Problems Of The Nervous System
Some common problems of the nervous system include:
- Epilepsy storms of abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing seizures
- Meningitis inflammation of the membrane covering the brain
- Multiple sclerosis the myelin sheaths protecting the electrical cables of the central nervous system are attacked
- Parkinsons disease death of neurones in a part of the brain called the midbrain. Symptoms include shaking and problems with movement
- Sciatica pressure on a nerve caused by a slipped disc in the spine or arthritis of the spine and, sometimes, other factors
- Shingles infection of sensory nerves caused by the varicella-zoster virus
- Stroke a lack of blood to part of the brain.
How Does The Brain Work
The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.
Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .
Health Conditions Of The Brain
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Of course, when a machine as finely calibrated and complex as the brain gets injured or malfunctions, problems arise. One in five Americans suffers from some form of neurological damage, a wide-ranging list that includes stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy, as well as dementia.
Alzheimers disease, which is characterized in part by a gradual progression of short-term memory loss, disorientation, and mood swings, is the most common cause of dementia. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with it is growing. Worldwide, some 50 million people suffer from Alzheimers or some form of dementia. While there are a handful of drugs available to mitigate Alzheimers symptoms, there is no cure. Researchers across the globe continue to develop treatments that one day might put an end to the diseases devasting effects.
Far more common than neurological disorders, however, are conditions that fall under a broad category . Unfortunately, negative attitudes toward people who suffer from mental illness are widespread. The stigma attached to mental illness can create feelings of shame, embarrassment, and rejection, causing many people to suffer in silence. In the United States, where anxiety disorders are the most common forms of mental illness, only about 40 percent of sufferers receive treatment. Anxiety disorders often stem from abnormalities in the brains hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
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Headaches Are Caused By A Chemical Reaction
Chemical activity in your brain, the nerves or blood vessels surrounding your skull, or the muscles of your head and neck can play a role in primary headaches. Serotonin is a chemical necessary for communication between nerve cells. When serotonin or estrogen levels change, the result for some is a headache or migraine. Serotonin levels may affect both sexes, while fluctuating estrogen levels affect women only.
Dreams Are Believed To Be A Combination Of Imagination Physiological Factors And Neurological Factors
The limbic system in the mid-brain deals with emotions in both waking and dreaming and includes the amygdala, which is mostly associated with fear and is especially active during dreams. Dreams are proof that your brain is working even when you are sleeping. The average human has about 4-7 dreams per night.
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How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have
The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”
An Adult Brain Weighs About 3 Pounds
The cerebrum makes up 85% of the brains weight, and the brain makes up about 2% of a humans body weight. The texture of the brain is like a firm jelly. The heaviest normal human brain weighed 4.43 pounds. It belonged to the Russian Writer Ivan Turgenev. And the smallest brain, just 2.41 pounds, belonged to a woman.
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Nyc Will Consider Race When Distributing Life
The virus that causes COVID-19 can spread to a patients heart and brain days after infection and survive for months in organs, according to a new study that may shed light on the so-called long COVID.
Scientists at the US National Institutes of Health in Maryland studied tissues taken from 44 people who had died after contracting the illness during the first year of the pandemic in the US, Bloomberg News reported.
They discovered SARS-CoV-2 RNA in various parts of the body including the heart and brain for as long as 230 days after the onset of symptoms, according to the news outlet.
The delayed viral clearance was cited as a possible contributor to long-haul COVID, also called post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2, which is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a range of long-lasting symptoms among patients.
The study is under review by independent scientists for publication in the journal Nature.
This is remarkably important work, Ziyad Al-Aly, director of the clinical epidemiology center at the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care System in Missouri, told Bloomberg.
For a long time now, we have been scratching our heads and asking why long COVID seems to affect so many organ systems, said Al-Aly, who has led separate studies into the long-term effects of the illness.
This paper sheds some light, and may help explain why long COVID can occur even in people who had mild or asymptomatic acute disease, he added.
Interesting Facts About The Human Brain With Introduction And Functions
In This Article You Will Know:
- How many neurons make up your brain?
- When does your brain sleep?
- Why babies have bigger heads?
- How many types of neurons are there in your brain?
