Other Cool Facts About The Brain
- The brain can’t multitask, according to the Dent Neurologic Institute. Instead, it switches between tasks, which increases errors and makes things take longer.
- The human brain triples in size during the first year of life and reaches full maturity at about age 25.
- Humans use all of the brain all of the time, not just 10% of it.
- The brain is 60% fat, according to Northwestern Medicine.
- The human brain can generate 23 watts of electrical power enough to fuel a small lightbulb.
Blood Supply To The Brain
Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.
The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.
The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.
The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.
The Cranium: Covering Of The Brain
The brain is protected by a bony covering called the cranium. The cranium and the bones of the face make up the skull. Inside the cranium, the brain is surrounded by three layers of tissue called the meninges. The meninges include:
- Pia mater: The layer closest to the surface of the brain
- Arachnoid membrane: The middle layer of tissue
- Dura mater: The outer-most layer
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Vitamins B6 B9 And B12
B vitamins are vital to long-term brain health by balancing homocysteine levels that can cause damage if too much is present in the brain.
These three B vitamins in Mind Lab Pro help protect against cognitive decline, poor blood flow, and brain aging. They also boost your mood, promote brain energy, and overall brain health as you age.
How We Study The Brain
The brain is difficult to study because it is housed inside the thick bone of the skull. Whats more, it is difficult to access the brain without hurting or killing the owner of the brain. As a result, many of the earliest studies of the brain focused on unfortunate people who happened to have damage to some particular area of their brain. For instance, in the 1880s a surgeon named Paul Broca conducted an autopsy on a former patient who had lost his powers of speech. Examining his patients brain, Broca identified a damaged areanow called the Brocas Areaon the left side of the brain . Over the years a number of researchers have been able to gain insights into the function of specific regions of the brain from these types of patients.
An alternative to examining the brains or behaviors of humans with brain damage or surgical lesions can be found in the instance of animals. Some researchers examine the brains of other animals such as rats, dogs and monkeys. Although animals brains differ from human brains in both size and structure there are many similarities as well. The use of animals for study can yield important insights into human brain function.
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Other Key Parts Of The Brain
Ventricular SystemThe brain is not a solid organ. Instead, there are fluid-filled cavities within the brain called ventricles. The ventricles provide nourishment to the brain. The ventricular system produces and processes cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery substance flowing around the brain to cushion and protect it.
Cranial NervesThe brain also contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Each is responsible for specific body functions.
- Olfactory nerve: Sense of smell
- Optic nerve: Vision
The Cerebellum: Back Of The Brain
Behind the cerebrum at the back of the head lies the cerebellum. In Latin, cerebellum means little brain, but the cerebellum actually contains more nerve cells than both hemispheres combined. The cerebellum is primarily a movement control center, responsible for:
- Voluntary muscle movements
- Fine motor skills
- Maintaining balance, posture & equilibrium
Unlike the cerebrum, the left cerebellum controls the left side of the body, and the right cerebellum controls the right side of the body.
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How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh
The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a human’s body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brain’s weight.
Methamphetamine Brain Damage And Neurological Problems
Methamphetamine may cause brain damage that resembles certain dementias, such as Alzheimers disease. Research has also found that people who used methamphetamine had higher rates of Parkinsons disease.
Abusing methamphetamine may also cause structural changes in the brain that could affect a persons emotional and cognitive functioning. Meth use may also harm structures in the brain that are responsible for decision making.
Long-term meth use could damage the brains nerve terminals. Though rare, crystal meth may also cause changes in the brains white matter.
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Methamphetamine Use And Depression
When a persons natural levels of dopamine are exhausted from meth use, they may develop an inability to experience pleasure from their life, a state referred to as anhedonia. When a person cant get pleasure naturally, they may develop depression.
As methamphetamine changes a persons brain chemistry, a pseudodepressive state that shares many symptoms with major depression may occur. Symptoms could include anhedonia, fatigue, a lack of motivation, and low mood.
Further, people who are dependent on meth and regularly take high doses of the drug may experience depression from methamphetamine withdrawal.
