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What Are The Four Main Regions Of The Brain

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What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum

Central Nervous System: Crash Course A& P #11

The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.

The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

What Does The Diencephalon Do

We have already mentioned that the cerebrum is in charge of processing sensory information. However, before it reaches the cerebrum, this information needs to go through the diencephalon first. As such, the main role of the diencephalon is to relay the information obtained by your senses across the brain.

Additionally, the diencephalon also helps control your bodys endocrine and autonomic functions. It works in tandem with the cerebellum to support optimal motor function control.

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Becoming Mindful Of The Brain And Its Functions

The human brain is the epicenter of the central nervous system, which controls the bodys most vital tasks. Everything from movement of limbs and facial features to regulating bodily functions like breathing is sent as a message from some part of the brain.

Comprised of billions of nerve cells that communicate with the body through the spinal cord, the brain is a complicated organ separated into several sections and subsections. Below is a breakdown of the parts of the brain, and how they contribute to the bodys functions and abilities.

The Cerebrum

Also called the cortex, the cerebrum makes up the largest part of the brain. It is associated with higher functions, such as cognitive thoughts and actions. There are four sections of the cerebrum , each of which contributes to the body differently. The four lobes and their functions are as follows:

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum resembles a smaller version of the cortex, because of its densely wrinkled appearance and its halved parts. It is responsible for several physical tasks, like movement, balance, posture and coordination. Although smaller in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the entire brain. It is critical for accomplishing day-to-day tasks as simple as walking or sitting down.

The Limbic System

The Brain Stem

There are three parts of the brain stem: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. Below is an explanation of what each part does in relation to the brain system:

The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

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The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

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What Are The Functions Of The Main Regions Of The Brain

Besides the cerebrum and the cerebellum, the human brain also includes the brain stem and the diencephalon.

The brain stem consists of two parts the medulla oblongata on the bottom and the pons on the top. Together, they are responsible for several vital functions including breathing, coronary health, and deep sleep regulation. In addition, the medulla is in charge of reflexive actions like coughing and sneezing.

The diencephalon is hidden underneath the cerebrum and is barely visible without taking a cross-section of the brain. This part of the brain gathers sensory information and then sends it to the cerebrum, where it is processed and interpreted. On top of it, the diencephalon is also in charge of endocrine function.

What Does The Cerebellum Do

Hanging down from the rear part of your brain is the cerebellum, which is primarily in charge of movement and coordination.

To understand exactly what this brain region does, heres a simple examination that doctors perform simply called the finger-to-nose test.

  • The doctor would start by placing their finger just two feet away from your face.
  • Then you are asked to touch the tip of your nose with your index finger, then touch the tip of the doctors finger.
  • You would do this as fast as possible, all while the doctor slowly moves their finger away from you.

What this simple examination shows is that the cerebellum is working properly to ensure hand-eye coordination. The doctor wants to confirm that your index fingers dont miss their mark and end up on your chin or missing their hand completely.

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Neurons And Glial Cells

The human brain has about 80-100 billion neurons, and roughly the same of glial cells. Neurons and glial cells help coordinate and transport signals within the human nervous system. While neurons communicate and receive information with cells, glial cells protect and support neurons in completing their mission.

Everyday Connections The Myth Of Left Brain/right Brain

Ch 14 Major Brain Regions and Landmarks.mp4

There is a persistent myth that people are right-brained or left-brained, which is an oversimplification of an important concept about the cerebral hemispheres. There is some lateralization of function, in which the left side of the brain is devoted to language function and the right side is devoted to spatial and nonverbal reasoning. Whereas these functions are predominantly associated with those sides of the brain, there is no monopoly by either side on these functions. Many pervasive functions, such as language, are distributed globally around the cerebrum.

Some of the support for this misconception has come from studies of split brains. A drastic way to deal with a rare and devastating neurological condition is to separate the two hemispheres of the brain. After sectioning the corpus callosum, a split-brained patient will have trouble producing verbal responses on the basis of sensory information processed on the right side of the cerebrum, leading to the idea that the left side is responsible for language function.