Human Brain Basic Facts
|Integral Part of Every Brain Cell||Cholestrol|
|Brain information travels up to||268 miles/h|
|Brain generates electricity||12-25 watts|
Did you know most of what you know about your brain has been discovered in just the last two decades? Still the experts agree that theres more you dont know about this organ than your presently do know!
Like the heart that keeps on pumping blood throughout your life, the brain remains active and never goes to sleep. When brain stops working, the individual is legally declared to be dead. However, while the person is legally dead, the heart may be made to beat by putting the patient onlife support.
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Muscular And Skeletal System
Skeletons are either a fluid-filled body cavity, exoskeletons, or internal skeletons. Bones, joints and muscles are part of the skeletal system of humans. The skeletal system is made of 2 parts:
- Axial Skeleton- The skeleton which makes the main axis of the body such as the skull, vertebral column and bones of the chest.
- Appendicular skeleton- It consists of bones that support appendages.
Points to Note:
Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact
Affiliations Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900, Israel, Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America
Affiliations Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Havard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America
Affiliation Harvard Medical School and Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America
Affiliations Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America, Harvard Medical School and Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria
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How Do Nerves Control Every Organ And Function In The Body
Category: Biology Published: September 20, 2013
Nerves do not control every tissue and function in the human body, although they do play a large role. There are three main ways that bodily organs and functions are controlled:
Nerves carry orders from the brain and spinal cord in the form of electrical signals. Nerves also help sense the state of tissues and relay this information back to the brain and spinal cord, enabling us to experience pain, pleasure, temperature, vision, hearing, and other senses. The body uses electrical signals sent along nerves to control many functions because electrical signals can travel very quickly. At the end of each nerve’s axon terminals the electrical signals are converted to chemical signals which then trigger the appropriate response in the target tissue. However, the control exerted by the nervous system inevitably resides in the brain and spinal cord, an not in the nerves, which just pass along the signals. Most signals get processed in the brain, but high-risk signals are processed and responded to by the spinal cord before reaching the brain in the effect we call “reflexes”. Although the central nervous system plays a large role in controlling the body, it is not the only system that exerts control.
Structure And Function Of The Spine
The spine is made up of 26 bones divided into 5 sections. These bones surround and protect the spinal cord. This includes 24 vertebrae , the sacrum and the coccyx.
Cervical region These are 7 vertebrae at the top of the spine that run from the base of the skull to the lowest part of the neck.
Thoracic region These are 12 vertebrae that run from the shoulders to the middle of the back.
Lumbar region These are 5 vertebrae that run from the middle of the back to the hips.
Sacrum This is a large section of fused vertebrae at the base of the spine.
Coccyx This is a small, thin section of fused vertebrae at the end of the spine.
Between the vertebrae are the discs .
Disc A layer of cartilage found between the vertebrae. Discs cushion and protect the vertebrae and spinal cord.
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Human Organs And Organ Systems
Achy Breaky Heart
Billy Ray Cyrus’s song “Achy Breaky Heart” has lyrics suc as: Heartache, heartbreak…it all has to do with love. Did you ever wonder why the heart is associated with love? The heart was once thought to be the center of all thought processes, as well as the site of all emotions. This notion may have stemmed from very early anatomical dissections that found many nerves can be traced to the region of the heart. The fact that the heart may start racing when one is excited or otherwise emotionally aroused may have contributed to this idea as well. In fact, the heart is not the organ that controls thoughts or emotions. The organ that controls those functions is the brain. In this concept, youll be introduced to the heart, brain, and other major organs of the human body.
Study: Coronavirus Can Persist For Months After Traversing Entire Body
The coronavirus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, can spread within days from the airways to the heart, brain and almost every organ system in the body, where it may persist for months, a study found.
In what they describe as the most comprehensive analysis to date of the viruss distribution and persistence in the body and brain, scientists at the U.S. National Institutes of Health said they found the pathogen is capable of replicating in human cells well beyond the respiratory tract.
The results, released online Saturday in a manuscript under review for publication in the journal Nature, point to delayed viral clearance as a potential contributor to the persistent symptoms wracking so-called long COVID sufferers. Understanding the mechanisms by which the virus persists, along with the bodys response to any viral reservoir, promises to help improve care for those afflicted, the authors said.
