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What Are The Four Parts Of The Brain

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More Details About The Lobes Of The Brain

Parts of the Brain-Human Brain Structure and Function

Temporal lobes

The temporal lobes are on either side of the brain, nearest to the ears. Their main roles involve memory processing, hearing and language.

Both temporal lobes store general knowledge. General knowledge is different from the types of memory that relate to day-to-day experiences. The left temporal lobe helps to understand language, and usually stores facts and the meanings of words. The right temporal lobe deals with visual information, such as recognising familiar objects and faces.

Within each temporal lobe is a region called the hippocampus, which processes memories to allow them to be stored and found when needed. Damage to the hippocampus makes it difficult to learn new things. The hippocampus also sends important information to be stored in other parts of the cerebral cortex. It is important for memory of events and experiences .

The temporal lobes also help to understand what is being heard. Damage to the temporal lobes, particularly to an area called the auditory cortex, can make it more difficult for the hippocampus to form memories of what has just been heard.

Alzheimers disease often starts in and around the hippocampus, before it spreads to other parts of the brain. This is why one of the first symptoms many people notice is memory loss.

Frontal lobes

In other types of dementia, such as Alzheimers disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia, the frontal lobes tend to be damaged later on.

Parietal lobes

Occipital lobes

The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

Information Transport And Boundary Assistants

The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.

Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons

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Brain Lobes And Their Functions

The brain is divided into four sections, known as lobes . The frontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, and temporal lobe have different locations and functions that support the responses and actions of the human body. Let’s start by identifying where each lobe is positioned in the brain.

Position of the Lobes

The frontal lobe is the emotional control center of the brain responsible for forming our personality and influencing out decisions. The frontal lobe is located at the front of the central sulcus where it receives information signals from other lobes of the brain.

The parietal lobe processes sensory information for cognitive purposes and helps coordinate spatial relations so we can make sense of the world around us. The parietal lobe resides in the middle section of the brain behind the central sulcus, above the occipital lobe.

The temporal lobe is located on the bottom of the brain below the lateral fissure. This lobe is also the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is important for interpreting the sounds and the language we hear.

The occipital lobe is located at the back portion of the brain behind the parietal and temporal lobes. The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for processing auditory information.

Functions of the Lobes

The frontal lobe has many functions most of which center on regulating social behavior. Here are some of the important functions of the frontal lobe:

  • Visual-spatial processing
  • Movement and color recognition

Metencephalonanterior Part Of Hindbrain

Brain regions and neurofeedback

Composed of cerebellum, pons, different nerves and fourth ventricle, it is an important portion of the developmental division of your brain and performs vital functions associated with Central Nervous System , viz. muscle movements, sleep, circulation, balance, arousal and cardiac reflexes. If you want to know about the wonderful working of different parts of brain, just go through the interesting human brain facts.

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The Brain And Its Parts

Often, we use the term brain to refer to the enfecalo, the main organ of the central nervous system, the brain contains other parts such as the medulla and the cerebellum. Next, we are going to mention the most important parts of the brain:

  • One of the most important parts of the brain is the cerebellum, located in the brain, and its function is to regulate such important aspects of the organism as posture, balance, and coordination.
  • The hypothalamus regulates the functions of the organism, for example, sleep cycles, body temperature, hunger, and mood.
  • Language is one of the most characteristic expressions of the humanity of the person. Well, the parts of the brain that regulate speech are Brocas area and Wernickes area . In this other article, you can find more information about the area of Broca and Wernicke.
  • The hippocampus is a brain area that promotes the storage of memories and learning.

Next, we show you an image to give you an idea of how a real human brain works and what its parts are.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

There are three main parts of the brain: the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem.

Was I A Bee/Wikimedia Commons

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. Located in the front and middle part of the brain, it accounts for 85% of the brain’s weight. Of the three main parts of the brain, the cerebrum is considered the most recent to develop in human evolution. The cerebrum is responsible for all voluntary actions , communication, emotions, creativity, intelligence and personality.

What Are the Main Parts of the Cerebrum?

The cerebrum’s structure is made up of:

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Where Is The Brain Located

The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

Whats The Difference Between The Left Brain And Right Brain

What are the Parts of the Brain?

The human brain is divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The hemispheres are strongly, though not entirely, symmetrical. Generally, the left brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body, and the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant, as with left- or right-handedness.

Related: Whats the difference between the right brain and the left brain?

The popular notions about left brain and right brain qualities are generalizations that are not well supported by evidence. However, there are some important differences between these areas. The left brain contains regions that are involved in language production and comprehension and is also associated with mathematical calculation and fact retrieval, Holland said. The right brain plays a role in visual and auditory processing, spatial skills and artistic ability more instinctive or creative things, Holland said though these functions involve both hemispheres. Everyone uses both halves all the time, he said.

