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What Area Of The Brain Controls Speech

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The Location Of The Stroke Impacts Recovery

Language Pathways and Aphasia, Animation

If you are a stroke survivor, its important to talk to your neurologist. Ask him/her about the location of your stroke, as it may help you to identify and understand what secondary effects to expect.

Once you understand the location and effects of your stroke, rehabilitation can proceed with more efficiency.

The stroke recovery process is unique to each individual because every stroke is different. The most important thing to do is never give up hope.

Keep pursuing rehabilitation so that you can getas close to a full recovery from stroke as possible.

Brain Areas That Control Language And Speech

Several areas of the brain must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.

Without the brain, there would be no language. The human brain has a few areas that are specific to language processing and production. When these areas are damaged or injured, capabilities for speaking or understanding can be lost, a disorder known as aphasia. These areas must function together in order for a person to develop, use, and understand language.

Brocas area, located in the frontal lobe of the brain, is linked to speech production, and recent studies have shown that it also plays a significant role in language comprehension. Brocas area works in conjunction with working memory to allow a person to use verbal expression and spoken words. Damage to Brocas area can result in productive aphasia , or an inability to speak. Patients with Brocas can often still understand language, but they cannot speak fluently.

Wernickes area, located in the cerebral cortex, is the part of the brain involved in understanding written and spoken language. Damage to this area results in receptive aphasia . This type of aphasia manifests itself as a loss of comprehension, so sometimes while the patient can apparently still speak, their language is nonsensical and incomprehensible.

The angular gyrus, located in the parietal lobe of the brain, is responsible for several language processes, including number processing, spatial recognition, and attention.

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Action Recognition And Production

Recent experiments have indicated that Broca’s area is involved in various cognitive and perceptual tasks. One important contribution of Brodmann‘s area 44 is also found in the motor-related processes. Observation of meaningful hand shadows resembling moving animals activates frontal language area, demonstrating that Broca’s area indeed plays a role in interpreting action of others. An activation of BA 44 was also reported during execution of grasping and manipulation.

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Where Is Wernickes Area

Wernicke area, region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech. This area was first described in 1874 by German neurologist Carl Wernicke. The Wernicke area is located in the posterior third of the upper temporal convolution of the left hemisphere of the brain.

Anatomy Of The Brocas Area

What Areas of the Brain Relate to Language and Reading ...

The Brocas area is located in the posterior part of the lower frontal winding of the left hemisphere. These are the 44. and 45. Brodman areas. Area 44 is divided into dorsal and ventral regions by composition of neurons and receptors and is slightly larger in the left than in the right hemisphere of the brain.

Area 45 is divided into the anterior and posterior parts and is approximately the same size in both hemispheres of the brain .

The Brocas area is connected to the temporal cortex in the following way: the Brodman Area 44 is connected by a dorsal pathway containing both fasciculus arcuatus and fasciculus longitudinalis superior.

The Brodman area 45 is connected via the capsulaeextremae fiber system, and the frontal operculum via fasciculus uncinatus with the anterior temporal cortex .

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Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

Different Types Of Aphasia

Global aphasia

This is the most severe form of aphasia and is applied to patients who can produce a few recognizable words and understand little or no spoken language

Injury encompasses both Wernickes and Brocas areas, global aphasia can occur. In this case, all components of speech and language are affected. Patients can say a few phrases at most and understand only a few words and phrases. They commonly cant lift out commands or title objects. They cant read or write or repeat words said to them.

Brocas aphasia

Brocas aphasia results from injury to speech and language brain areas such as the left brain inferior frontal gyrus, among others.

Damage to a discrete part of the brain within the left frontal lobe of the language-dominant hemisphere has been shown to significantly affect the utilization of spontaneous speech and motor speech control. Words could also be uttered very slowly and poorly articulated.

Wernickes aphasia

This type of aphasia usually has profound language comprehension deficits, even for single words or simple sentences. This can be because in Wernickes aphasia individuals have damage in brain areas that are important for processing the meaning of words and speech. Such damage includes left posterior temporal regions of the brain, which are a part of whats known as Wernickes area, hence the name of the aphasia.

