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What Are The Main Parts Of The Brain

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The brain is enclosed within the skull, which provides frontal, lateral and dorsal protection. The skull consists of 22 bones, 14 of which form the facial bones and the remaining 8 form the cranial bones. Anatomically, the brain is contained within the cranium and is surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid.

The Cerebrospinal Fluid is a fluid that circulates within the skull and spinal cord, filling up hollow spaces on the surface of the brain. Every day, the specialised ependymal cells produce around 500mL of cerebrospinal fluid.

The primary function of the CSF is to act as a buffer for the brain, cushioning mechanical shocks and dampening minor jolts. It also provides basic immunological protection to the brain.

Furthermore, CSF provides buoyancy for the brain. i.e., the brain is suspended in a layer of CSF, wherein, the weight of the brain is nearly negated. If the brain is not suspended in CSF, it would be impeded by its weight, consequently cutting off the blood supply in the lower half of the brain. It would lead to the death of neurons in the affected area.

Show/hide Words To Know

Blood-brain barrier: a protective layer that surrounds the brain and controls what things can move into the area around the brain.

Circadian rhythm: the body’s natural clock that runs on roughly a 24 hour cycle. Many animals have a 24 hour cycle that includes sleeping, eating and doing work… more

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Metabolism: what living things do to stay alive. This includes eating, drinking, breathing, and getting rid of wastes… more

Puberty: the change from child to adult where the body is able to reproduce.

Vertebra: any of the bones that make up the backbone.

The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

  • The amygdala
  • Regions of the limbic cortex
  • The septal area

These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

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Expert Review And References

  • Detailed guide: CNS tumors in children. American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society . Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society 2008.
  • American Society of Clinical Oncology. Central Nervous System Tumors – Childhood – Overview. 2014.
  • Central nervous system – childhood. American Society of Clinical Oncology . People Living with Cancer. Alexandria, VA.: American Society of Clinical Oncology 2008.
  • Brain tumours in children. Cancerbackup. Cancerbackup. London, UK: Cancerbackup 2008.
  • Brain tumours. Hospital for Sick Children. AboutKidsHealth. Toronto, ON: Hospital for Sick Children 2004.
  • The Hospital for Sick Children . AboutKidsHealth: An Overview of the Brain. 2009: .

Brain Areas And Their Functions

Human Brain

The brain is divided into areas which are each responsible for different areas of functioning.

The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain.

These areas are: Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Frontal lobe.Cerebral cortex, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus,Thalamus,Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Amygdala, Hippocampas and the Mid- brain.

The image below indicates where the areas are.

Occipital lobe: This is found in the back of the brain. The area is involved with the brain’s ability to recognise objects. It is responsible for our vision.

Temporal lobe: The temporal lobes are found on either side of the brain and just above the ears. The temporal lobes are responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.

Parietal lobe: The parietal lobes are found behind the frontal lobes, above the temporal lobes, and at the top back of the brain. They are connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. They also have language functions.

Frontal lobe:It is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, and problem solving, and planning

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The 3 Major Parts Of The Brain And What They Do

Mission control. Command center. Control tower. No, I’m not talking about space or your laptop hard drive, or even airport flight control. I’m talking about the human brainthe most complex and essential organ our bodies have. What is the brain structure? What part of the brain controls emotions?

Whether you’re studying it in class, preparing for an AP exam, or just curious about brain structure, in this article, you’ll learn about the main parts of brain anatomy and their functions and as well as get a general overview of the brain’s supporting cast.

Brain Stem Keeps You Breathing And More

Another brain part that’s small but mighty is the brain stem. The brain stem sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord, which runs down your neck and back. The brain stem is in charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive, like breathing air, digesting food, and circulating blood.

Part of the brain stem’s job is to control your involuntary muscles the ones that work automatically, without you even thinking about it. There are involuntary muscles in the heart and stomach, and it’s the brain stem that tells your heart to pump more blood when you’re biking or your stomach to start digesting your lunch. The brain stem also sorts through the millions of messages that the brain and the rest of the body send back and forth. Whew! It’s a big job being the brain’s secretary!

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Main Brain Parts And Their Functions Explained

The human brain is a complex organ that holds the most importance in the entire human body. The objective of this article is to give you an introduction about the brain parts and their functions rather than a detailed review of the research that has been done on the brain. The brain weighs just 3 pounds but is responsible for controlling behavior, interpreting the senses and initiating body movement. It is the source of intelligence in our body and is located in a bony shell that is protected by brain fluid. The brain is the reason for all of the qualities we possess that make us human beings.