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Brain Structure And Function

The brain has two halves or hemispheres: right and left. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the right side. In most people, the left hemisphere regulates language and speech, and the right hemisphere controls nonverbal, spatial skills. If the right side of the brain is damaged, movement of the left arm and leg, vision on the left, and/or hearing in the left ear may be affected. Injury to the left side of the brain affects speech and movement on the right side of the body. Each half of the brain is divided into main functional sections, called lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain: the Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, and Occipital Lobe. Other important sections of the brain are the Cerebellum and the Brain Stem. Although not usually divided into lobes, the cerebellum and brain stem both have different parts. Each of the brain hemispheres and lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem has specific functions, and they all work together:

This image is from:

Frontal Lobe: most anterior, right under the forehead the frontal lobe controls intellectual activities, such as the ability to organize, as well as personality, behavior, and emotional control.

Parietal Lobe: near the back and top of the head above the ears the parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial relationships.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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Structure Of The Brain

There are 3 major parts of the brain: cerebrum , cerebellum , and brainstem.

The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two, the right and the left hemisphere, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers. The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the cerebrum and has four lobes – the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe.

As is the case with all vertebrates, the human brain develops from 3 sections known as the midbrain, the hindbrain and the forebrain. Each section contains fluid filled cavities known as ventricles.The midbrain becomes part of the brainstem, the forebrain becomes the cerebrum and other underlying structures and the hindbrain develops into regions of the brainstem and cerebrum.

Additionally, the limbic system is buried within the cerebrum.

Right Brain vs. Left Brain

The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by the corpus callosum, which is composed of a bundle of fibers. The two hemispheres are somewhat symmetrical. The right brain controls the muscles on the left side and vice versa. It is believed that one hemisphere is slightly dominant, and thus the association with right or left handedness

There are some key roles played by both regions of the brain. The left brain plays a huge part in language and speech, and is also linked to fact retrieval and mathematical calculation. The right side of the brain plays a role in auditory and visual processing as well as spatial and artistic abilities.

What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain Stem

The four major regions of the brain

The brain stem is made up of three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The midbrain is located underneath the cerebral cortex, near the top of the brain stem. It connects the cerebrum to the brain stem. The midbrain helps process visual and auditory information, such as controlling the eyes and eyelids. It also plays a role in regulating our body temperature and motor movements.

Main Parts of the Midbrain

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

Pons is the Latin word for “bridge.” The pons is responsible for connecting the brain stem to the cerebral cortex and the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It can be found right underneath the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. Although it is the largest section of the brain stem, the pons is only about 2.5 centimeters long. The pons is responsible for assisting in motor functions, particularly for nerves in the face, ears, and eyes. It also plays a role in regulating the intensity and frequency of breathing. It has both gray and white matter, but it does share gray matter with the midbrain. The reticular formation of the pons’ gray matter plays a vital role in dreaming and REM sleep.

Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

The Cerebellar Peduncles

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S Of The Brain And Their Functions

The brain is one of the most important parts of the human body. Thanks to the brain we can feel and process all the information that reaches our body through the senses. In addition, we must not forget that our thinking and ideas are born in the brain. The brain is integrated into the Central Nervous System and is composed of thousands of neurons that promote the constant mind and body relationship. We can divide the brain according to its four main lobes and according to its functions.

For this reason, in our article today, in Psychology-Online, we want to provide you with more information about the parts of the brain and their functions. In this way, you will be able to understand how our mind works. The brain is present in the most important processes of the human being, for example, in the daily act of breathing, eating, walking

Human Brain Divisions And Their Functions

The brain acts as a center to receive, interpret and direct the information throughout the body. It is divided into three main divisions called the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. There are various areas and structures that make up these three division of the brain. Let us have a look at these areas and learn more about their functions.

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Becoming Mindful Of The Brain And Its Functions

The human brain is the epicenter of the central nervous system, which controls the bodys most vital tasks. Everything from movement of limbs and facial features to regulating bodily functions like breathing is sent as a message from some part of the brain.

Comprised of billions of nerve cells that communicate with the body through the spinal cord, the brain is a complicated organ separated into several sections and subsections. Below is a breakdown of the parts of the brain, and how they contribute to the bodys functions and abilities.

The Cerebrum

Also called the cortex, the cerebrum makes up the largest part of the brain. It is associated with higher functions, such as cognitive thoughts and actions. There are four sections of the cerebrum , each of which contributes to the body differently. The four lobes and their functions are as follows:

The Cerebellum

The cerebellum resembles a smaller version of the cortex, because of its densely wrinkled appearance and its halved parts. It is responsible for several physical tasks, like movement, balance, posture and coordination. Although smaller in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the entire brain. It is critical for accomplishing day-to-day tasks as simple as walking or sitting down.

The Limbic System

The Brain Stem

There are three parts of the brain stem: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla. Below is an explanation of what each part does in relation to the brain system:

What’s The Difference Between The Left Brain And Right Brain

How to learn major parts of the brain quickly

The human brain is divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The hemispheres are strongly, though not entirely, symmetrical. Generally, the left brain controls the muscles on the right side of the body, and the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant, as with left- or right-handedness.

Related: What’s the difference between the right brain and the left brain?

The popular notions about “left brain” and “right brain” qualities are generalizations that are not well supported by evidence. However, there are some important differences between these areas. The left brain contains regions that are involved in language production and comprehension and is also associated with mathematical calculation and fact retrieval, Holland said. The right brain plays a role in visual and auditory processing, spatial skills and artistic ability more instinctive or creative things, Holland said though these functions involve both hemispheres. “Everyone uses both halves all the time,” he said.

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