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What Are The Three Parts Of The Brain

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What Are The Regions Of The Brain And How Do They Fit Into The Brain Structure

The Three Main Parts Of Your Brain by Dr. Russ Harris

The three main parts of the brain are split amongst three regions developed during the embryonic period: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Together, these regions act as a useful map to understanding the various parts of the brain’s structure and functions.

The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain serve as regions that make finding the various parts of the brain easier./ BruceBlaus/Wikimedia Commons

To better understand the roles of the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain within the brain, check out the short video below:

What Are Three Parts Of The Brain

The brain is divided into three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. The three parts work together, but they perform independent functions. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, and it fills most of the forebrain.

The cerebrum shares the forebrain space with the hypothalamus and thalamus, part of the limbic system. The amygdala and hippocampus are also located in the cerebrum.

The midbrain, along with the pons and medulla, is part of the brain stem. It helps the brain regulate basic life functions, including eye movement and hearing.

The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum, medulla and pons. Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two hemispheres. It controls posture and movement of the body.

The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

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How Can I Keep My Brainstem Healthy

Some lifestyle changes can keep your entire brain healthier. To keep your mind sharp and support your brain health, you may:

  • Drink alcohol only in moderation.
  • Eat a diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats and lean protein.
  • Exercise regularly.

A strong social network has also been linked with brain health. Healthy relationships can help lower your blood pressure, decrease stress and increase your life span.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Your brainstem is the bottom part of your brain. It looks like a stalk that connects the rest of your brain to your spinal cord. Your brainstem sends signals from your brain to the rest of your body. It controls many subconscious body functions, like breathing and maintaining your heart rate. Brain tumors, strokes or traumatic brain injuries may damage your brainstem. You can lower your risk of these conditions by adopting healthy habits like exercising and eating a nutritious diet.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 06/21/2021.

References

The Brainstem And Cerebellum

The Origins of the Transgender Condition

The brainstem is located above the spinal cord and beneath the thalamus and consists of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The brainstem contains well-defined clusters of nerve cell bodies or nuclei that receive sensory input from the cranial nerves and send this information upstream to the thalamus for further processing. The brainstem has an ill-defined central core called the brainstem reticular formation that houses the respiratory and cardiovascular centers that influence breathing, respiration, blood pressure, circulation, and vasomotor tone.

Medial View of the Brain

This illustration identifies the various areas of the human brain. Source: Oscar-Berman et al., 1997.

The cerebellum, or little brain, is located behind and above the brainstem and makes up about 10% of the total volume of the brain. Despite its small size, the cerebellum contains more than half of all the neurons in the brain, arranged in a highly regular and repeating pattern. The cerebellum is connected to the brainstem via three pairs of peduncles that are bundles of nerve fiber tracts entering and exiting the cerebellum. These nerve fiber tracts carry information to and from the spinal cord, cerebrum, and brainstem.

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The Cerebellum’s Inner And Outer Layers

Like the cerebrum, the cerebellum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is called the cerebellar cortex. Like the cerebral cortex, it is full of gray matter. Functions such as movement, motor learning, balance and posture happen here.

Underneath the cortex lies the cerebellum’s white matter. Called “arbor vitae” for its appearance, the cerebellum’s white matter contains cerebellar nuclei. These neurons are vital because they relay information between the cerebral cortex and the peripheral nervous system to assist in learning and cognitive functions, motor control, balance and coordination.

What Is The Brain And Why Does It Matter

The brain is a three-pound organ that serves as headquarters for our bodies. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to process information, move our limbs, or even breathe. Together with the spinal cord, brain structure and function helps control the central nervous systemthe main part of two that make up the human nervous system. The human nervous system is responsible for helping us think, breathe, move, react and feel.

Like any good command center, there is a structure to the brain and its operations that help it carry out its basic functions.