Cerebrum The Cerebrum Is The Largest Part Of The Brain It Is Divided Into 2 Halves Called The Left And Right Cerebral Hemispheres The 2 Hemispheres Are Connected By A Bridge Of Nerve Fibres Called The Corpus Callosum The Right Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Left Side Of The Body The Left Half Of The Cerebrum Controls The Right Side Of The Body The Cerebral Cortex Is The Outer Folded Part Of The Brain It Is Also Called The Grey Matter The Cerebral Cortex Is Mostly Made Up Of The Cell Bodies And Dendrites Of Nerve Cells Cell Bodies Contain The Nucleus And Other Main Parts Of The Cell Dendrites Are The Short Branching Fibres That Receive Signals From Other Nerve Cells The Inner Part Of The Cerebrum Is Called The White Matter It Is Mostly Made Up Of The Long Fibres Of A Nerve Cell That Send Signals To And From The Brain To The Rest Of The Body The Fatty Coating That Surrounds Axons Gives This Part Of The Brain A Whitish Appearance Each Hemisphere Is Divided Into 4 Sections Called Lobes These Include The Frontal Parietal Temporal And Occipital Lobes

Brain Parts & Functions video for Kids from www.makemegenius.com

Each lobe has different functions:

The frontal lobe controls movement, speech, behaviour, memory, emotions and intellectual functions, such as thought processes, reasoning, problem solving, decision-making and planning.

The parietal lobe controls sensations, such as touch, pressure, pain and temperature. It also controls the understanding of size, shape and direction .

The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory and emotions. The dominant temporal lobe also controls speech.

The occipital lobe controls vision.

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How Does The Human Brain Work

If we want to know the brain and its functions, it is important to remember that this is an organ of the nervous system. This system is responsible for receiving and processing the information that comes from the outside environment. In addition, thanks to brain processing we can generate responses to information and external stimuli. If you want to know more, we recommend you read the following article on how it works in the nervous system.

Daniel Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence has valued this expression of emotions and feelings of the human being. Well, the part of the brain that manages this emotional information is the amygdala located in the limbic system . Human beings can not only experience emotions from an external fact that acts as a stimulus to which we give an answer. An internal fact can also generate an emotional movement, for example, a thought. Well, the amygdala is an essential core of these processes.

Information Transport And Boundary Assistants

The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.

Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons

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Understanding The Brain Stem

  • 1Explore the role of this section: The brain stem is tasked with controlling the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Located below the limbic system, it supervises the function of consciousness, breathing, swallowing, as well as heart rate and blood pressure. It connects the spinal cord and the brain.
  • 2Identify the parts of the brain stem. The brain stem is comprised of three parts: the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla .
  • The midbrain controls the functioning of hearing and vision as well as eye and body movement. This is also where involuntary actions such as digestion, heart rate and breathing rate takes place.
  • The pons is located in the upper region of the brain stem and serves two main functions. First, it controls breathing rate, the amount of oxygen taken in along with the number of breaths per minute. Next, the pons controls communication within the brain, by sending messages to the cerebellum and cerebrum, for example. The pons is also an integral part of the body’s hearing, taste, balance and posture, and regulating deep sleep.
  • The medulla is positioned at the bottom of the brain stem. Its responsibilities include vital bodily functions, including heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. This area is involved in the body’s natural reflexes and also involuntary actions including sneezing, coughing or vomiting.XResearch source
  • The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum

    Parts of the Brain: Different Parts of Brain and Their ...

    The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.

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    The Geography Of Thought

    Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

    When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

    As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.

    The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

    The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

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    The Architecture Of The Brain

    The brain is like a committee of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

    The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum . The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .

    When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.

    Right Brain Left Brain

    What are the Parts of the Brain?

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    The brain has hollow fluid-filled cavities called ventricles . Inside the ventricles is a ribbon-like structure called the choroid plexus that makes clear colorless cerebrospinal fluid . CSF flows within and around the brain and spinal cord to help cushion it from injury. This circulating fluid is constantly being absorbed and replenished.

    There are two ventricles deep within the cerebral hemispheres called the lateral ventricles. They both connect with the third ventricle through a separate opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle connects with the fourth ventricle through a long narrow tube called the aqueduct of Sylvius. From the fourth ventricle, CSF flows into the subarachnoid space where it bathes and cushions the brain. CSF is recycled by special structures in the superior sagittal sinus called arachnoid villi.

    A balance is maintained between the amount of CSF that is absorbed and the amount that is produced. A disruption or blockage in the system can cause a build up of CSF, which can cause enlargement of the ventricles or cause a collection of fluid in the spinal cord .

    The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

    Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

    For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

    Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

    NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

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