Anomic aphasia

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The Lobes Of The Brain

Each hemisphere of the brain is divided into functional sections known as lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain. They are:

  • Frontal lobe: Located at the front of the brain, right behind the forehead. The frontal lobe is quite large, occupying about one-third of the cerebral cortex’s total mass, and it controls personality, behavior, emotional regulation, and the ability to plan, solve problems, and organize.
  • Parietal lobe: Located near the back and top of the head, above the ears. The parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial concepts. The function of the left and right parietal lobes do not completely mirror each other, with the dominant parietal lobe controlling speech and logic, while the non-dominant parietal lobe controls spatial skills and creativity. In fact, a stroke affecting the non-dominant parietal lobe can produce its own set of problems, including disorientation and an inability to recognize one’s own body.
  • Occipital lobe: A small region located at the back of the head. The occipital lobe is responsible for the integration of vision.
  • Temporal lobe: Located at the side of the head above the ears and below the frontal lobe. The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory, speech, and comprehension.

How Does Memory Work

How the Brain Controls Speech | Stephen Fry’s Planet Word | BBC Studios

âMemory is a highly complex process that depends on three stages:â

  • Encoding: assessing the importance of information and deciding if itâs worth keeping
  • Storing: keeping the information in such a state as to be available as needed
  • Recalling: the retrieval of information, which we experience as remembering

Your brain is continually evaluating the relevance and significance of information. When you consciously try to remember information, you employ your short-term memory. If there is value in storing the information for a longer duration, your mind will work to transfer information to the long-term memory.

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Blood Supply And Lymphatics

Due to its location on the lateral cortex of the cerebral hemisphere, the Broca area receives blood supply from the superior division of the middle cerebral artery. Most people are left-hemisphere dominant, which means the left middle cerebral artery most commonly supplies the Broca area. In some cases, the callosomarginal artery serves as a collateral artery, providing a redundant, double blood supply to the area.

References Areas Of The Brain Involved In Reading And Writing

Blanke, M. L., & VanDongen, A. M. . Activation Mechanisms of the NMDA Receptor. In A. M. VanDongen , Biology of the NMDA Receptor . Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK5274/

Britannica.com. . Wernicke area. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/science/Wernicke-area

Britannica.com. . Broca area. Retrieved February 4, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/science/Broca-area

Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. . Physiology of Behavior . Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Christian, N. . Amnesia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments. Retrieved February 3, 2017, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9673.php

Disorders

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How Swallowing Is Affected By Stroke

As you can see, there are multiple areas of the central nervous system which, if affected by a stroke or another neurological condition like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, or dementia, could disrupt the ability to swallow.

Even more so, the medulla is a relatively small area of the brainstem that contains multiple structures that are critical in carrying out the swallowing reflexso strokes that involve the medulla are especially likely to cause swallowing problems. In fact, people with medullary strokes may require temporary or permanent feeding tube placement to prevent choking and aspiration pneumonia.

Guidelines published in 2019 by the American Heart Association for treatment of patients with stroke recommend early screening for dysphagia to prevent potential aspiration and avoid related illness. The AHA also recommends feeding tubes for patients with dysphagia for at least the few days immediately following a stroke as doctors continue to check for problems with swallowing.

What Part Of The Brain Controls Balance

08summerschool / Neuroscience and Learning

Its easy to take the balance system for granted. Depending on your ability level, you probably dont think twice about standing upright, walking around, and sitting up straight. But while these processes might seem effortless, the reality is that your brain is constantly working to keep your balance system functioning properly. Your brain is responsible for helping you walk, run, and even stand on one foot. But what part of the brain controls balance?

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Areas Of The Brain Involved In Reading And Writing

-By Timothy Lyons

Both the ability to recognize words and sounding out words letter by letter are part of the process of reading. There are several areas of the brain involved in reading and writing. Previously learned words that are familiar can be read through a process known as whole word reading. With new or unlearned words reading is performed by phonetic reading which is sounding out the letters to produce the whole word .

Visual information from the left side of the body is sent to the primary visual cortex which is then sent to the visual association cortex. This information moves to the left visual association cortex via the corpus callosum. This area of the VAC is known as the visual word-form area . The person can then verbally read a word aloud because the information processes through instruments of speech in the left frontal lobe .

