basic classes. These four basic cell types, together with their extracellular materials, form the fundamental tissues of the human body: epithelial tissues, which cover the bodys surface and line the internal organs, body cavities, and passageways muscle tissues, which are capable of contraction and form the bodys musculature nerve tissues, which conduct electrical impulses and make up the nervous system and connective tissues, which are composed of widely spaced cells and large amounts of intercellular matrix and which bind together various body structures.

The next level of organization in the body is that of the organ. An organ is a group of tissues that constitutes a distinct structural and functional unit. Thus, the heart is an organ composed of all four tissues, whose function is to pump blood throughout the body. Of course, the heart does not function in isolation it is part of a system composed of blood and blood vessels as well. The highest level of body organization, then, is that of the organ system.

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Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

  • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
  • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
  • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
  • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Central Nervous System

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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Why The Brain Is Our Most Important Organ

It is perhaps no secret that our brain is a vitally important organ that oversees the function of our entire body. The brain allows us to learn new things, and gives us the ability to think and therefore makes us into who we are. As your Chiropractor, my main role is to make certain that the brain is fully able to communicate with every cell, muscle, tissue, and organ in your body, without interference. I do so by removing vertebral subluxations, which are misalignments of the spinal bones that are placing a pressure on a nerve and blocking this vital communication.

So what exactly is the brain, other than an organ? It is a collection of over one hundred billion neurons that are linked to one another. These interconnected cells that comprise the brain, share information with one another, and pass-on information 24/7.

Nerve impulses, which are messages, are arriving non-stop in your brain from all parts of the body. These impulses are actually electrical signals. Your brain then has to process these messages, and then send instructions back out to the body and organs telling them what to do in order to maintain life. So, as you can imagine, it is extremely important that the messages arrive without interference to the brain, and that the body then receives instructions from the brain clearly, and without interference.

So, what fun would learning about the brain be if I didnt include some fun facts, right? So here you go:

In Wellness and Love,

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

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What Is An Organ

An organ is made up of the same type of tissues, which are well-organized to perform specific functions in all living things, including plants, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, mammals and humans.

Organs collectively form organ systems. These organs are macroscopic in structure. The brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys are a few examples of organs.

Human anatomy mainly deals with the study of the structure of the internal organs and physiology deals with the study of the functioning of the internal organs. The study of visceral organs is Splanchnology.

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Chemical Composition Of The Body

Modern ways of studying the brain | Organ Systems | MCAT | Khan Academy

Chemically, the human body consists mainly of water and of organic compoundsi.e., lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Water is found in the extracellular fluids of the body and within the cells themselves. It serves as a solvent without which the chemistry of life could not take place. The human body is about 60 percent water by weight.

Lipidschiefly fats, phospholipids, and steroidsare major structural components of the human body. Fats provide an energy reserve for the body, and fat pads also serve as insulation and shock absorbers. Phospholipids and the steroid compoundcholesterol are major components of the membrane that surrounds each cell.

Proteins also serve as a major structural component of the body. Like lipids, proteins are an important constituent of the cell membrane. In addition, such extracellular materials as hair and nails are composed of protein. So also is collagen, the fibrous, elastic material that makes up much of the bodys skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Proteins also perform numerous functional roles in the body. Particularly important are cellular proteins called enzymes, which catalyze the chemical reactions necessary for life.

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Each Body System Works With The Others

Each individual body system works in conjunction with other body systems. The circulatory system is a good example of how body systems interact with each other. Your heart pumps blood through a complex network of blood vessels. When your blood circulates through your digestive system, for example, it picks up nutrients your body absorbed from your last meal. Your blood also carries oxygen inhaled by the lungs. Your circulatory system delivers oxygen and nutrients to the other cells of your body then picks up any waste products created by these cells, including carbon dioxide, and delivers these waste products to the kidneys and lungs for disposal. Meanwhile, the circulatory system carries hormones from the endocrine system, and the immune systems white blood cells that fight off infection.

Each of your body systems relies on the others to work well. Your respiratory system relies on your circulatory system to deliver the oxygen it gathers, while the muscles of your heart cannot function without the oxygen they receive from your lungs. The bones of your skull and spine protect your brain and spinal cord, but your brain regulates the position of your bones by controlling your muscles. The circulatory system provides your brain with a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood while your brain regulates your heart rate and blood pressure.

What Happens When You Exercise Your Brain

Exercising your brain using cognitive training tools, which are also called brain training games or brain exercises, may help improve your cognitive functioning.

Some studies have found that brain exercises improve memory, executive functions, and processing speeds, while others have shown little to no effect.