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Divisions Of The Brain: Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain

    • B.A., Biology, Emory University
    • A.S., Nursing, Chattahoochee Technical College

    The brain is a complex organ that acts as the control center of the body. As a component of the central nervous system, the brain sends, receives, processes, and directs sensory information. The brain is split into left and right hemispheres by a band of fibers called the corpus callosum. There are three major divisions of the brain, with each division performing specific functions. The major divisions of the brain are the forebrain , midbrain , and hindbrain .

    The National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

    Parts of the Brain-Human Brain Structure and Function

    Since its creation by Congress in 1950, the NINDS has grown to become the leading supporter of neurological research in the United States. Most research funded by the NINDS is conducted by scientists in public and private institutions such as universities, medical schools, and hospitals. Government scientists also conduct a wide array of neurological research in the more than 20 laboratories and branches of the NINDS itself. This research ranges from studies on the structure and function of single brain cells to tests of new diagnostic tools and treatments for those with neurological disorders.

    For information on other neurological disorders or research programs funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, contact the Institute’s Brain Resources and Information Network at:

    Office of Communications and Public LiaisonNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MD 20892

    NINDS health-related material is provided for information purposes only and does not necessarily represent endorsement by or an official position of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke or any other Federal agency. Advice on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician who has examined that patient or is familiar with that patient’s medical history.

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    In Conclusion: Brain Anatomy

    The human brain is an incredibly complex, hardworking organ. As one-half of the human nervous system, the brain structure oversees nearly all of the body’s operations, including how we move, think, feel and understand ourselves and the world around us. And knowing all this brain anatomy is important. From the cerebrum, cerebellum and the brain stem, to all the parts in between: this three-pound organ is what makes us humans, well, human.

    What Are The Four Nuclei Of The Cerebellum

    As the three lobes take in information from the cerebrum, spinal cord and body, the cerebellum also has a way of sending out information. This is done through what are called nucleia bundle or neurons embedded deep in the cerebellum’s white matter.

    Rounding out cerebellum’s composition are the four nuclei that pass information between the cerebrum and the body. These nuclei are: dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastcgi. They receive on the body and give information from the cerebellum through Purkinje cells and mossy fibers.

    Life Sciences Database/Wikimedia Commons

    The final section of the brain is a mass of tissue and nerves called the brain stem. Located underneath the cerebrum and cerebellum, the brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord. All information that goes from the brain to the body , must pass through the brain stem to reach its destination. The brain stem accounts for the remaining 5% of the brain’s mass, and is , the oldest part of the brain. The brain stem is responsible for regulating the heart and lungs, communications between the brain and the peripheral nervous system , our sleep cycle, and coordinating reflexes.

    The brain stem plugs the brain into the rest of the body through the spinal cord .

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    The Medulla Or Medulla Oblongata

    Located directly above the spinal cord in the lower part of the brain stem. It controls many vital autonomic functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

    Functions of the medulla are performed without thought. We would not be able to live without the medulla because the critical tasks it performs. These include regulating blood pressure and breathing.

    Information Transport And Boundary Assistants

    Brain Facts: Important Parts of the Brain

    The gyrus and sulcus are what give the brain its wrinkly appearance. The grooves of the brain are known as the sulci, while the bumps are called the gyri. These folds and ridges help increase how much of the cerebral cortex can fit into the skull. They also create boundaries between the different sections of the brain, such as the two hemispheres and four lobes of the cerebrum.

    Albert Kok/Wikimedia Commons

    The gyri and sulci create the wrinkles we traditionally associate with the brain./ Bruce Blaus/Wikimedia Commons

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    Right Brain Left Brain

    The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

    Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

    The Limbic System Or Emotional Center

    The list of structures that make up the limbic system are not agreed upon.

    Four of the main regions of the limbic systems include:

    • The amygdala
    • Regions of the limbic cortex
    • The septal area

    These structures relay between the limbic system and the hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus is important in memory and learning. While the limbic system itself is central in the control of emotional responses.

