Gyri And Sulci Functions
Brain gyri and sulci serve two very important functions: They increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex and they form brain divisions. Increasing the surface area of the brain allows more neurons to be packed into the cortex so that it can process more information. Gyri and sulci form brain divisions by creating boundaries between the lobes of the brain and dividing the brain into two hemispheres.
Alcohol Kills Brain Cells
Just one observation of a drunken person is enough to convince you that alcohol directly affects the brain. People who drink enough to get drunk often end up with slurred speech and impaired motor skills and judgment, among other side effects. Many of them suffer from headaches, nausea and other unpleasant side effects afterward — in other words, a hangover. But are a few drinks on the weekend, or even the occasional long drinking session, enough to kill brain cells? What about binge drinking or the frequent, sustained drinking of alcoholics?
Not so much. Even in alcoholics, alcohol use doesn’t actually result in the death of brain cells. It can, however, damage the ends of neurons, which are called dendrites. This results in problems conveying messages between the neurons. The cell itself isn’t damaged, but the way that it communicates with others is altered. According to researchers such as Roberta J. Pentney, professor of anatomy and cell biology at the University at Buffalo, this damage is mostly reversible.
So while alcohol doesn’t actually kill brain cells, it can still damage your brain if you drink in mass quantities.
How much of your brain did you use while reading this top 10 list? The next myth will explain all.
The Cerebellum And The Brainstem
Before diving too deeply into the functions of the cerebrum, lets take a quick look at the other parts of the brain. The brainstem is the base of the brain and it is connected to the cerebral spinal column. Structures in the brainstem include the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain. The brainstems primary function is to relay signals coming from the cerebellum and cerebrum to the spinal column. Many involuntary or automatic responses are handled by the brainstem, such as sneezing, coughing, and swallowing. The brainstem also regulates your body temperature, heart rate, and your breathing.
The cerebellum is found just under the cerebrum. The cerebellums primary function is to handle things like posture and balance. The cerebellum also plays a key role in carrying out voluntary movements. Most movements are the result of a variety of different muscle groups acting together, and the cerebellum coordinates the timing and actions of these different muscles to ensure fluid movement.
|Billions of nerve fibers|
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Scientists Use Physics To Understand The Mystery Of Consciousness
The study is potentially applicable to humans and reflects a growing interest in new theories of consciousness that are experimentally testable.
An international study involving Monash physicists has confirmed a new approach to measure consciousness, potentially changing our understanding complex neurological problems.
The study published yesterday in Physical Review Research describes how tools from physics and complexity theory were used to determine the level of consciousness in fruit flies.
This is a major problem in neuroscience, where it is crucial to differentiate between unresponsive vegetative patients and those suffering from a condition in which a patient is aware but cannot move or communicate verbally because of complete paralysis of nearly all voluntary muscles in the body, said study author Dr. Kavan Modi, from the Monash University School of Physics and Astronomy.
The research team, which includes Dr. Modi, PhD candidate Roberto Muñoz also from the School of Physics and Astronomy, and Monash University Psychology Associate Professor Nao Tsuchiya, has found a way to measure the level of conscious arousal in fruit flies using the complex signals produced by the brain.
Our technique allows us to distinguish between flies that have been anesthetized and those that have not, by calculating the time-complexity of the signals, said Dr. Modi.
Is It True That You Get New Brain Wrinkles When You Learn Something
Not all brains are wrinkled. In fact, most animals have fairly smooth brains. Some exceptions are primates, dolphins, elephants, and pigs, which also happen to be some of the more intelligent animals.
The human brain is exceptionally wrinkled. Thats probably why people conclude that we gain more wrinkles as we learn new things. But thats not how we acquire brain wrinkles.
Your brain starts developing wrinkles before youre even born. The wrinkling continues as your brain grows, until youre about 18 months old.
Think of the wrinkles as folds. The crevices are called sulci and the raised areas are called gyri. The folds allow room for more gray matter inside your skull. It also decreases wiring length and improves overall cognitive functioning.
Human brains vary quite a bit, but theres still a typical pattern to brain folds. Research shows that not having the major folds in the right places could cause some dysfunction.
- motivate you to do things you probably wanted to do anyway
Learning entirely new things is far more complicated.
Say youve been studying a foreign language. Theres only a small chance that listening to vocabulary words in your sleep can help you remember them a bit better. A 2015 study found that this is true only under the best of circumstances. The researchers noted that you cant learn new things during your sleep.
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Treatment Of Bell Palsy
Sometimes a corticosteroid
Eye drops or a patch to protect the cornea
If symptoms have been present less than 48 hours, a corticosteroid, such as prednisone, is given by mouth to reduce swelling of the nerve. Taking a corticosteroid slightly speeds and improves recovery of movement.
