Your Nose Is Connected To Your Memory Center
Now, back to the Chanel No. 5. If that scent transported you to your childhood on an evening when your mom was primping for a night out, theres a good reason. Olfaction, or smell, is directly connected to the limbic system, the part of the brain thought to be responsible for the attribution of emotion to events, says Payne. In fact, unlike the neural signals for other sensations like sight and touch, which have to go through a brain relay station called the thalamus, smell is the only one of the five senses with direct pathways to the brains hippocampus and the amygdala .
Since a memory is accentuated when it has a strong emotional component, smells often become closely linked to certain events that engender the emotion contained in the memory, Payne says.
Lymph Nodes In Your Neck
Like other parts of the body, the head and neck contains lymph nodes . These small, bean shaped glands are part of the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes are often the first place cancer cells spread to when they break away from a tumour.
There are major groups of lymph nodes in the neck. Nasal and paranasal sinus cancers can spread to these nodes.
You may need an operation to remove lymph nodes. This will usually be on the same side of your neck as the cancer.
More rarely, a surgeon may suggest removing nodes from both sides of your neck. These operations are called neck dissections. You may hear your surgeon call this type of surgery a radical neck dissection.
A specialist in human tissues examines the lymph nodes to see if they have cancer cells. It helps them to find out how advanced the cancer is. This is also called the stage of the cancer and helps doctors decide on the most suitable treatment for you.
Nasal and paranasal sinus cancer rarely spreads to other parts of the body such as the lungs, bones or liver.
How The Sinus Infection Spreads To The Brain
Although there are various barriers that protect the brain from various pathogens, sometimes bacteria can pass through. The reason is that the space between the sinuses and the brain is very less making it easy for the pathogens to spread. If the infection spreads and infects the brain, it can lead to swelling, seizures, vomiting and abnormal mental health.
Hence, for people looking for the answer to the question can sinusitis lead to brain infection- YES, it can. But remember, only in rare instances this occurs. The likelihood of a patient dying from this condition is very low.
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Your Sneeze Style May Be Genetic
Some honk, some shout, some just cant seem to stop your style of sneezing is one of the many things that makes you who you are. The basic process of sneezing usually starts when some kind of irritant, from pollen to black pepper, is detected by the trigeminal nerve . This irritation triggers a sequence of reflexes to expel the intruder: a deep inhalation followed by the closing the glottis in the throat and a buildup of pressure in the lungs , then the sudden opening of the glottis as the diaphragm forces air up through the mouth and nose, expelling the irritant . That expulsion has some real power particles in an average sneeze travel 100 miles per hour, says Dr. Payne.
And the particular style with which you execute this basic process could be something you inherit, Dr. Kao adds. Ive empirically noted similar styles of sneezes in families, probably because sneezes are a neurologic reflex were all born with, he says. Since tissues are very similar within families, all muscle actions, including smiling and laughing, will be similar also.
How To Prevent Sinus Infection From Spreading To The Brain
In order to prevent the infection from reaching the brain, follow the general guidelines of hygiene. Also, get in touch with an ENT doctor without any further delay. Some of the preventive measures to keep in mind are-
- Wash the hands with soap and water regularly.
- Do not touch the eyes, nose and mouth after sneezing
- Pay attention to the symptoms
- Avoid taking antibiotics regularly to prevent the bacteria from getting drug-resistant
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Overview Of Smell And Taste Disorders
, MD, Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Because disorders of smell and taste are rarely life threatening, they may not receive close medical attention. Yet, these disorders can be frustrating because they can affect the ability to enjoy food and drink and to appreciate pleasant aromas. They can also interfere with the ability to notice potentially harmful chemicals and gases and thus may have serious consequences. Occasionally, impairment of smell and taste is due to a serious disorder, such as a tumor.
Smell and taste are closely linked. The taste buds of the tongue identify taste, and the nerves in the nose identify smell. Both sensations are communicated to the brain, which integrates the information so that flavors can be recognized and appreciated. Some tastessuch as salty, bitter, sweet, and sourcan be recognized without the sense of smell. However, more complex flavors require both taste and smell sensations to be recognized.
A partial loss of smell and complete loss of smell are the most common disorders of smell and taste. Because distinguishing one flavor from another is based largely on smell, people often first notice that their ability to smell is reduced when their food seems tasteless.
