Thursday, June 16, 2022

Is The Brain Considered A Muscle

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The Cell Structure Of The Brain

Database will be able to study the effects of COVID-19 on brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

How Does The Nervous System Work

The basic workings of the nervous system depend a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons send information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain to the rest of the body.

All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way you think, learn, move, and behave.

Intelligence, learning, and memory. As you grow and learn, messages travel from one neuron to another over and over, creating connections, or pathways, in the brain. Its why driving takes so much concentration when someone first learns it, but later is second nature: The pathway became established.

In young children, the brain is highly adaptable. In fact, when one part of a young childs brain is injured, another part often can learn to take over some of the lost function. But as you age, the brain has to work harder to make new neural pathways, making it harder to master new tasks or change set behavior patterns. Thats why many scientists believe its important to keep challenging the brain to learn new things and make new connections it helps keeps the brain active over the course of a lifetime.

The Senses

Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals you breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain.

The Cerebellum: Back Of The Brain

Behind the cerebrum at the back of the head lies the cerebellum. In Latin, cerebellum means little brain, but the cerebellum actually contains more nerve cells than both hemispheres combined. The cerebellum is primarily a movement control center, responsible for:

  • Voluntary muscle movements
  • Fine motor skills
  • Maintaining balance, posture & equilibrium

Unlike the cerebrum, the left cerebellum controls the left side of the body, and the right cerebellum controls the right side of the body.

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

Headaches Are Caused By A Chemical Reaction

When the brain competes with muscle power

Chemical activity in your brain, the nerves or blood vessels surrounding your skull, or the muscles of your head and neck can play a role in primary headaches. Serotonin is a chemical necessary for communication between nerve cells. When serotonin or estrogen levels change, the result for some is a headache or migraine. Serotonin levels may affect both sexes, while fluctuating estrogen levels affect women only.

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New Research On Our Internal Trade

A well-fuelled brain may have offered us better survival odds than well-fuelled muscles when facing an environmental challenge

Danny Longman

Human brains are expensive metabolically speaking. It takes lot of energy to run our sophisticated grey matter, and that comes at an evolutionary cost.

Now, a new investigation into the immediate trade-off that occurs inside us when we have to think fast and work hard at the same time is the first to demonstrate that while both are impaired our mental ability is less affected than our physical capacity.

Researchers say that the findings suggest a “preferential allocation of glucose to the brain”, which they argue is likely to be an evolved trait as prioritising quick thinking over fast moving, for example, may have helped our species survive and thrive.

Scientists from the University of Cambridge’s PAVE research group tested 62 male students drawn from the University’s elite rowing crews. The participants had an average age of 21.

The rowers performed two separate tasks: one memory, a three minute word recall test, and one physical, a three minute power test on a rowing machine.

They then performed both tasks at once, with individual scores compared to those from previous tests. As expected, the challenge of rowing and remembering at the same time reduced both physical and mental performance.

However, the research team found that change in recall was significantly less than the change in power output.

What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

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Does The Brain Have Muscle Tissue

There are no muscles in your actual brain or muscles to hold it into place, with one exception.

The arteries and arterioles bringing blood to your brain do, in fact, contain smooth muscle cells and elastic tissues. These structures are designed to regulate your brains blood flow and maintain blood pressure. Apart from that, your brain is composed of neurons.

Scientifically, its clear your brain is an organ, not a muscle.

And your brain doesnt exercise like a muscle either. However, it might be useful to use a metaphor for comparing your mind to a muscle.

What Are The Parts Of The Brain

Overview of the Nervous System, Animation

The brain has three main sections: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The Forebrain

The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain as well as other structures under it.

The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes you who you are: your intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.

The cerebrum has right and left halves, called hemispheres. They’re connected in the middle by a band of nerve fibers that lets them communicate. These halves may look like mirror images of each other, but many scientists believe they have different functions:

  • The left side is considered the logical, analytical, objective side.
  • The right side is thought to be more intuitive, creative, and subjective.

So when you’re balancing your checkbook, you’re using the left side. When you’re listening to music, you’re using the right side. It’s believed that some people are more “right-brained” or “left-brained” while others are more “whole-brained,” meaning they use both halves of their brain to the same degree.

In the inner part of the forebrain sits the thalamus, hypothalamus, and :

The Midbrain

The Hindbrain

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Gross Anatomy Of A Skeletal Muscle

Most skeletal muscles are attached to two bones through tendons. Tendons are tough bands of dense regular connective tissue whose strong collagen fibers firmly attach muscles to bones. Tendons are under extreme stress when muscles pull on them, so they are very strong and are woven into the coverings of both muscles and bones.

Muscles move by shortening their length, pulling on tendons, and moving bones closer to each other. One of the bones is pulled towards the other bone, which remains stationary. The place on the stationary bone that is connected via tendons to the muscle is called the origin. The place on the moving bone that is connected to the muscle via tendons is called the insertion. The belly of the muscle is the fleshy part of the muscle in between the tendons that does the actual contraction.

