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What Are The 7 Parts Of The Brain

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Bumps And Grooves Of The Brain

Quickly Memorize the Parts of the Brain

In humans, the lobes of the brain are divided by a number of bumps and grooves. These are known as gyri and sulci . The folding of the brain, and the resulting gyri and sulci, increases its surface area and enables more cerebral cortex matter to fit inside the skull.

Image: DJ / CC BY-SA 2.0 Albert Kok / Public Domain

What Is The Corpus Callosum

The cerebrum’s inner core houses the brain’s “white matter.” The major part of the inner core is known as the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is a thick tract of fibrous nerves that serve as a kind of switchboard enabling the brain’s hemispheres to communicate with one another. Whereas the cerebral cortex is the cerebrum’s outer layer made up of gray matter, and is responsible for thinking, motor function and information processing the corpus callosum is the cerebrum’s inner core, made up of white matter, with four parts of nerve tracts connecting to different parts of the hemispheres.

Home of the white matter: corpus callosum./Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The corpus callosum’s nerve fibers are coated with myelin. This fatty substance helps increase the transmission of information between the next part of the cerebrum: the two hemispheres.

The Pineal And Pituitary Glands

In addition to being the center of the human nervous system, the brain is also an important player in the endocrine system since it is the home of the pineal and pituitary glands. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the sleep-inducing hormone derived from the amino acid tryptophan that helps organisms regulate their circadian rhythms. The pituitary gland is often called the “master gland” because it regulates other important glands in the endocrine system including the adrenal, thyroid, and reproductive glands. The pituitary gland also secretes hormones important for bone and muscle growth.

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How Does The Brain Work

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

Some Key Neurotransmitters At Work

Major Parts of Human Brain

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that brain cells use to talk to each other. Some neurotransmitters make cells more active while others block or dampen a cell’s activity .

Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter because it generally makes cells more excitable. It governs muscle contractions and causes glands to secrete hormones. Alzheimers disease, which initially affects memory formation, is associated with a shortage of acetylcholine.

Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. Too much glutamate can kill or damage neurons and has been linked to disorders including Parkinson’s disease, stroke, seizures, and increased sensitivity to pain.

GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps control muscle activity and is an important part of the visual system. Drugs that increase GABA levels in the brain are used to treat epileptic seizures and tremors in patients with Huntingtons disease.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. It is also involved in temperature regulation. Low levels of serotonin may cause sleep problems and depression, while too much serotonin can lead to seizures.

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements. The loss of dopamine activity in some portions of the brain leads to the muscular rigidity of Parkinsons disease. Many medications used to treat behavioral disorders work by modifying the action of dopamine in the brain.

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Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

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Building Blocks Of The Brain

Extensive and intricate as the human brain is, and with the almost limitless variation of which it is capable, it is built from relatively few basic units. The fundamental building block of the human brain, like that of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom, is the neuron, or nerve cell. The neuron conducts signals by means of an axon, which extends outward from the soma, or body of the cell, like a single long arm. Numerous shorter arms, the dendrites , conduct signals back to the soma.

The ability of the axon to conduct nerve impulses is greatly enhanced by the myelin sheath that surrounds it, interrupted at intervals by nodes. Myelin is a fatty substance, a natural electrical insulator, that protects the axon from interference by other nearby nerve impulses. The arrangement of nodes increases the speed of conductivity, so that an electrical impulse sent along the axon can literally jump from node to node, reaching velocities as high as 120 meters per second.

Blood Supply To The Brain

Parts of the Brain-Human Brain Structure and Function

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do

Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?

Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.

The Brainstem: Middle Of The Brain

The brainstem is located in front of the cerebellum. Think of the brainstem like a computer hard-drive. It is the bodys main control panel and is responsible for conveying messages between the brain and other parts of the body. The cerebrum, the cerebellum and the spinal cord are all connected to the brainstem. The brainstem has three main parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata.

The brain stem controls these vital body functions:

  • Breathing
  • Sensory relay
  • Hunger

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Be Good To Your Brain

So what can you do for your brain? Plenty.

  • Eat healthy foods. They contain vitamins and minerals that are important for the nervous system.
  • Get a lot of playtime .
  • Wear a helmet when you ride your bike or play other sports that require head protection.
  • Don’t drink alcohol, take drugs, or use tobacco.
  • Use your brain by doing challenging activities, such as puzzles, reading, playing music, making art, or anything else that gives your brain a workout!

Main Parts Of The 3 Pound Human Brain

Bilingual Natural Sciences

The brain is a powerful and vital organ that is essential tobeing alive. With that said, it would not hurt to have knowledge of the mainparts of the brain and their functions. Basically, the brain has 3 parts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Each of these parts provides different functions for the brain, and wecannot survive without them.

1. Cerebrum: also called cortex is by far the largestportion of the brain, and weighs about two pounds. For the record, the entirebrain weighs three pounds. The cerebrum is home to billions and billions ofneurons. These neurons control virtually everything we do. It controls ourmovements, thoughts and even our senses. Since the cerebrum has so many functions,if its damaged, there are many different consequences.