Through The Nose Directly Into The Brain: Biberach Researchers Are Working On A Novel Way To Apply Pharmaceuticals
The blood-brain barrier prevents most drugs, and large biologics in particular, from entering the brain. This physiological barrier impairs the study of central nervous system diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis as well as the development of drugs. However, there is a hidden side entrance to the brain, which means that there is a way to circumvent this barrier.
This hidden side entrance is through the so-called regio olfactoria on the roof of the nose where the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and cell layers of the nasal mucosa separate the nasal cavity from the brain . Olfactory nerve fibres run through the cribriform plate, making this structure an excellent gateway into the brain for certain drugs, including therapeutic proteins. Moreover, drugs can also diffuse from the nose into the CNS through the trigeminal nerve.
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Your Nose Regulates The Temperature Of Your Breath
In the same way your throat and lungs dont like dirty air, they also dont like air thats too cold or too hot.
According to Dr. Benninger, the passing of the air through your nose allows the air to become more like your body temperature, which is better tolerated by your tissues.
Warming cool air in your nose is more common than cooling warm air. Thats because humans spend much more of their time in environments below body temperature 98.6° than above it.
That runny nose you get in cold weather is the best example of this warming and humidifying effect, he says. It comes from the condensation of the moisture in your nose when the cold air goes in.
Typical Structure Of A Nerve Cell
A nerve cell consists of a large cell body and nerve fibersone elongated extension for sending impulses and usually many branches for receiving impulses.
Each large axon is surrounded by oligodendrocytes in the brain and spinal cord and by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. The membranes of these cells consist of a fat called myelin. The membranes are wrapped tightly around the axon, forming a multilayered sheath. This myelin sheath resembles insulation, such as that around an electrical wire. Nerve impulses travel much faster in nerves with a myelin sheath than in those without one.
If the myelin sheath of a nerve is damaged, nerve transmission slows or stops. The myelin sheath may be damaged by various conditions that damage the brain or peripheral nerves including
Nerves that connect the spinal cord with other parts of the body are called spinal nerves. The brain communicates with most of the body through the spinal nerves. There are 31 pairs of them, located at intervals along the length of the spinal cord . Sometimes these problems can read more ). Several cranial nerves and most spinal nerves are involved in both the somatic and autonomic parts of the peripheral nervous system.
Spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord through spaces between the vertebrae. Each nerve emerges as two short branches : one at the front of the spinal cord and one at the back.
There are two major nerve plexuses:
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There Are 14 Types Of Noses At Least
A recent survey in the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery identified 14 human nose shapes. When Israeli professor of chemical engineering Abraham Tamir, PhD, surveyed images of 1,793 noses, he determined that they all fell into these basic types, ranging from the Greek nose to the hawk nose Most common was the fleshy nose.
But many experts feel those classifications cant possibly cover all the variations. The nose is a complex structure made up of numerous pieces of cartilage and bone, says Spencer Payne, MD, an assistant professor of otolaryngology with the University of Virginia Health System. He explains that nose shape is determined by the positions of nasal bones, upper lateral cartilages, and lower lateral cartilages. Any combination of differences in these three areas can create a truly unique appearance, which can change even more depending on whether the nose is seen in profile, from the front, or on an oblique angle. Nose shape is also highly dependent on ethnicity.
Patience Is Key To Nixing A Nosebleed
Also called epistaxis, a nosebleed is most likely to occur in winter , and can be brought on by everything from nose picking to allergies, according to the National Institutes of Health. Blood thinning medication or conditions such as high blood pressure or even the common cold can increase your chances of a nosebleed.
Whatever the cause, everyone seems to have their own advice for stopping one. But some of those are big no-nos, like leaning back or sticking gauze up your nose . What you should do: Sit leaning slightly forward so blood drains out your nose use your thumb and index finger to squeeze the soft part of your nose and breathe through your mouth hold for a full 10 minutes before checking to see if the flow has stopped. Applying a cold compress to the bridge of your nose could help. If the bleeding continues for more than 20 minutes, see a doctor.
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Problems In Your Nose And Throat
Visit your doctor if your symptoms continue for more than a week, or you have other symptoms such as a fever or rash.
nose, throat and lungs)
What The Nose Knows May Affect Your Brain Health
How well you can smell could be a sign of overall brain health.
A growing body of research suggests that the two are strongly linked, though researchers are just starting to figure out how and why.