Types Of Muscle Contraction

The strength of a muscles contraction can be controlled by two factors: the number of motor units involved in contraction and the amount of stimulus from the nervous system. A single nerve impulse of a motor neuron will cause a motor unit to contract briefly before relaxing. This small contraction is known as a twitch contraction. If the motor neuron provides several signals within a short period of time, the strength and duration of the muscle contraction increases. This phenomenon is known as temporal summation. If the motor neuron provides many nerve impulses in rapid succession, the muscle may enter the state of tetanus, or complete and lasting contraction. A muscle will remain in tetanus until the nerve signal rate slows or until the muscle becomes too fatigued to maintain the tetanus.

Not all muscle contractions produce movement. Isometric contractions are light contractions that increase the tension in the muscle without exerting enough force to move a body part. When people tense their bodies due to stress, they are performing an isometric contraction. Holding an object still and maintaining posture are also the result of isometric contractions. A contraction that does produce movement is an isotonic contraction. Isotonic contractions are required to develop muscle mass through weight lifting.

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Neurons And Glial Cells

The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.

Does Spasticity Need To Be Treated

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Spasticity is not always harmful or bothersome and does not always need to be treated. Sometimes, however, there are problems caused by spasticity that can be bothersome or harmful.

Problems caused by spasticity include:

  • Pain when muscles tighten.
  • Limited motion, especially in joints that can limit walking or moving in and out of beds or chairs.
  • Difficulty taking deep breaths.
  • Poor positioning in a chair, wheelchair, or bed.
  • Poor sleep and tiredness during the day.
  • Skin pressure ulcers.
  • Limits on normal activities such as feeding or grooming.
  • Limited use of your hands.

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The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do

Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?

Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.

Is The Brain Like A Muscle Lessons From Debunking A Seductive But Incorrect Idea

We often reason through analogies. When something is confusing, we can try to tie it back to something we understand better.

Very often, this process it at the heart of scientific understanding. Charles Darwin formed his famous theory of evolution through natural selection by forming an analogy with artificial selection, the process of human intervention to create new breeds of dogs, cats and corn.

However, sometimes this process backfires. An analogy which seems productive ends up giving misleading impressions. The solar-system model of the atom , in which electrons orbit the nucleus, was such a theory. It predicted that electrons would be constantly accelerating, and thus should emit light continuously until they fell into the nucleus. A better analogy, with wave functions and probabilistic clouds, took root instead.

Given this double-edged sword of analogical reasoning, lets turn to one about learning itself: is the brain like a muscle?

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Brain Why Does It Need Exercise If It Is Not A Muscle

We have seen that white matter continues to grow until about fifty years of age, in contrast to the gray matter that begins to decline as early as twenty years of age .

Therefore, as we grow older – and our whole body ages, and with it the brain – the need for proper “nutrition” and “exercise” of the brain to remain healthy, prosperous and efficient is even more imperative.

With the white matter evolving and growing up to the age of fifty , the “exercise” of the brain with new stimuli, new cognitive skills and new cognitive fields, can keep your brain “new” and mainly functional.

There are scientific studies showing that some of the cognitive functions/abilities of man begin their ageing from the age of thirty to fourty years.

Specifically, it is estimated that the brain shrinkage taking place is of the order of five per cent every ten years after thirty to fourty years of life.

Therefore, even if the brain is not a muscle and does not function like a muscle, it needs care it needs proper “food” and regular “exercise”.

How Much Does A Human Brain Weigh

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The human brain weighs about 3 lbs. and makes up about 2% of a humans body weight. On average, male brains are about 10% larger than female brains, according to Northwestern Medicine in Illinois. The average male has a brain volume of nearly 78 cubic inches , while the average female brain has a volume of 69 cubic inches . The cerebrum, which is the main part of the brain located in the front area of the skull, makes up 85% of the brains weight.

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The Opportunity Of Brain Muscle

IQ is not strictly fixed a majority of children will see their IQ scores change by more than 15 points, 2-3 times in their lives. For most children, these changes are somewhat random, based on good teachers, maturity patterns, environmental factors, etc.

But for a growing group of families, who have researched brain training programs, and are constantly aware of the cognitive impacts of their childs activities e.g., generally musical instruments are good, video games are bad the opportunity to impact the way a child learns through brain exercise is very real.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

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Introduction: The Human Brain

A false-colour Magnetic Resonance Image of a mid-sagittal section through the head of a normal 42 year-old woman, showing structures of the brain, spine and facial tissues

The brain is the most complex organ in the human body. It produces our every thought, action, memory, feeling and experienceof the world. This jelly-like mass of tissue, weighing in at around 1.4 kilograms, contains a staggering one hundred billion nerve cells, or neurons.

The complexity of the connectivity between these cells is mind-boggling. Each neuron can make contact with thousands or even tens of thousands of others, via tiny structures called synapses. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives. The pattern and strength of the connections is constantly changing and no two brains are alike.

It is in these changing connections that memories are stored, habits learned and personalities shaped, by reinforcing certain patterns of brain activity, and losing others.

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