This is remarkably important work, said Ziyad Al-Aly, director of the clinical epidemiology center at the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care System in Missouri, who has led separate studies into the long-term effects of COVID-19. For a long time now, we have been scratching our heads and asking why long COVID seems to affect so many organ systems. This paper sheds some light, and may help explain why long COVID can occur even in people who had mild or asymptomatic acute disease.
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The Human Body Systems Guide
The human body is actually an amazing coalition of many different systems that work together to keep everything functioning correctly. For example, some systems handle food and energy, while others focus on taking in oxygen and moving it around the body. By learning about the different systems working inside the body, you can understand how everything works together to keep you healthy, growing, and strong.
Your brain and spinal cord are the major parts of the central nervous system. Different parts of your body send messages to the brain through the nerves and spinal cord. Once your brain gets these messages, it responds by interpreting the messages and reacting. The brain can then send instructions out to the body.
- Divisions of the Nervous System: The nervous system works to send signals throughout the body.
- The Nervous System: Doctors estimate that every person has about 100 billion neurons in their brain, which are responsible for sending and receiving messages.
- About the Nervous System: The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord.
The endocrine system takes care of many different things. This system sends hormones out through the body, which are chemicals that tell cells what to do. Under the care of the endocrine system, lots of different activities occur. For instance, the body sleeps at night and wakes up in the morning, cells grow, and organs function in certain ways.
The Senses Of Hearing
The ear is the sense organ that collects and detects sound waves and plays a major role in the sense of balance and body position. The sensory receptors for both hearing and equilibrium are mechanoreceptors found in the inner ear these receptors are hair cells that have stereocilia that are extremely sensitive to mechanical stimulations.
Anatomy of the Ear
The ear has three divisions: the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear .
Figure 7. Anatomy of the human ear.
Outer Ear: Auricle, Ear Canal, Surface of Ear Drum
The outer ear is the most external portion of the ear. The outer ear includes the pinna , the ear canal, and the very most superficial layer of the ear drum . Although the word ear may properly refer to the pinna , this portion of the ear is not vital for hearing. The complicated design of the human outer ear does help capture sound, but the most important functional aspect of the human outer ear is the ear canal itself. This outer ear canal skin is applied to cartilage the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull. If the ear canal is not open, hearing will be dampened. Ear wax is produced by glands in the skin of the outer portion of the ear canal. Only the thicker cerumen-producing ear canal skin has hairs. The outer ear ends at the most superficial layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is commonly called the ear drum.
Middle Ear: Air Filled Cavity behind the Ear Drum, includes most of the Ear Drum, and Ear Bones
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The Brain And Spinal Cord Are The Central Nervous System Nerves And Sensory Organs Make Up The Peripheral Nervous System
Together, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systems transmit and process sensory information and coordinate bodily functions. The brain and spinal cord function as the control center. They receive data and feedback from the sensory organs and from nerves throughout the body, process the information, and send commands back out. Nerve pathways of the PNS carry the incoming and outgoing signals. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves connect the brain to eyes, ears, and other sensory organs and to head and neck muscles. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord to tissues of the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Each nerve is responsible for relaying sensory information, sending motor commands, or both.
What Conditions Can Affect Your Nervous System
Your nervous system has lots of protection. Your brain is guarded by your skull, and your spinal cord is shielded by small bones in your spine and thin coverings . Theyâre both cushioned by a clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid.
Still, things can go wrong with your nervous system just like any other part of your body. When a disorder damages it, that affects the communication between your brain, your spinal cord, and your body. Examples of these disorders include:
- Infections like meningitis, encephalitis, or polio
- Physical problems like an injury, Bellâs palsy, or carpal tunnel syndrome
- Conditions like Parkinsonâs disease, multiple sclerosis, or Alzheimerâs disease
- Issues with your blood vessels, like strokes, transient ischemic attacks , or subdural hematoma
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Intelligence Learning And Memory
When you learn things, messages travel from one neuron to another, over and over. Then the brain creates connections between the neurons, so things become easier and you can do them better and better.
In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part may learn to take over some of the lost function. But as we age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it more difficult to master new tasks or change established behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging your brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keep the brain active over the course of a lifetime.
Memory is another complex function of the brain. The things weve done, learned, and seen are first processed in the cortex, and then, if we sense that this information is important enough to remember permanently, its passed inward to other regions of the brain for long-term storage and retrieval. As these messages travel through the brain, they create pathways that serve as the basis of our memory.