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What Does The Brain Stem Do

As already explained, the brain stem consists of two parts the medulla oblongata and the pons.

  • The Medulla:

Located at the bottom of the stem, the medulla helps control our cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In addition, this part of the brain is also responsible for a variety of reflexive actions.

Every time you cough, sneeze, or vomit, its your body acting on the impulses sent from the medulla.

  • The Pons:

Sitting above the medulla oblongata, the pons is primarily in charge of breathing and sleep regulation.

How To Make Learning Of Brain Parts Easier:

After going through the description of different parts of the human brain, you would have realized that it is fairly difficult to learn and memorize them, and you are right. Still there is a way that can help you a great deal.

Firstly, you should dissect the long and difficult words into their constituent parts. For example, mesencephalon can be divided into mes meaning middle and encephalon meaning brain. By doing so, you can easily understand that mesencephalon is another name for the midbrain. Secondly, while learning the parts of the human brain, you should focus on its functions one by one and try to experience it physically. For instance, you can consider the case that if someone sleeps for long hours, they feel a sort of burden in the anterior part or telencephalon and are unable to memorize things quickly. This difficulty in learning and memorizing is primarily due to some problem in the forebrain.

Do you agree with this point of view or not? Just comment on it and give arguments which will be very useful for the readers.

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Main Parts Of The Human Brain And Subdivisions Of Human Brain Parts

Human encephalon resembles, in structure and function, with that of the other vertebrates. The scientists reveal that parts of the human brain are Forebrain, Midbrain & Hindbrain and the related structures that collectively act as a single highly specialized unit. These parts work in coordination and perform different functions of brain. More specifically, it is divided into five major regions, namely, telencephalon, diencephalon or inter-brain, myelencephalon , metencephalon and mesencephalon . Here follows a precise but comprehensive description of each of the above given divisions.

Show/hide Words To Know

14.1: The brain develops four major regions: the cerebrum ...

Disorder: something that is not in order. Not arranged correctly. In medicine a disorder is when something in the body is not working correctly.

Electroencephalogram: visual recording showing the electrical activity of the brain … more

Emotion: any of a long list of feelings a person can have such as joy, anger and love… more

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In Conclusion: Brain Anatomy

The human brain is an incredibly complex, hardworking organ. As one-half of the human nervous system, the brain structure oversees nearly all of the body’s operations, including how we move, think, feel and understand ourselves and the world around us. And knowing all this brain anatomy is important. From the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem, to all the parts in between: this three-pound organ is what makes us humans, well, human.

How Does The Brain Work

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.

Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the bodys vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons .

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Cerebrum Function: What Are The Roles Of The Main Brain Regions

Your brain consists of four main regions: the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and diencephalon.

Each region of the brain performs certain functions and plays a role in the body. They all work together to ensure that your brain and body are performing the way they should.

In this article, we will take a closer look at all four parts of the brain and explain their roles. We will start with the largest brain region and examine the main cerebrum function.

What Is The Main Function Of The Cerebellum

Human Brain: Major Structures and their Functions

Moving clockwise from the cerebrum we find the cerebellum, another vital region of the brain.

The cerebellum is much smaller than the cerebrum approximately only one-eighth of its size. However, this region houses upwards of 50 billion neurons, which is more than half of all the neurons in the brain.

While the motor area of the cerebral cortex plans and controls your voluntary movements, the cerebellum is in charge of carrying them out. Namely, this part of the brain activates all the muscles in your body needed to make the movement that you want to make.

In addition to this, the cerebellum also ensures that your muscles are well-synchronized and that no muscles or muscle groups are providing opposition to the movement that youre making. Whats more, the cerebellum is also responsible for maintaining your balance and posture while youre moving.