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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Which Part Of The Brain Controls Memory

There are three main areas of the brain: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. As well as hemispheres and lobes. They play key roles in encoding, storing, and retrieving memories.

Consisting of three main areas: cerebrum, cerebellum, and the brain stem. These parts of the human brain serve in the creation of memories, storing memories, and the retrieval of memories. Working in unison the brain allows for a person to control their memories.

âThe brain is far more intricate than a few bits and pieces stitched together. After all, this is the organ that built the pyramids, painted the Sistine Chapel, wrote Shakespearean sonnets, and landed on the moon.

There are 86 million neurons in the brain, forming a dense network of pathways. While weâre nowhere close to a comprehensive understanding of this three-pound organ, we can localize certain functions and aspects to specific regions, including memory.

Can You Live Without Frontal Lobe

Language and the Brain

Technically, you can live without a frontal lobe. However, you would experience a total paralysis of your cognitive abilities and motor control. In short, you wouldnt be able to reason and form simple thoughts, and you also wouldnt be able to move.

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Left Side Brain Vs Right Side Brain

Firstly, the human brain is divided into left and right hemispheres. These are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. The two sides are strongly though not entirely symmetrical.

The left brain controls muscles on the right-hand side of the body. Then the right brain controls the left side. One hemisphere may be slightly dominant. Like left or right-handedness.

The Cell Structure Of The Brain

The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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Impact Of The Frontal Lobe On Your Health

Your frontal lobe has a dominant side â either left or right â that controls language and speech. This is different for each person, but most people store language and speech on the left side of their brain. You may store language and speech on the right side of your brain if you are left-handed or sustain an injury to the left side of your brain early in life.

Language encompasses:

  • Semantics or meaning â understanding the differences in words that sound the same
  • Developing new words â using one base word to make new words
  • Grammar â creating the appropriate sentence structure
  • Social context â using language that is appropriate for the setting, like home versus school

Speech encompasses:

  • Articulation â sounding out words correctly
  • Voice â using your vocal cords to adjust the sound and tone of your voiceâ
  • Fluency â using proper rhythm and tone to convey feeling

The frontal lobe stores how you use language, and it also processes how you interpret language. You may have a language disorder if you have difficulty understanding other peoplesâ speech or explaining your own ideas, thoughts, or feelings. You may have a speech disorder if you struggle to use the correct word sounds or rhythm of speech.â

There are three specific areas in the brain that control language and speech:

The Reorganization Of The Cortex In Primate Evolution

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Broca’s area in the human prefrontal cortex and Wernicke’s area in the human temporal lobe are the two most well-known cortical areas involved in the production and comprehension of speech. That homologs of these two areas could be identified in apes, monkeys, and prosimians with cytoarchitectonic criteria testifies the high degree of conservation that is commonly observed in brain evolution. The discovery of mirror neurons in area F5, part of the macaque homolog of Broca’s area , suggests that Broca’s area evolved from an existing area in the primate brain, whose functions are considered precursors to semantics. Similarly, auditory neurons in the macaque superior temporal gyrus, particularly those responsible for discriminating species-specific vocalizations, have been proposed to be the precursors to the speech-related functions of Wernicke’s area . Also noteworthy is the proposal that the human TPJ is homologous with the middle section of the macaque superior temporal cortex . According to this view, face-selective neurons in the macaque superior temporal cortex are the precursors of the theory of mind functions in the human TPJ.

Andres Ramos-Fresnedo, … Jay J. Pillai, in, 2019

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What Is A Stroke

A stroke occurs when the supply of blood in the brain becomes compromised. This can happen by either a blood clot obstructing an artery and stopping blood flow to an area of the brain or an artery in the brain bursting and leading to bleeding inside the brain .

During a stroke, the affected areas of the brain do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, brain tissue begins to die. Depending on the area of the brain affected by stroke, this damage will cause changes in certain sensory, motor, or cognitive functions.

Although its impossible to revive dead brain cells, recoveryis possible through neuroplasticity.This process allows healthy parts of the brain to take over the functionsdamaged by stroke.

The goal of stroke rehabilitation is to restore or compensate for the secondary effects sustained to your highest potential. These effects vary from person to person based on the size and location of the stroke.

Next, we will discuss the different areas of the brainaffected by stroke so that you can better understand what to expect.

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