The Cerebrum: Front Part Of The Brain
The largest part of the brain, located in the front, is called the cerebrum. The cerebrum is responsible for:
The cerebrum is made up of the right and left cerebral hemispheres. The hemispheres are connected at the bottom and have a deep groove running between them. In general, the right cerebral hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left cerebral hemisphere controls the right. The right side is involved with creativity and artistic abilities. The left side is important for logic and rational thinking.
The cerebral hemispheres are divided into lobes . Each lobe is responsible for a variety of bodily functions. Frontal lobes are involved with personality, speech, and motor development. Temporal lobes are responsible for memory, language and speech function. Parietal lobes are involved with sensation, while the occipital lobes are the primary vision centers.
The surface of the cerebrum appears wrinkled and is made up of deep grooves and bumps or folds . The outer part of the cerebrum is called gray matter and contains nerve cells. The inner part is called white matter and contains connections of nerves.
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How Much Of Our Brains Do We Use
One long-circulating myth has it that humans typically use only 10 percent of their brain capacity, suggesting that, if only we knew how to hack into the other 90 percent, we might be able to unlock amazing abilities.
While it remains unclear exactly where this myth originated and how it spread so speedily, the idea that we could somehow tap into as yet unclaimed brain power is certainly a very attractive one.
Still, nothing could be farther from the truth than this piece of urban lore. Just consider what we discussed above: even in a resting state, the brain is still active and requires energy.
Brain scans have shown that we use pretty much all of our brains all of the time, even when were asleep though patterns of activity, and the intensity of that activity, might differ depending on what were doing and what state of wakefulness or sleep were in.
Even when youre engaged in a task and some neurons are engaged in that task, the rest of your brain is occupied doing other things, which is why, for example, the solution to a problem can emerge after you havent been thinking about it for a while, or after a nights sleep, and thats because your brains constantly active, said neurologist Krish Sathian, who works at Emory University in Atlanta, GA.
What Is Mind Lab Pro
Mind Lab Pro is a natural nootropic dietary supplement created by Opti-Nutra Limited that claims to improve cognitive functions and boost long-term brain health.
People of all ages can benefit from the powerful natural ingredients in Mind Lab Pro that help boost mental clarity, stimulate the creative process, improve attention span and increase memory retention. The nootropic formula in this supplement can also help protect the brain from toxins and age-related degeneration
This dietary supplement can also improve mood, decrease anxiety, and lower stress levels. Mind Lab Pro tops the nootropic market thanks to its great reputation for delivering fantastic cognitive function results.
The company behind Mind Lab Pro wanted the product to be more than just a basic nootropic, so they set out to make a supplement that optimized as many brain pathways and functions as they possibly could while avoiding stimulants and harmful unnatural ingredients and chemicals.
What they ended up with was an outstanding product that can help anyone and everyone perform at the peak of their cognitive function while protecting their brain at the same time.
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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter
Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.
Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.
Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.
Using Hightech Tools To Assess Alcoholic Brain Damage
Researchers studying the effects of alcohol use on the brain are aided by advanced technology such as magnetic resonance imaging , diffusion tensor imaging , positron emission tomography , and electrophysiological brain mapping. These tools are providing valuable insight into how alcohol affects the brains structure and function.
Longterm heavy drinking may lead to shrinking of the brain and deficiencies in the fibers that carry information between brain cells . MRI and DTI are being used together to assess the brains of patients when they first stop chronic heavy drinking and again after long periods of sobriety, to monitor for possible relapse to drinking .
Memory formation and retrieval are highly influenced by factors such as attention and motivation . Studies using MRI are helping scientists to determine how memory and attention improve with long-time abstinence from alcohol, as well as what changes take place when a patient begins drinking again. The goal of these studies is to determine which alcoholinduced effects on the brain are permanent and which ones can be reversed with abstinence.
Another hightech tool, electroencephalography , records the brains electrical signals . Small electrodes are placed on the scalp to detect this electrical activity, which then is magnified and graphed as brain waves . These brain waves show realtime activity as it happens in the brain.
The P3 component is reduced in alcoholics compared with control subjects.
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Revealing Communications Between Brain And Body
by Isabella Backman, Yale University
The human brain is a busy organdetecting signals from all over the body as it undergoes change throughout the day. When the lungs inhale an irritant, the body knows to cough. Or when the stomach ingests toxins, it induces vomiting. The brain plays a role in both.