In a recent study, researchers found that a simple smell test may predict your chance of having dementia.
âAbility to smell is a window into parts of the brain related to core functions, like pleasure, emotion, and memory,â says Jayant Pinto, MD, author of the study and an otolaryngologist and head and neck surgeon at University of Chicago Medicine. The smell test, he adds, allows doctors âto see, a little earlier, a sign that problems are happening.â
In the study, researchers visited the homes of more than 2,900 adults ages 57 to 85 to test how well they could recognize five different odors: peppermint, fish, orange, rose, and leather. Five years later, researchers followed up with the older adults to find out if any of them had gotten a diagnosis of dementia since taking the smell test.
Those who couldnât identify at least four of the five odors on the test were twice as likely as others to have dementia 5 years later.
The lower their score on the smell test, the greater their odds of having dementia. This decline in memory and thinking skills comes in several forms, including Alzheimerâs disease, Parkinsonâs, and Lewy body dementia, among others.
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How Your Nose Works
As you breathe in, your nose:
- cleans the air of foreign particles
- warms and humidifies the air before it reaches your lungs.
This is helped by the thin moist lining of your nasal passages and throat, called mucosa.
The cells in the lining of your nose also sense aromas and send messages to your brain. This gives you your sense of smell.
Sinus Infections Can Get To Your Brainbut Dont Panic
Traveling through the blood-brain barrier is difficult.
ByClaire Maldarelli | Published Mar 23, 2018 11:30 PM
When I was a little kid and I had a potential sinus infection, my mom would always warn: Watch it, that infection might go to your brain!
It was a useful strategy to get me to go to the doctor. But is it really true? Can a sinus infection actually travel to your noggin?
It does turn out that my mom wasnt totally off base: The infectious bacteria that infiltrate our sinuses canVERY RARELYmake its way to the brain. One of these rare occurrences recently made the news: A 13-year-old boy from Michigan died after a persistent sinus infection made its way to the blood vessels inside his brain. Despite emergency surgery to control the infection, he died a few days after being admitted to hospital.
The news is tragic and incredibly scary. But the reason it made the news in the first place is because this was a very unusual case. Consider these statistics: Acute sinusitis, the medical term for a temporary infection of the sinuses, is a type of upper respiratory infection that also includes a stuffed up and inflammed nose, ears, or throat. These ailments are common a given child in the U.S. will get about five of them every year. More than half of those will come from viruses.
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What Are The Sinuses
The sinuses are hollow spaces in the skull and the face bones around your nose. There are four pairs of sinuses, named for the bones that theyre located in:
- The maxillary sinuses are located on each side of your nose, near the cheek bones.
- The frontal sinuses are located above the eyes, near your forehead.
- The ethmoid sinuses are located on each side of the bridge of your nose, near your eyes. There are three small pairs of the ethmoid sinuses.
- The sphenoid sinuses are behind the eyes, deeper into your skull.
These sinuses collectively are called the paranasal sinuses.
The name sinus comes from the Latin word sinus, which means a bay, a curve, or a hollow cavity.
How Signals Get Sent
When the smell receptors are stimulated, signals travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb is underneath the front of your brain just above the nasal cavity. Signals are sent from the olfactory bulb to other parts of the brain to be interpreted as a smell you may recognize, like apple pie fresh from the oven. Yum!
Identifying smells is your brain’s way of telling you about your environment. Have you ever smelled your toast burning? In an instant, your brain interpreted the smell and a problem and you knew to check on your toast.
You learned to associate a certain smell with burning and now your brain remembers that smell so you recognize it. Your sense of smell also can help you keep safe. For example, it can warn you not to eat something that smells rotten or help you detect smoke before you see a fire.
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How Your Throat Works
Your throat, or pharynx, sits behind your nose and your mouth and is connected to both of them.
The pharynx is a muscular tube that carries both food, drinks and air. As it goes down, it splits in 2 the oesophagus and the larynx.
The oesophagus is the tube that leads from your throat to your stomach. It carries food and drink.
The larynx carries air. The larynx also contains your vocal cords which produce sound, allowing you to speak. Air passes through the larynx into the trachea and then into the lungs.
Obviously, you need a way of keeping air and food apart. This is done by the epiglottis, which is a small flap of cartilage in the back of your throat. It closes over the larynx when you swallow so that you dont breathe in food or water.
Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid
Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.
The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.
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