Whether antiviral drugs help is unclearâeven the antiviral drugs that are effective against common causes of Bell palsy, such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir, which are used to treat the herpes simplex virus and the virus that causes shingles. However, antiviral drugs are sometimes prescribed in addition to a corticosteroid. Whether this combination is more effective than a corticosteroid alone is unclear.
If the eye cannot close completely, it must be protected from dryness to reduce the risk of eye damage. Eye drops consisting of artificial tears or a salt solution are applied to the eye until it can close completely. People may need to wear an eye patch some of the time, particularly during sleep. Rarely, in severe cases, the upper and lower eyelids are sewn together.
Chemical And Electrical Signals
The actual signals transmitted throughout the brain come in two forms, electrical and chemical. The two forms are interdependent and meet at the synapse, where chemical substances can alter the electrical conditions within and outside the cell membrane.
A nerve cell at rest holds a slight negative charge with respect to the exterior; the cell membrane is said to be polarized. The negative charge, the resting potential of the membrane, arises from a very slight excess of negatively charged molecules inside the cell.
A membrane at rest is more or less impermeable to positively charged sodium ions , but when stimulated it is transiently open to their passage. The Na+ ions thus flow in, attracted by the negative charge inside, and the membrane temporarily reverses its polarity, with a higher positive charge inside than out. This stage lasts less than a millisecond, and then the sodium channels close again. Potassium channels open, and K+ ions move out through the membrane, reversing the flow of positively charged ions. Over the next 3 milliseconds, the membrane becomes slightly hyperpolarized, with a charge of about -80 mV, and then returns to its resting potential. During this time the sodium channels remain closed; the membrane is in a refractory phase.
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Listening To Mozart Makes You Smarter
Don’t you just feel cultured when you tune in to a classical music station and take in an opera or a symphony by a great composer like Mozart? Baby Einstein, a company that makes DVDs, videos and other products for babies and toddlers incorporating classical art, music, and poetry, is a million-dollar franchise. Parents buy the products because they believe that exposure to great art can be good for their children’s cognitive development. There are even classical music CDs designed to be played to developing fetuses. The idea that listening to classical music can increase your brainpower has become so popular that it’s been dubbed “the Mozart effect.” So how did this myth start?
In the 1950s, an ear, nose and throat doctor named Albert Tomatis began the trend, claiming success using Mozart’s music to help people with speech and auditory disorders. In the 1990s, 36 students in a study at the University of California at Irvine listened to 10 minutes of a Mozart sonata before taking an IQ test. According to Dr. Gordon Shaw, the psychologist in charge of the study, the students’ IQ scores went up by about 8 points. The “Mozart effect” was born.
A musician named Dan Campbell trademarked the phrase and created a line of books and CDs based on the concept, and states such as Georgia, Florida and Tennessee set aside money for classical music for babies and other young children. Campbell and others have gone on to assert that listening to Mozart can even improve your health.
The Four Lobes Of The Cerebrum
The cerebrum itself is separated into four different lobes: the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe.
The frontal lobe of the brain is typically associated with planning and reasoning, as well as emotions and problem-solving. The motor cortex is found in the rear of the frontal lobe. The motor cortex receives information from the other parts of the brain and uses it to ensure that the movements of the body are carried out.
Meanwhile, the occipital lobe is found at the back of the brain and is primarily responsible for the processing of visual information. The primary visual cortex is responsible for receiving information from the retinas in the eyes and then interpreting that information for use.
The parietal lobe is found on top of the brain and it is thought to be responsible for the perception of various stimuli, orientation, movement, and recognition. The parietal lobe is home to the somatosensory cortex, which enables the bodys senses to be processed and relevant information extracted from them.
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Cerebrum: Function Of The Largest Part Of The Human Brain
The cerebrum is the latest evolutionary feature of the brain and is the largest part of the brain. The cerebrum is located in the uppermost region of the central nervous system and contains the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The brain is divided into three principal parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum, and it is further divided into various lobes and structures. What are the functions of all the structures? What critical roles do they play in enabling the human brain to carry out the complex functions is capable of?
The human brain has 100 billion neurons, each neuron connected to 10 thousand other neurons. Sitting on your shoulders is the most complicated object in the known universe. Michio Kaku
The cerebrums function is to direct thought and action through conscious or unconscious motor functions.
Interesting Facts About The Brain
Picture a walnut.; Now imagine the walnut is about the size of a cantaloupe.; Add in wrinkles, and you have a visual of the human brain.; Read on, to discover five more amazing facts.
1. Your Brain is More Powerful than a Computer
The human brain works faster than any computer.; It takes more than 80,000 processors running on one of the worlds fastest supercomputers to complete one second of what the human brain is capable of.; During that one second, the brain makes thousands of calculations.; It monitors and controls all your bodily functions, and regenerates brain cells.; It does all of this and still manages to generate up to 50,000 thoughts a day.; Now thats multitasking!