The brain’s ability to precisely discriminate among various signals has fascinated scientists, but the biological mechanism is still unclear. Now, in a new study that aims to understand how different signals in the body are coded in the vagus nervethe cranial nerve that sends information to and from the brain about internal organ functionYale researchers have found that the signals have three key features that are independently coded by vagal sensory neurons. They are: which organ a signal is coming from, which tissue layer within the organ the signal is coming from, and what the stimulus is. This coding enables the high precision achieved by the brain. The researchers, including co-senior authors Rui Chang, Ph.D., assistant professor of neuroscience and of cellular & molecular physiology, and Le Zhang, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurology, published their study in Nature on March 16.
Tracing intricate links between brain and body
Researchers find a surprise
Using this approach, the researchers found segregated populations of neurons with similar genetic properties, each detecting a particular type of stimuli regardless of where it occurred.
Lions Mane Mushroom Extract
Also known as Yamabushitake, this mushroom has been linked to an immediate and significant increase in cognitive function. The only mushroom proven to be a brain health superfood, Lions Mane improves your brain function while you take it, and these effects stop once you stop supplementing this nootropic.
This Mind Lab Pro ingredient works by giving your brain the important nutrients called erinacines and hericenones that stimulate Nerve Growth Factor . NGF is important for brain regeneration and the protection of the neurons in your brain.
Lions Mane works to support new memory formation and storage and it also helps keep brain cell membranes healthy while promoting boosted cognitive functions.
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How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have
The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”
What Are The Parts Of The Nervous System
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system:
- The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system.
- The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.
The human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. It has many folds and grooves, though. These give it the added surface area needed for storing the body’s important information.
The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and 1/2-inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, nerves branch out to the entire body.
The brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They’re both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges and a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
Difference From The Peripheral Nervous System
This differentiates the CNS from the PNS, which consists of neurons, axons, and . Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells have similar functions in the CNS and PNS, respectively. Both act to add sheaths to the axons, which acts as a form of insulation allowing for better and faster proliferation of electrical signals along the nerves. Axons in the CNS are often very short, barely a few millimeters, and do not need the same degree of isolation as peripheral nerves. Some peripheral nerves can be over 1 meter in length, such as the nerves to the big toe. To ensure signals move at sufficient speed, myelination is needed.
The way in which the Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes myelinate nerves differ. A Schwann cell usually myelinates a single axon, completely surrounding it. Sometimes, they may myelinate many axons, especially when in areas of short axons. Oligodendrocytes usually myelinate several axons. They do this by sending out thin projections of their , which envelop and enclose the axon.
Who Should Use Mind Lab Pro
Mind Lab Pro was designed to be used by anyone any age, any profession, any need you may have for wanting better cognitive function. This nootropic can be used by everyone.
Note that you should consult your healthcare provider before starting any new supplement. Some ingredients might interact with certain medications.
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Protocols For Donor Management
The circulatory and biochemical variables are managed by the general principle of the Rule of 100 suggesting targets of SBP 100 mmHg, urine output 100 ml/h, hemoglobin of 100 g/L, PaO2100 mmHg and blood sugar targeted at 100% normal. Other elements of donor management are listed below:
Temperature: The aim is to keep the core temperature > 35°C prior to organ donation. Circulating hot air blankets, warmed intravenous fluids and adjustments of ambient temperature may be needed to achieve this goal.
Inotropes and cardiovascular system: Dopamine is the first choice of inotrope in hypotension unresponsive to volume and has beneficial effects on the renal graft. Though it has no renal protective effect and may predispose to arrhythmias, the benefits are probably related to moderation of preservation injury and inflammation, donor cardiovascular effects, or recipient treatment. Nor-adrenaline in doses > 0.05 mcg/kg/min resulted in impaired cardiac contractility in transplanted hearts and in particular impairment of right ventricular performance.
Ventilatory management: The principles are along the lines of management of ALI . The lowest FiO2 needed should be used, and optimal PEEP with a restrictive fluid strategy improves graft harvesting for lung transplants.
Vasopressin 1 U bolus followed by an infusion of 0.5-4.0 U/h
Methylprednisolone 15 mg/kg immediately after diagnosis of brain death and 24th hourly thereafter.