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    What Are The Functions Of The 3 Main Parts Of The Brain

    Three main parts of the brain

    • Cerebrum. Memories, coordination, error checking during motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions.
    • Cerebellum. Voluntary movement, personality, cognitive function, outer layer of cerebrum.
    • Brain stem. Part of spinal chord, controls breathing, blood pressure, alertness, heart rate, and other autonomic functions.

    Beside this, what are the 3 major regions of the brain?

    It has three main parts:

    • The cerebrum fills up most of your skull. It is involved in remembering, problem solving, thinking, and feeling.
    • The cerebellum sits at the back of your head, under the cerebrum. It controls coordination and balance.
    • The brain stem sits beneath your cerebrum in front of your cerebellum.

    How many divisions does the brain have?

    three

    The Geography Of Thought

    The Three Main Parts Of Your Brain

    Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided into sections, or lobes, each of which specializes in different functions. To understand each lobe and its specialty we will take a tour of the cerebral hemispheres, starting with the two frontal lobes , which lie directly behind the forehead. When you plan a schedule, imagine the future, or use reasoned arguments, these two lobes do much of the work. One of the ways the frontal lobes seem to do these things is by acting as short-term storage sites, allowing one idea to be kept in mind while other ideas are considered. In the rearmost portion of each frontal lobe is a motor area , which helps control voluntary movement. A nearby place on the left frontal lobe called Brocas area allows thoughts to be transformed into words.

    When you enjoy a good mealthe taste, aroma, and texture of the foodtwo sections behind the frontal lobes called the parietal lobes are at work. The forward parts of these lobes, just behind the motor areas, are the primary sensory areas . These areas receive information about temperature, taste, touch, and movement from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are also functions in the repertoire of each parietal lobe.

    As you look at the words and pictures on this page, two areas at the back of the brain are at work. These lobes, called the occipital lobes , process images from the eyes and link that information with images stored in memory. Damage to the occipital lobes can cause blindness.

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    What Does The Brain Do

    The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you’re less aware of like the beating of your heart and the digestion of your food.

    Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body’s functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part.

    When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happens in an instant.

    What Are The Layers Of The Cerebrum

    The cerebrum has two layers: one inner and one outer. The outer layer is known as the cerebral cortex . Most times, whenever you see photos of the brain, you are looking at the cerebral cortex. This area houses the brain’s “gray matter,” and is considered the “seat” of human consciousness. Higher brain functions such as thinking, reasoning, planning, emotion, memory, the processing of sensory information and speech all happen in the cerebral cortex. In other words, the cerebral cortex is what sets humans apart from other species.

    The cerebral cortex is referred to as “gray matter,” due to its color and is responsible for several vital functions, such as those listed above.

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    Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Deep in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.

    The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

    Diagram Of The Brain And Its Functions

    Brain Architecture

    We know what is the brain, we also know what it looks like but How does it work? How does it convert a whim into an electric signal? If these are the questions swirling in your brain, then this article detailing the diagram of the brain and its functions will definitely whet your appetite regarding brain functions and parts.

    We know what is the brain, we also know what it looks like but How does it work? How does it convert a whim into an electric signal? If these are the questions swirling in your brain, then this article detailing the diagram of the brain and its functions will definitely whet your appetite regarding brain functions and parts.

    Of all the human body systems, the nervous system is the most complicated system in the body. The brain is the central part of the nervous system. It is an intriguing organ, that has been studied right from the time it develops in the fetus. The human brain weighs about 1.5 kg in adults. The cerebrum, which forms the bulk of this organ, is divided into two hemispheres, the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere.

    There are many ways of dividing the brain for studying its various aspects. However, it is conventionally divided into three parts: the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain. The brain also contains four interconnected cavities called ventricles, which contain cerebrospinal fluid. We will study the diagram of the brain and its functions in this article, along with a detailed study of the brain anatomy.

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    Lobes Of The Brain And What They Control

    Each brain hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. Each lobe controls specific functions.

    • Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Brocas area, which is associated with speech ability.
    • Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships . The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernickes area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.
    • Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.
    • Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

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