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What Are The Different Parts Of The Brain

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How Does The Brain Work

What are the different parts of the brain and what do they do? | Cancer Research UK

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

Hindbrain Control Center For Visceral Functions:

The hindbrain can be further divided into 3 parts: medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum. The main function of this human brain structure is to control certain visceral functions in body . Looking at the tasks assigned to pons, it serves to monitor the sleep and waking up functions while working in coordination with other parts of the nervous system. The cerebellum co-ordinates the movements of arms and legs and also plays a role in processing the sensory information that it receives from visual and auditory systems.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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Neurons And Glial Cells

The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.

Chemical And Electrical Signals

Human Brain

The actual signals transmitted throughout the brain come in two forms, electrical and chemical. The two forms are interdependent and meet at the synapse, where chemical substances can alter the electrical conditions within and outside the cell membrane.

A nerve cell at rest holds a slight negative charge with respect to the exterior the cell membrane is said to be polarized. The negative charge, the resting potential of the membrane, arises from a very slight excess of negatively charged molecules inside the cell.

A membrane at rest is more or less impermeable to positively charged sodium ions , but when stimulated it is transiently open to their passage. The Na+ ions thus flow in, attracted by the negative charge inside, and the membrane temporarily reverses its polarity, with a higher positive charge inside than out. This stage lasts less than a millisecond, and then the sodium channels close again. Potassium channels open, and K+ ions move out through the membrane, reversing the flow of positively charged ions. (Both these channels are known as voltage-gated, meaning that they open or close in response

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to changes in electrical charge occurring across the membrane.) Over the next 3 milliseconds, the membrane becomes slightly hyperpolarized, with a charge of about 80 mV, and then returns to its resting potential. During this time the sodium channels remain closed the membrane is in a refractory phase.

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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata

Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.

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Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

Functions Of The Brain

What are the Parts of the Brain?

The human brain is magnificent and complex. The brain is made up of many parts, each with a specific and important function. It controls our ability to balance, walk, talk, and eat. It coordinates and regulates our breathing, blood circulation, and heart rate. It is responsible for our ability to speak, to process and remember information, make decisions, and feel emotions. Every brain is unique, ever-changing, and extremely sensitive to its environment.

The brain is divided into functional sections, called lobes:

  • Frontal Lobe
  • Temporal Lobe

Each lobe has an important and specific function, detailed below.

The functional sections of the brain are also categorized by side the right side and the left side. If you split the brain down the middle into two equally-sized parts, they are not the same and do not carry the same functions. The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. Each side is responsible for different functions, and general patterns of dysfunction may occur depending on the side of the brain sustaining an injury.

The traits of each side are detailed below:

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Gene And Protein Expression

Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.

As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.

What The Different Parts Of The Brain Do

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The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system, which receives signals from the peripheral nervous systems , interprets them and sends out instructions for motor activity — all in less than a second. Each part of the brain has a specific function, some of which are still unknown to scientists.

If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.

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Pituitary Gland Controls Growth

The pituitary gland is very small only about the size of a pea! Its job is to produce and release hormones into your body. If your clothes from last year are too small, it’s because your pituitary gland released special hormones that made you grow. This gland is a big player in puberty too. This is the time when boys’ and girls’ bodies go through major changes as they slowly become men and women, all thanks to hormones released by the pituitary gland.

This little gland also plays a role with lots of other hormones, like ones that control the amount of sugars and water in your body.

Understanding Parts Of The Brain

Anatomy of Brain

Learn about the parts of the brain and how dementia damages them, as well as about the symptoms the damage causes.

Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimers disease or a series of strokes. Alzheimers disease is the most common cause of dementia, but not the only one.

A person with dementia will experience symptoms depending on the parts of the brain that are damaged, and the disease that is causing the dementia.

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Areas Of The Brain Affected By Stroke And Symptoms

Below, youll learn about the different parts of the brain that can be impacted by stroke. You will find a short summary of the effects of each type of stroke, and you can click the link in each section to learn more.

The effects of a stroke will vary from person to person, so its best to reference a full list of the secondary effects of stroke to get an even better idea of what to expect after stroke.

Here are the major areas of the brain that can be affectedby stroke:

Diagram Of The Brain And Its Functions

We know what is the brain, we also know what it looks like but How does it work? How does it convert a whim into an electric signal? If these are the questions swirling in your brain, then this article detailing the diagram of the brain and its functions will definitely whet your appetite regarding brain functions and parts.

We know what is the brain, we also know what it looks like but How does it work? How does it convert a whim into an electric signal? If these are the questions swirling in your brain, then this article detailing the diagram of the brain and its functions will definitely whet your appetite regarding brain functions and parts.

Of all the human body systems, the nervous system is the most complicated system in the body. The brain is the central part of the nervous system. It is an intriguing organ, that has been studied right from the time it develops in the fetus. The human brain weighs about 1.5 kg in adults. The cerebrum, which forms the bulk of this organ, is divided into two hemispheres, the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere.

There are many ways of dividing the brain for studying its various aspects. However, it is conventionally divided into three parts: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. The brain also contains four interconnected cavities called ventricles, which contain cerebrospinal fluid. We will study the diagram of the brain and its functions in this article, along with a detailed study of the brain anatomy.

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What Is A Stroke

A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .

During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.

Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.

The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.

Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.

What Are The Parts Of The Brain

What Do the Different Parts of the Brain Control?

Every second of every day the brain is collecting and sending out signals from and to the parts of your body. It keeps everything working even when we are sleeping at night. Here you can take a quick tour of this amazing control center. You can see each part and later learn what areas are involved with different tasks.

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Main Parts Of The Human Brain And Subdivisions Of Human Brain Parts

Human encephalon resembles, in structure and function, with that of the other vertebrates. The scientists reveal that parts of the human brain are Forebrain, Midbrain & Hindbrain and the related structures that collectively act as a single highly specialized unit. These parts work in coordination and perform different functions of brain. More specifically, it is divided into five major regions, namely, telencephalon, diencephalon or inter-brain, myelencephalon , metencephalon and mesencephalon . Here follows a precise but comprehensive description of each of the above given divisions.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum

The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.

The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.

Myelencephalon/medulla Oblongataposterior Part Of Hindbrain

Brain Facts: Important Parts of the Brain

Forming an important subdivision, it is the lower most part of your brain that serves to mutually connect the two major structures of CNS, namely, brain and the spinal cord. Medulla oblongata is comprised of the lower part of brainstem and contains different control centers, viz. vomiting, cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory to conduct various autonomic and involuntary activities in the body, like, breathing, blood pressure, heart-beat rate, and so on. Any of the diseases of human brain affecting this part will make it unable to perform the given functions appropriately.

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S Of The Brain And Their Functions

The brain is one of the most important parts of the human body. Thanks to the brain we can feel and process all the information that reaches our body through the senses. In addition, we must not forget that our thinking and ideas are born in the brain. The brain is integrated into the Central Nervous System and is composed of thousands of neurons that promote the constant mind and body relationship. We can divide the brain according to its four main lobes and according to its functions.

For this reason, in our article today, in Psychology-Online, we want to provide you with more information about the parts of the brain and their functions. In this way, you will be able to understand how our mind works. The brain is present in the most important processes of the human being, for example, in the daily act of breathing, eating, walking

The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

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