2. The Average Brain Weighs About Three Pounds
The size of the brain doesnt necessarily correlate to a persons intelligence.; If that were the case, an elephant would be smarter than a human because the elephants brain is almost four times larger.
Scientists believe intelligence is related more to the connections the brain makes rather than its size.; Each neuron in our brain is capable of making about 1,000 connections each second.; With 100 billion neurons in our brain that makes a lot of connections!; These neurons are also responsible for the brains total electrical output, which is 30-40 watts, enough to power a household light bulb.
3. A Human Brain Has Wrinkles
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Symptoms Of Bell Palsy
In Bell palsy, pain behind the ear may be the first symptom. Facial muscles weaken suddenly, usually within hours. The effect ranges from mild weakness to complete paralysis. By 48 to 72 hours, the weakness is as severe as it will be. Only one side of the face is affected.
In facial nerve palsies, the face becomes flat and expressionless. However, when only one side is affected, people often feel as though the face is twisted because the muscles on the unaffected side tend to pull the face to that side every time they make a facial expression. Wrinkling the forehead, blinking, and grimacing may be difficult or impossible on the affected side. For most people, the face feels numb or heavy, even though sensation remains normal.
Closing the eye on the affected side may be difficult. People may be unable to close the eye completely, and they blink less frequently. The eye also tends to turn upward when it is closed.
The production of saliva and tears may be impaired. People may have dry eyes and mouth, or they may drool. Because fewer tears are produced and the eye blinks less often , the eye becomes dry, resulting in pain and eye damage. Eye damage is usually minor but can be serious if the eye is not moistened and protected another way.
Stop Your Skin From Further Aging
Additional creams, serums and fillers are all options at the dermatology office, but the best way to keep your skin from further aging is to address your stress, say experts — along with any bad habits you’ve developed during the pandemic, such as poor eating habits, inadequate sleep or a lack of exercise.
Watch your diet, especially your sugar intake. Many of us are “stress eating, turning to sugar and processed carbs, which unfortunately can damage the skin’s collagen over time through a process called glycation,”Katta said.
Glycation occurs when sugar molecules attach onto fats and proteins and create advanced glycation end products, or AGEs, which can make collagen and elastin proteins less supple — and the skin more likely to wrinkle.
Be good to your skin by eliminating sugar, processed carbs and high-fructose corn syrup, which can increase the rate of glycation 10 times, according to studies.
“Foods rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties can help provide an extra layer of protection to your skin and can help promote your skin’s defense and repair systems,” Katta suggested.
Get plenty of exercise. Scientists believe exercise increases blood circulation to the brain, especially areas like the amygdala and hippocampus — which both have roles in controlling motivation, mood and response to stress. For one thing, it releases endorphins, the body’s feel-good hormones.
As for how you look on Zoom?You’re on your own there — best of luck.
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D Gel Model Looks Like Real Brain
Professor Mahadevan and his team used MRI scans of smooth foetus brains to build a three-dimensional gel model. They coated the surface with a thin layer of elastomer gel to represent the cortex.
To mimic brain growth, they immersed the gel brain in a solvent that was absorbed by the outer layer, causing it to swell relative to the deeper region.
Within minutes, folds started to appear that were remarkably similar in size and shape to the real thing, showing that the same process happened even though the model did not contain any living tissue.
“It looks like a real brain,” Professor Mahadevan’s colleague and fellow author Dr Jun Young Chung said.
A few other animals including chimpanzees, dolphins, elephants and pigs also have brain folds, but the human brain is the wrinkliest of them all.
The physical explanation for brain folds was first proposed by Harvard scientists 40 years ago.
Now proven by Professor Mahadevan’s team, it was considered a controversial challenge at the time to the conventional wisdom that brain folds were created by purely biological, not physical, processes.
Dr Kuhl said severe under- or over-folding could lead to seizures, motor dysfunction and developmental delay.
Knowing whether to target mechanical or biological causes should go a long way to developing better treatment.
Where Is The Occipital Lobe Located
Understanding the occipital lobe requires a basic understanding of brain anatomy. The cerebral cortex of the braina part of the brain shared by all vertebratesis the newest part of the brain, evolutionarily speaking. All mammalian brains have four distinct lobes, but the brain itselfas well as the lobes it containsis divided into right and left hemispheres. This means that each lobe can actually be divided into two parts. The occipital lobe includes a right and left lobe that interact with one another, each controlling a range of visual functions.
Like other lobes of the brain, the occipital lobe does not have clear internal boundaries separating it from the rest of the brain. Instead, neuroscientists use the skull’s bones as their guide, so the occipital lobe rests underneath the occipital bone.
The occipital lobe is the rearmost lobe of the brain, located in the forebrain. It rests upon the tentorium cerebelli, a thick membrane of tissue the separates the cerebrum from the evolutionarily older cerebellum.
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