The impact of brain exercises may have something to do with age. Some studies have shown an improvement in cognitive abilities in young people and older adults. Nouchi R, et al. . Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: A randomized controlled trial. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055518

Brain exercises may also be beneficial in slowing age-related changes in the brain and those associated with neurological conditions, such as Alzheimers disease and dementia.

A study published in 2017 showed that a brain-training intervention known as speed-of-processing training significantly reduced dementia risk. Edwards JD, et al. . Speed of processing training results in lower risk of dementia. DOI: 10.1016/j.trci.2017.09.002

If youre looking to exercise your brain, you dont necessarily need to resort to brain training games and apps.

Your brain is made up of different parts that all work together. Lets take a look at the different parts of the brain and what they do.

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Health Conditions Of The Brain

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Of course, when a machine as finely calibrated and complex as the brain gets injured or malfunctions, problems arise. One in five Americans suffers from some form of neurological damage, a wide-ranging list that includes stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy, as well as dementia.

Alzheimers disease, which is characterized in part by a gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimers or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimers symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to the diseases devasting effects.

Far more common than neurological disorders, however, are conditions that fall under a broad category . Unfortunately, negative attitudes toward people who suffer from mental illness are widespread. The stigma attached to mental illness can create feelings of shame, embarrassment, and rejection, causing many people to suffer in silence. In the United States, where anxiety disorders are the most common forms of mental illness, only about 40 percent of sufferers receive treatment. Anxiety disorders often stem from abnormalities in the brains hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

Human Anatomy Brain &  Nervous System  MotionCow

The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

  • Breathing
  • Hunger

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Resistant Or Resilient The Great Debate

Advances in neuroimaging have both helped and hindered the study of aging in the brain. It turns out, even when older adults carry out the same tasks as younger adults, their brains may be functioning completely differently. The functional changes are wild, Hakun says.

When we complete mentally stimulating tasks, we engage neurons all across our brains. Distant neurons talk to each other through axons, which extend, tentacle-like, from the body of one neuron to tickle another with an electrical signal. Scientists refer to the network of axons in our brains as white matter, while the bodies of neurons and other cells in the brain are grey matter.

Starting in the early 2000s, imaging tools like MRIs gave scientists the insight that some cortical shrinking is common in older adults. But they uncovered another change in older brains, too: Imaging showed the structural integrity of the white matter in brains was a little weaker. In order to send electrical signals across brain regions, these neurons had to work harder than they would in a younger brain.

Its the concept of less wiring, more firing, says Hakun.

But other older adults with hyperactivated brains can complete tasks just as well as younger brains. Thats a functional reorganization effect, says Hakun. Somehow, the brain has been able to reconfigure itself to carry out the same task despite its changes in white matter.

Feature: Human Biology In The News

Organ transplantation has been performed by surgeons for more than six decades, and youve no doubt heard of people receiving heart, lung, and kidney transplants. However, you may have never heard of a penis transplant. The first U.S. penis transplant was performed in May 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The 15-hour procedure involved a team of more than 50 physicians, surgeons, and nurses. The patient was a 64-year-old man who had lost his penis to cancer in 2012. The surgical milestone involved grafting microscopic blood vessels and nerves of the donor organ to those of the recipient. As with most transplant patients, this patient will have to take immunosuppressing drugs for the rest of his life so his immune system will not reject the organ. The transplant team said that their success with this transplant holds promise for patients with devastating genitourinary injuries and disease. They also hope their experiences will be helpful for gender reassignment surgery.

See the Johns Hopkins Medicine video below for a summary of how the penile and scrotum transplant procedure was carried out:

Worlds First Total Penile and Scrotum Transplant | Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2018.

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Largest Organs In The Human Body

Based on the weight and the length of the body organs, they are classified as the longest organs in the human body. These organs are macroscopic and are involved in multiple functions.

Altogether, there are 10 large organs in the body, which include skin, liver, brain, lungs, heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thyroid and joints. A few of them are explained in detail below.

Skin

Skin is the largest external organ of the human body. It is a vital organ and provides outer covering, which protects from external elements. It also functions by protecting our internal organs from invading pathogens, regulates our body temperature and pH, prevents dehydration and also functions as the main sense organ. In both animals and humans, skin functions as a barrier between the outside and inside the environment. The skin acquires an area of 19 to 20 square feet on our body surface. Therefore, it is called the largest external organ of the human body.

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Liver

The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, which weighs between 1.3 to 1.5 kg. The liver is located in the upper right portion of the abdomen and is the organ found only among the vertebrates. It is triangular, bilobed in structure and performs more than 500 functions, including blood clotting, protecting from the invading pathogens, synthesis of hormones and proteins and secretes various enzymes and chemicals.

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Blood Supply To The Brain

The Nervous System – CrashCourse Biology #26

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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