Because of the functions they perform, the cerebrum was historically considered the conscious part of the brain, whereas the cerebellum was seen as the unconscious part. However, recent research has challenged this notion by proving that the cerebellum may be responsible for regulating our thoughts.

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A Sorting Station: The Thalamus Mediates Sensory Data And Relays Signals To The Conscious Brain

The diencephalon is a region of the forebrain, connected to both the midbrain and the cerebrum. The thalamus forms most of the diencephalon. It consists of two symmetrical egg-shaped masses, with neurons that radiate out through the cerebral cortex. Sensory data floods into the thalamus from the brain stem, along with emotional, visceral, and other information from different areas of the brain. The thalamus relays these messages to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex. It determines which signals require conscious awareness, and which should be available for learning and memory.

Gene And Protein Expression

Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression. Bioinformatics and studies in genomics, and functional genomics, generated the need for DNA annotation, a transcriptome technology, identifying genes, their locations and functions.GeneCards is a major database.

As of 2017, just under 20,000 protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, and some 400 of these genes are brain-specific. The data that has been provided on gene expression in the brain has fuelled further research into a number of disorders. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder. These changes have been noted in the synaptictranscriptome in the prefrontal cortex, and are seen as a factor causing the drive to alcohol dependence, and also to other substance abuses.

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Lipid Extraction And Thin

Cerebra from several rats are dissected and homogenized initially in a small volume of chloroform/methanol , with several brains pooled into one homogenate, and equal fractions are taken for each sample. This is carried out to reduce the variation in myo-inositol incorporation between the individual animals. The lipids are extracted essentially according to the method of Hauser and Eichberg or Schacht . Prior to use, it is essential to wash each test tube three times with chloroform/methanol to remove possible contaminants. The initial neutral extraction removes primarily PI. In addition, during each step of the lipid extraction, the samples are kept under nitrogen using test tubes with Teflon-lined caps. After the acidified chloroform/methanol extraction step, the lipid phases are mixed with 0.2 volume of 1 M HCl, with each phase neutralized immediately with ammonia. The first acidified chloroform/methanol lipid extract is used for all lipid determinations, as this fraction contains most of the polyphosphoinositides.

D. Gupta, in, 2017

What Is The Role Of The Cerebrum

Ch 9

The cerebrum is the anterior part of the brain. As large as a cantaloupe, this region accounts for about 85% of the total brain weight.

So, what does the cerebrum do?

This region is responsible for high brain functions like thinking, learning, and memory. The cerebrum is also in charge of organization, planning, and language processing. In addition, this part of the brain is also tasked with interpreting and processing the information obtained from the five senses.

The outside of the cerebrum is covered with a thin layer of gray matter called the cerebral cortex. This part of the cerebrum is in charge of your motor skills and helps the brain control voluntary movements.

Furthermore, the cortex also has association areas that allow you to perceive ideas and objects in a meaningful way. It also has centers that help you control your impulses and manage your anger.

To ensure that your cerebrum is working to its full potential, you need to give your brain a good mental workout every day. The best way to do this is by constantly learning new things.

If knowledge is power, learning is your superpower.

Jim Kwik, Author of Mindvalleys Superbrain Program

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Cerebral Cortex Lobes Function

Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is located in the division of the brain known as the forebrain. It is divided into four lobes that each have a specific function. For example, there are specific areas involved in movement and sensory processes , and olfaction). Other areas are critical for thinking and reasoning. Although many functions, such as touch perception, are found in both the right and left cerebral hemispheres, some functions are found in only one cerebral hemisphere. For example, in most people, language processing abilities are found in the left hemisphere.

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    What Are The Regions Of The Brain And How Do They Fit Into The Brain Structure

    The three main parts of the brain are split amongst three regions developed during the embryonic period: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Together, these regions act as a useful map to understanding the various parts of the brain’s structure and functions.

    The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain serve as regions that make finding the various parts of the brain easier./ BruceBlaus/Wikimedia Commons

    To better understand the roles of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain within the brain, check out the short video below:

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