The cerebrum consists of four different lobes that controlall of our movements. The four lobes include: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe,temporal lobe and the occipital lobe. The frontal lobe controls our emotions,judging and planning skills. The parietal lobe controls our senses such astaste, temperature and pain. The temporal lobe controls our auditory processesand hearing. The occipital lobe controls our vision.

Lastly, the cerebrum consists of two layers: the cerebralcortex, which controls our coordination and personality, and the white matterof the brain, which allows the brain to communicate.

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The Parts Of The Brain

Neil, Facty Staff

The human brain is one of the wonders of our anatomy. What appears to be a simple organ is, in fact, an incredibly complex structure with multiple parts that work both with each other and with information received from the rest of the body. Healthy brain function is essential for thought, reasoning, memory, speech, movement, and life itself.

The Occipital Lobe: Vision

The occipital lobe is at the very back and bottom of the cerebrum and is responsible for processing visual sensory information from the eyes. Though the eye takes in visual data, the image is only fully processed and interpreted in the brain. Signals from the eye travel along the optic nerve, ending up in the occipital lobe where the brain forms an understanding of what the eye is seeing. Damage to this area can lead to visual problems including difficulty recognizing colors, identifying objects, and reading and writing.

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A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

What Are The Three Lobes Of The Cerebellum

Brain: Parts & functions (Fore, mid & hind) | Control & Coordination | Biology | Khan Academy

The cerebellum’s hemispheres are each divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe, posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are split up by two fissures , called the primary fissure and the posterolateral fissure.

The three lobes of the Cerebellum, where purple is the anterior lobe, green is the posterior lobe and orange is the Flocculonodular lobe./Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

Unlike the cerebral cortex, there are no clear separation of functions in the cerebellar cortex. The best way to identify the tasks are by the information each section processes.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The anterior lobe and the vermis together are known as the spinocerebellum. The spinocerebellum helps regulate muscle tone and body movement. It’s also responsible for our sense of our body’s position in relation to our surroundings, and in relation to other parts of our body . This area receives input from our spinal cord, auditory and visual systems.

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

The posterior lobe is called the cerebrocerebellum. This area is responsible for planning movements that are about to happen, managing sensory information to determine action and motor learning. It receives information from the cerebral cortex .

The Database Center for Life Science/Wikimedia Commons

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The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers

Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.

Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.

The Brainstem: Critical Functions

Like an important intersection in a big city, the brainstem is a critical region all information to and from the body must pass through it. In humans, the brainstem is divided into three parts: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. These three parts work together to control some of the most basic functions of the human body including breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, reflexes, and swallowing. In addition, the brainstem maintains consciousness. Because the brainstem controls functions essential for life, injuries to this area can be particularly devastating.

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The Parietal Lobe: Sensory

The parietal lobe sits in the upper back of the cerebrum. This is where the brain processes information received from sensory inputs such as taste, touch, pain, and temperature. The integration of this sensory data is what helps a person understand a concept. Because it is so important for interpreting sensory data, the parietal lobe is also important for navigating spatial relationships and manipulating objects.

What’s The Difference Between The Left Brain And Right Brain

Nervous System

The human brain is divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The hemispheres are strongly, though not entirely, symmetrical. Generally, the left brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body, and the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant, as with left- or right-handedness.

Related: What’s the difference between the right brain and the left brain?

The popular notions about “left brain” and “right brain” qualities are generalizations that are not well supported by evidence. However, there are some important differences between these areas. The left brain contains regions that are involved in language production and comprehension and is also associated with mathematical calculation and fact retrieval, Holland said. The right brain plays a role in visual and auditory processing, spatial skills and artistic ability more instinctive or creative things, Holland said though these functions involve both hemispheres. “Everyone uses both halves all the time,” he said.

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How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have

The human brain contains about 86 billion nerve cells called “gray matter,” according to a 2012 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The brain also has about the same number of non-neuronal cells, such as the oligodendrocytes that insulate neuronal axons with a myelin sheath. This gives axons a white appearance, and so these axons are called the brain’s “white matter.”

What Are The 4 Lobes Of The Brain

Database Center for Life Sciences/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum’s left and right hemispheres are each divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. The lobes generally handle different functions, but much like the hemispheres, the lobes don’t function alone. The lobes are separated from each other by depressions in the cortex known as sulcus and are protected by the skull with bones named after their corresponding lobes.

Cancer Research UK/Wikimedia Commons

The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain, running from your forehead to your ears. It is responsible for problem-solving and planning, thought, behavior, speech, memory and movement. The frontal lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and is protected by a singular frontal skull bone.

The parietal lobe picks up where the frontal lobe ends and goes until the mid-back part of the brain . It is responsible for processing information from the senses , as well as language interpretation and spatial perception. It is separated from the other lobes on all four sides: from the frontal lobe by central sulcus from the opposite hemisphere by the longitudinal fissure from the occipital lobe by parieto-occipital sulcus and from the temporal lobe below by a depression known as the lateral sulcus, or lateral fissure. Because each hemisphere has a parietal lobe, there are two parietal skull bonesone on the external side of each hemisphere.

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